measurement

© All Rights Reserved

2 vistas

measurement

© All Rights Reserved

- Macro Economics
- A Marketing Research on Olay
- Uncertainty Analysis
- IMT 24 Quantitative Techniques M1
- Notes Part 2
- Statistical Analysis and Optimization of Ammonia Removal From Landfill Leachate by Sequential Microwave_aeration Process Using Factorial Design and Response Surface Methodology
- SPE-13718-PA
- Engg Mathematics - 4 July 2011
- CHEM 12 IB LAB
- Aqa Gcse Science Glossary
- Stargazer
- folland 2009 ch3
- Chapter 1-Intro Physics
- Poultry Sciences-Authors Instructions
- latih excel Cookies Error
- sensors and transduceers
- Sources of Experimental Error
- Tania
- Ujian Akhir Mth 2212 Sem2
- Independent Samples Test 16

Está en la página 1de 25

measurement process

measurement signal by induced noise during transfer

of the signal from the point of measurement to some

other point.

2

3.1 Errors during the measurement process

What is the main target?

1. Carry out a detailed analysis of all error sources in the system

2. Looking for ways of eliminating or at least reducing the

magnitude of errors.

Why?

It is extremely important in any measurement system to reduce

errors to the minimum possible level and then to quantify the

maximum remaining error that may exist in any instrument

output reading.

3

3.2 Sources of systematic error

Definition:

Systematic errors describe errors in the output readings of a

measurement system that are consistently on one side of the

correct reading, i.e. either all the errors are positive or they are

all negative.

What is the Sources of systematic error?

1. System disturbance due to measurement

2. Errors due to environmental inputs

3. Wear in instrument components

4. Connecting leads

4

3.2 Sources of systematic error

1. System disturbance due to measurement

*. A beaker of hot water and wished to measure its temperature with

a mercury-in-glass thermometer, what is the source of error in this

case?

- room temperature effect

- heat transfer effect

*. Measurements in electric circuits

Figure 3.1 Analysis of circuit loading: (a) a circuit in which the voltage

across R5 is to be measured;

5

3.2 Sources of systematic error

1. System disturbance due to measurement

Measurements in electric circuits

The circuit used to find the equivalent single resistance RAB.

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏

= +

𝑹𝑨𝑩 𝑹𝑪𝑫 +𝑹𝟒 𝑹𝟓

𝑹𝟒 + 𝑹𝑪𝑫 𝑹𝟓

𝑹𝑨𝑩 =

𝑹𝟒 + 𝑹𝑪𝑫 + 𝑹𝟓

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏

= +

𝑹𝑪𝑫 𝑹𝟏 +𝑹𝟐 𝑹𝟑 Substituting about 𝑹𝑪𝑫 in the

𝑹𝑨𝑩 then,

𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐 ∗ 𝑹𝟑 𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐 𝑹𝟑

+ 𝑹𝟒 𝑹𝟓

𝑹𝑪𝑫 = 𝑹𝑨𝑩 =

𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐 + 𝑹𝟑

𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐 + 𝑹𝟑 𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐 𝑹𝟑

+ 𝑹𝟒 + 𝑹𝟓

𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐 + 𝑹𝟑

6

3.2 Sources of systematic error

1. System disturbance due to measurement

Measurements in electric circuits

Defining I as the current flowing in the circuit when the

measuring instrument is connected to it, we can write:

𝑬𝟎

𝑰=

𝑹𝑨𝑩 + 𝑹𝒎

7

3.2 Sources of systematic error

1. System disturbance due to measurement

Measurements in electric circuits

and the voltage measured by the meter is then given by:

𝑹𝒎 𝑬𝟎

𝑬𝒎 =

𝑹𝑨𝑩 + 𝑹𝒎

In the absence of the measuring instrument and its resistance 𝑹𝒎 , the

voltage across AB would be the equivalent circuit voltage source

whose value is 𝑬𝟎 . The effect of measurement is therefore to reduce

the voltage across AB by the ratio given by:

