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Grade 4, Electricity, SOL 4.

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Image Credits

Circuits, parallel and series; each missing a bulb. Paul Fuqua


(2004). Retrieved July 20, 2006, from unitedstreaming:
http://www.unitedstreaming.com/

Circuit, series; removing bulb, close-up. Paul Fuqua


(2004). Retrieved July 20, 2006, from unitedstreaming:
http://www.unitedstreaming.com/

Circuit, series; simple. Paul Fuqua (2004). Retrieved July 20, 2006, from
unitedstreaming: http://www.unitedstreaming.com/

Circuit, series; with two bulbs. Paul Fuqua (2004). Retrieved July 20, 2006,
from unitedstreaming: http://www.unitedstreaming.com/

Electromagnet picking up nails. Paul Fuqua (2004). Retrieved July 20, 2006,
from unitedstreaming: http://www.unitedstreaming.com/

Math, Irwin. “Electricity.” (Cover) The New Book of Knowledge®. 2006.


Grolier Online. 19 July 2006
http://nbk.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=a2008910-h

Flashlight, battery, light bulb from Microsoft Clip Art

Hose picture courtesy of The Picture Communication Symbols © 1981-2005


by Mayer-Johnson LLC. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. Used with
Permission

Credits
How Electricity
These instructional support materials were created as a result of two
summer curriculum projects in 2005 and 2006. They have been produced
Works
under the supervision of Rebekkah Kline, ESOL Specialist, Jennifer Brandt,
ESOL Office SBTS, Jodi Hepner, Elementary Science Specialist, and
Stephanie Roche, Elementary Science Specialist. The members of the
curriculum team were: Book 4
Summer 2005: Laurel Carlson, Elizabeth Jacob, Erika Jann,
Karen Malan-Uribe, Marie Schumann, and Annette Young
Written by Fairfax County Public Schools
Summer 2006: Patricia Bellman, Carmon Golden, Barbara Halada, Laura Summer Curriculum Project 2005-2006
Hibdon, Kathleen Leatherwood, and Shannon Waite

©Fairfax County Public Schools, 2006


Table of Contents Words to Remember
• circuit
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 • closed circuit
• current
Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 • dry cell
• electric current
Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 • electromagnet
Series Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 • electron
• open circuit
Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . 9 • parallel circuit
• proton
Electromagnets . . . . . . . . . . . 10 • resistance
• series circuit
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
• voltage
• wires
Introduction Let’s look at each of those.

Just like in the lightning, the negative


(─) electrons want to move towards
You know that the positive (+) protons.
when you turn on
a flashlight you
get light.

+
What do you need to make
that light?

─ ─
You need 3 things:
─ ─
─ ── ─ ─ ─
light
bulb The dry cell pushes the
+ electrons (─) out of its
negative end.

─ electricity
circuit
1 2
Circuits When there is a break in the path,
the bulb will not light.
A complete circuit is made by
connecting a positive pole of an
The
electrical source to the negative
electrons (─)
pole.
+ can not get
The circuit is the to the
path that the protons (+).
electrons (─) ─
─ take to get to
+
the protons (+). break

─ If the path is not continuous it is


an incomplete circuit. This is also
called an open circuit.

If the path is continuous the circuit is Remember how copper is a


complete, and the bulb lights. This good conductor? Many wires
is also called a closed circuit. are made of copper so that the
electrons can move easily.

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Current Series Circuits
Current is the movement of There are two types of
electrical charges through a circuit. circuits:
• Series
• Parallel
Think of a
garden hose:
When there is only one circuit for
electrons (─) to flow through to
The current is like the water
get to the other (+) side we call
flowing through the hose.
it a series circuit.

The voltage is how strong the


current is. This is like the water
pressure in the hose.

high pressure low pressure


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Here is a series circuit with two What happens if you take one of
light bulbs. the light bulbs out?

They will not be as bright because That’s right: the circuit becomes
each bulb stops some of the an open circuit. There is a break
electrons from going through. We and the electrons can not keep
call this resistance. going.

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Parallel Circuits Electromagnets
When electrons flow through a
If we set up another
circuit, they also make a
circuit next to the first
magnetic field around the
one, we would have
wire.
two circuits between magnetic field

Even if you take one bulb out, the


other bulb will light. The electrons
can still flow, because there is still
another circuit they can use. The magnetic field circles
Each bulb has its own branch in around the wire as the
the circuit. electrons move from the
negative (─) to the positive (+)
end of the dry cell.

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If you wrap an iron nail with Glossary
wire that is attached to a dry
cell, the nail becomes a circuit the path that electrons make
from the negative (-) to the
magnet. It can pick up metal positive (+) pole
objects made of steel or nickel.
closed circuit a complete circuit with a
continuous path

conductor material that electrons can


move through easily

dry cell a battery; a source of electricity

electric the movement of electrical


current charges through a circuit

electromagnet a magnet made by using a


source of electricity

electron the part of the atom that moves


It is now called an electromagnet. around the nucleus and has a
negative (-) charge

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Glossary
open circuit a circuit where the path
is not continuous; an
incomplete circuit

parallel circuit two independent circuits


next to each other

resistance when electrons are


stopped in a series circuit

series circuit a circuit where the


current can only flow
one way

voltage how strong an electrical


current is

wire thin piece of metal like


copper that conducts
electricity

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