𝑬𝒎 𝑹𝒎

=

𝑬𝟎 𝑹𝑨𝑩 +𝑹𝒎

8

3.2 Sources of systematic error

1. System disturbance due to measurement

Measurements in electric circuits

𝑬𝒎

It is thus obvious that as 𝑹𝒎 gets larger, the ratio gets closer to

𝑬𝟎

unity, showing that the design strategy should be to make 𝑹𝒎 as high

as possible to minimize disturbance of the measured system. (Note that

we did not calculate the value of 𝑬𝟎 since this is not required in

quantifying the effect of 𝑹𝒎 )

The measurement error is given by (𝑬𝟎 − 𝑬𝒎 )

𝑹𝒎 𝑬𝟎 𝑹𝒎

𝑬𝟎 − 𝑬𝒎 = 𝑬𝟎 − =𝑬𝟎 (𝟏 − )

𝑹𝑨𝑩 +𝑹𝒎 𝑹𝑨𝑩 +𝑹𝒎

9

3.2 Sources of systematic error

1. System disturbance due to measurement

Measurements in electric circuits

Example 3.1

Suppose that the components of the circuit shown have the following

values:

𝑹𝟏 = 𝟒𝟎𝟎 𝛀; 𝑹𝟐 = 𝟔𝟎𝟎 𝛀; 𝑹𝟑 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝛀; 𝑹𝟒 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎 𝛀; 𝑹𝟓 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝛀

The voltage across AB is measured by a voltmeter whose internal

resistance is 9500. What is the measurement error caused by the

resistance of the measuring instrument?

𝑹𝒆𝒑𝒐𝒓𝒕 ? ? ? ? ?

10

3.2 Sources of systematic error

1. System disturbance due to measurement

The simplest way of increasing the input impedance (the resistance) of

the meter is either to increase the number of turns in the coil or to

construct the same number of coil turns with a higher-resistance

material. However, either of these solutions decreases the current

flowing in the coil, giving less magnetic torque and thus decreasing the

measurement sensitivity of the instrument (i.e. for a given applied

voltage, we get less deflection of the pointer). This problem can be

overcome by changing the spring constant of the restraining springs of

the instrument, such that less torque is required to turn the pointer by

a given amount. However, this reduces the ruggedness of the

instrument and also demands better pivot design to reduce friction.

This highlights a very important but tiresome principle in instrument

design: any attempt to improve the performance of an instrument in

one respect generally decreases the performance in some other aspect.

11

3.2 Sources of systematic error

2. Errors due to environmental inputs

In any general measurement situation, it is very difficult to avoid

environmental inputs, because it is either impractical or impossible to control

the environmental conditions surrounding the measurement system.

3. Wear in instrument components

Systematic errors can frequently develop over a period of time because of

wear in instrument components. Recalibration often provides a full solution

to this problem.

4. Connecting leads

a common source of error is:

- The failure to take proper account of the resistance of connecting leads (or

pipes in the case of pneumatically or hydraulically actuated measurement

systems).

- Subject to electrical or magnetic fields that could otherwise cause induced

noise.

- The routing of cables also needs careful planning.

- May be corrupted by high amplitude 50 Hz noise.

12

3.2 Sources of systematic error

4. Connecting leads

- In one application in the author’s personal experience involving

instrumentation of an electric arc steel making furnace, screened signal-

carrying cables between transducers on the arc furnace and a control

room at the side of the furnace were initially corrupted by high amplitude

50 Hz noise. However, by changing the route of the cables between the

transducers and the control room, the magnitude of this induced noise

was reduced by a factor of about ten.

13

3.3 Reduction of systematic errors

1. Careful instrument design

Reducing the sensitivity of an instrument to environmental inputs to

as low a level as possible. For instance, in the design of strain gauges,

the element should be constructed from a material whose resistance

has a very low temperature coefficient (i.e. the variation of the

resistance with temperature is very small). However, errors due to the

way in which an instrument is designed are not always easy to correct,

and a choice often has to be made between the high cost of redesign

and the alternative of accepting the reduced measurement accuracy if

redesign is not undertaken.

14

3.3 Reduction of systematic errors

2. Method of opposing inputs

The method of opposing inputs

compensates for the effect of an

environmental input in a

measurement system by

introducing an equal and

opposite environmental input

that cancels it out.

𝑹𝒄𝒐𝒊𝒍 ∝ 𝒕𝒆𝒎𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒆

15

3.3 Reduction of systematic errors

3. High-gain feedback

𝑿𝟎 = 𝒌𝒔 𝒌𝒄 𝑬𝒊 where

𝒌𝒔 = 𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒔𝒑𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕

, 𝒌𝒄 = 𝑴𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓 𝒄𝒐𝒊𝒍 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕

𝑫𝒄 , 𝑫𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 effects of environmental inputs on

the coil and spring constants respectively

16

3.3 Reduction of systematic errors

3. High-gain feedback

𝑬𝟎 = 𝑲𝒇 𝑿𝟎 ; 𝑿𝟎

= 𝑬𝒊 − 𝑬𝟎 𝑲𝒂 𝑲𝒄 𝑲𝒔

= (𝑬𝒊 − 𝑲𝒇 𝑿𝟎 )𝑲𝒂 𝑲𝒄 𝑲𝒔

Thus: 𝑬𝒊 𝑲𝒂 𝑲𝒄 𝑲𝒔 = 𝑿𝟎 (𝟏 + 𝑲𝒂 𝑲𝒄 𝑲𝒔 𝑲𝒇 ),

𝑬𝒊 𝑲 𝒂 𝑲 𝒄 𝑲 𝒔

𝑿𝟎 =

(𝟏+𝑲𝒂 𝑲𝒄 𝑲𝒔 𝑲𝒇 )

𝑲𝒂 , 𝑲𝒄 , 𝑲𝒔 , 𝑲𝒇 >>1, and equation reduces to: 𝑿𝟎 =

𝑲𝒇

This is a highly important result because we have reduced the relationship

between 𝑿𝟎 and 𝑬𝒊 to one that involves only 𝑲𝒇 . and we only have to be

concerned with one environmental input 𝑫𝒇 .

It is usually easy to design a feedback device that is insensitive to environmental

inputs: this is much easier than trying to make a motor or spring insensitive.

17

3.3 Reduction of systematic errors

4. Calibration

All instruments suffer drift in their characteristics, and the rate at which

this happens depends on many factors, such as the environmental

conditions in which instruments are used and the frequency of their use.

Thus, errors due to instruments being out of calibration can usually be

rectified by increasing the frequency of recalibration.

5. Manual correction of output reading

In the case of errors that are due either to system disturbance during the

act of measurement or due to environmental changes, a good

measurement technician can substantially reduce errors at the output of

a measurement system by calculating the effect of such systematic errors

and making appropriate correction to the instrument readings.

6. Intelligent instruments

Intelligent instruments contain extra sensors that measure the value of

environmental inputs and automatically compensate the value of the

output reading.

18

3.4 Quantification of systematic errors

The usual course of action is to assume mid-point environmental

conditions and specify the maximum measurement error as ±𝑿% of

the output reading to allow for the maximum expected deviation in

environmental conditions away from this mid-point. Data sheets

supplied by instrument manufacturers usually quantify systematic

errors in this way.

19

3.5 Random errors

The random errors can largely be eliminated by calculating the

average of a number of repeated measurements, provided that the

measured quantity remains constant during the process of taking the

repeated measurements.

1. Statistical analysis of measurements subject to random errors

- Mean and median values

𝑿𝟏 + 𝑿𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝑿𝒏

𝑿𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏 =

𝒏

𝑿𝒏+𝟏

𝑿𝒎𝒆𝒅𝒊𝒂𝒏 = for odd

𝟐

𝑿𝒏 +𝑿𝒏+𝟐

𝟐 𝟐

𝑿𝒎𝒆𝒅𝒊𝒂𝒏 = for even

𝟐

where n is the number of observations.

for 10 measurements 𝑿𝟏,…… 𝑿𝟏𝟎 the median

𝑿𝟓 +𝑿𝟔

value is given by: 𝑿𝒎𝒆𝒅𝒊𝒂𝒏 =

𝟐

20

3.5 Random errors

1. Statistical analysis of measurements subject to random errors

- Standard deviation and variance

deviation (error) 𝐝𝐢 = 𝐗 𝐢 − 𝐗 𝐦𝐞𝐚𝐧

𝟐 𝟐 𝟐

𝐝 +𝐝 +⋯+𝐝

𝟏 𝟐 𝐧

The variance (V) is then given by:𝐕 =

𝐧−𝟏

The standard deviation (𝛔) is simply the square root of the variance.

Thus:

𝟐 𝟐 𝟐

𝐝 +𝐝 +⋯+𝐝

𝛔= 𝐕= 𝟏 𝟐 𝐧

𝐧−𝟏

Mathematically minded readers may have observed that the

expressions for V and 𝛔 differ from the formal mathematical

definitions, which have (n) instead of (n-1) in the denominator. This

difference arises because the mathematical definition is for an infinite

data set, whereas, in the case of measurements, we are concerned only

with finite data sets.

21

3.5 Random errors

1. Statistical analysis of measurements subject to random errors

Report ??????????????

Calculate mean, median, 𝝈 and V for measurement sets

𝟑𝟗𝟖 𝟒𝟐𝟎 𝟑𝟗𝟒 𝟒𝟏𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟒 𝟒𝟎𝟖 𝟒𝟎𝟎 𝟒𝟐𝟎 𝟑𝟗𝟔 𝟒𝟏𝟑 𝟒𝟑𝟎 (𝐌𝐞𝐚𝐬𝐮𝐫𝐞𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐬𝐞𝐭 𝐀)

𝟒𝟎𝟗 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟐 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟓 𝟒𝟎𝟒 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟒 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟖 (𝑴𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒔𝒆𝒕 𝑩)

𝟒𝟎𝟗 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟐 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟓 𝟒𝟎𝟒 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟒 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟖 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟏𝟎 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟓 𝟒𝟎𝟖

𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟗 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟓 𝟒𝟎𝟗 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟕 (𝑴𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒔𝒆𝒕 𝑪)

22

3.5 Random errors

2. Graphical data analysis techniques – frequency distributions

11

across the range of

measurement values

𝟒𝟎𝟗 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟐 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟓 𝟒𝟎𝟒 𝟒𝟎𝟕

𝟒𝟎𝟒 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟕 𝟒𝟎𝟖 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟏𝟎 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟓 𝟒𝟎𝟖

𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟗 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟓 𝟒𝟎𝟗 𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝟒𝟎𝟕

(𝑴𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒔𝒆𝒕 𝑪)

23

3.5 Random errors

2. Graphical data analysis techniques – frequency distributions

As the number of measurements increases, smaller bands can be

defined for the histogram, which retains its basic shape but then

consists of a larger number of smaller steps on each side of the peak.

zero deviation value is very useful

for showing graphically that the

measurement data only has

random errors. Although these

figures cannot easily be used to

quantify the magnitude and

distribution of the errors.

24

3.5 Random errors

2. Graphical data analysis techniques – frequency distributions

If the height of the frequency distribution curve is normalized such that the

area under it is unity, then the curve in this form is known as a probability

curve, and the height F(D) at any particular deviation magnitude D is known as

the probability density function (p.d.f.).

The area under the curve is unity can be expressed mathematically as:

∞

𝑭 𝑫 𝒅𝑫 = 𝟏

−∞

The probability that the error in any one particular measurement lies between

two levels D1 and D2 can be calculated by measuring the area under the curve

contained between two vertical lines drawn through D1 and D2, as shown

𝑫𝟐

𝑷(𝑫𝟏 ≤ 𝑫 ≤ 𝑫𝟐) = 𝑭 𝑫 𝒅𝑫

𝑫𝟏

25

3.5 Random errors

2. Graphical data analysis techniques – frequency distributions

Cumulative distribution function (c.d.f.). (the maximum error),This is

defined as the probability of observing a value less than or equal to D0.

𝑫𝟎

𝑷(𝑫 ≤ 𝑫𝟎) = 𝑭 𝑫 𝒅𝑫

−∞

*If the errors are entirely random in nature, then the value of 𝑫𝒑 will

equal zero.

*Any non-zero value of 𝑫𝒑 indicates systematic errors in the data, in the

form of a bias that is often removable by recalibration.

- Macro EconomicsCargado porapurvtiwari
- A Marketing Research on OlayCargado porJelu Jayaraj
- Uncertainty AnalysisCargado porAmna Rashid
- IMT 24 Quantitative Techniques M1Cargado porsolvedcare
- Notes Part 2Cargado porAXA2000
- Statistical Analysis and Optimization of Ammonia Removal From Landfill Leachate by Sequential Microwave_aeration Process Using Factorial Design and Response Surface MethodologyCargado porHector Andres Cabezas
- SPE-13718-PACargado poramramazon88
- Engg Mathematics - 4 July 2011Cargado porPrasad C M
- CHEM 12 IB LABCargado pormonica_martel
- Aqa Gcse Science GlossaryCargado poran7li721
- StargazerCargado porVíctor Hugo
- folland 2009 ch3Cargado porparatroop6662000
- Chapter 1-Intro PhysicsCargado porzoulez
- Poultry Sciences-Authors InstructionsCargado pormarwa
- latih excel Cookies ErrorCargado porDesy Purlianti
- sensors and transduceersCargado porRevanesh Mayigaiah
- Sources of Experimental ErrorCargado porTahj Salmon
- TaniaCargado porMahadi Hasan
- Ujian Akhir Mth 2212 Sem2Cargado porFaten Nabillah Saharan
- Independent Samples Test 16Cargado porGeorge Blessit
- SurferCargado porshehan madusanka
- Aldous Et AlCargado porAsit Dalai
- Tugas accountingCargado porFera Yolanda
- Uji RegresiCargado porindah
- Corelation AnalysisCargado porPRAGYAN PANDA
- linear regression PDF.pdfCargado porSyed Hussain
- WALI JERUK CorrelationsCargado porAmy Cuteabiz
- Automation of Software Testing for Reusable ComponentsCargado porSEP-Publisher
- edm1Cargado porGaneshGani
- UAS Praktikum Metlit.docxCargado porYenny Handayani Sihite

- 11 a Low-Power Single-Phase Clock MultibandCargado porDilip Kumar
- 31741300 Industrial Power Systems Handbook Donald Beeman 2Cargado porFedilino P. Fornolles
- MAT lab manualCargado porjaideepsai
- Why don't you get a shock from a battery_ _ Naked Science Forum.pdfCargado porImtiax Laghari
- RD-9120 QI 1-0-0Cargado poraminshams
- Application of Two Leg VSC as DSTATCOM for Power Quality Improvement using Star/ Delta Transformer under varying Consumer LoadCargado porAdvanced Research Publications
- PS21245-E(2)Cargado porpukymotto
- Physice 2016 Unsolved Paper Delhi Board.pdfCargado porRD Singh
- Dimensional and Constructional Details of Components, Fundamentals of TNM Method and Basics of SCIM Motor Heat TransferCargado porAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- JFET CHARCTERISTICS APPARATUS REV 01.docxCargado pordinesh189
- O & M MANUAL_ volt ampCargado por2003vinay
- FM BC Antennas 1Cargado porStephen Dunifer
- Literature ReviewCargado pormuhd munzir
- HendrixACS 1. IndexCargado porJaime Orlando Santamaria
- Vol2_Tab11.pdfCargado porMauro Jose Ridel Games
- BAB 3: pearuhCargado porhafizeija
- Volume 3 - Number 1 - Tools for Microwave Radio Communications System Design.pdfCargado poredaxter
- Precision TIG 275Cargado porsergesx
- Duke-Energy-Florida-(prev.-Progress-Energy-Florida)-Curtailable-General-ServiceCargado porGenability
- Datasheet Flatpack2 2U IntegratedCargado porDenis Lj
- Ray ChemCargado porDuško Tovilović
- ECE 421- Lab 1.pdfCargado porandy3939
- Philips26PFL340412 tps2.1e_Cargado porbubulina3
- A Lossless, Accurate, Self-Calibrating Current Sensing Technique for DC-DC ConvertersCargado porMuhammad Abd Jalil
- Agilent E3634serCargado porVegard Sømliøy
- AFundamentalStudyInterareaOscillationsInPoSsystemsCargado porLuis Muñoz
- Assignment New ICargado porRanjith Bhoopal
- Tlw Model QpCargado porAruna Giri
- automatic street light controlCargado porP.r. Suvankar
- E690_Standard Practice for in Situ Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Examination of Nonmagnetic Heat Exchanger Tubes_2010Cargado porAnonymous 49PvUj