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Dynamic analysis of the impact of grid connection of "La

Higuera" hydropower plant to the transmission grid

Isbi Felix

Master of Science Thesis


Stockholm, Sweden 2006
Abstract
Studies regarding the development of a new hydropower plant exploiting the water resources
offered by the upper Tinguiririca river, located about 150 km south-east of the capital
Santiago in Chile, has been done by Pacific Hydro Ltd from Australia and Lahmeyer
International from Germany. These studies have resulted in proposals to construct two
Hydropower Stations, “La Higuera” and “Confluencia”. Both hydropower stations will have a
total installed capacity of 300 MW.

When setting up a new hydropower plant, it is important to foresee how the hydropower plant
would affect the existing transmission grid in different situations during operation as well as
how events in the grid may affect the La Higuera and/or Confluencia hydropower stations. In
this report three kind of analysis are highlighted, which are static analysis, large signal
stability and rotor angle stability. To perform these analyses a simulation tool named
DigSilent is used. DigSilent is used to perform these analyses in a simulated network of the
studied transmission system.

These two hydropower stations as shown in the results will improve the existing transmission
system by enhancing the stability margins in the presence of a fault. When performing the
simulation of the existing transmission system with the newly installed hydropower plant we
could see that it had a poor damping after a disturbance; this might be due to the large
distance between production plants and the existing loads. This phenomenon can be alleviated
if a power system stabilizer (PSS) is integrated in the hydropower plant.

The final conclusion is that the integration of the two hydropower plants will improve the
existing transmission system in Chile.

Keywords
Electric Power System, Load flow, Voltage Stability, Hydropower, DigSilent

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Acknowledgements

First of all I would like to express my deepest gratitude for being given this opportunity by
Gunnar Frostberg at SwedPower International AB to perform my Master Thesis abroad.

In the beginning it was difficult to perform a consulting job without contacts in a foreign
country like Chile, but it turned out well thanks to the people that I learned to know. Specially
thanks to, Ing. Anibal Ramos Romero who helped me through the design of the existing
transmission system in the DigSilent environment, Ing.Hugo Tapia Muñoz for the given data
and the people at the newly formed company Hidroeléctrica “La Higuera” for their hospitality
and kindness.

Also I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Valerij Knyazkin and examiner
Professor Mehrdad Ghandhari for the help and skilled guidance through the project.

Finally, thanks to my mother who has given me the strength and inspiration to become an
engineer.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 5

1.1 Background ................................................................................................................ 5

2 Stability in the Power System .................................................................................... 8

2.1 Definition of Power System Rotor Stability .............................................................. 9


2.2 Definition of Power System Voltage Stability......................................................... 10

3 Applied Theory ........................................................................................................ 12

3.1 Balance between generation and loads..................................................................... 12


3.2 Synchronous machine .............................................................................................. 12
3.3 Transmission System................................................................................................ 12
3.4 Transformer .............................................................................................................. 13
3.5 Load Forecast ........................................................................................................... 13
3.6 Load-flow calculation .............................................................................................. 14
3.7 State-Space Representation ...................................................................................... 15
3.8 Linearization of the Power System .......................................................................... 16
3.9 Participation factor ................................................................................................... 19

4 Inspection and description of the existing power system......................................... 20

4.1 Reduced Network Model ......................................................................................... 20

5 Introduction to DigSilent Power Factory ................................................................. 21

6 Results & Analysis ................................................................................................... 23

6.1 Static Analysis.......................................................................................................... 24


6.2 Rotor Angle stability analysis .................................................................................. 29
6.3 Large Signal Analysis .............................................................................................. 33

7 Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 35

8 References ................................................................................................................ 36

9 Appendix .................................................................................................................. 37

9.1 Appendix A: Chilean Power System........................................................................ 37


9.2 Appendix B: SIC Transmission Lines...................................................................... 38
9.3 Appendix C: Thermal Power generating units in SIC.............................................. 39
9.4 Appendix D: Hydro Power generating units in SIC................................................. 40
9.5 Appendix E: Models used in a Power Plant in the DigSilent Environment............. 41
9.6 Appendix F: Results of the Load Flow analysis in DigSilent:................................. 44
9.7 Appendix G: Some eigenvalues and their respective participation factors before “La
Higuera” ................................................................................................................... 52
9.8 Appendix H: Some eigenvalues and their respective participation factors including
“La Higuera” ............................................................................................................ 54
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1
1. Introduction
South America is facing important challenges in electricity supply to allow for future
economic development. Current electricity market designs are being reviewed to avoid
supply difficulties and couple the existing outlook of primary energy resources and the
investment interest by the private sector. Examples of these developments are the giant
Brazil, the economically troubled Argentina, and the pioneer of electricity reform,
Chile. While Brazil and Chile progress into a second stage of reforms with public
power purchase agreement auctions in a private environment, Argentina makes a
backward these diverging approaches, their primary challenge is to ensure sufficient
capacity and investment to reliably serve their growing economies.

1.1 Background

Chile has limited indigenous energy resources and relies on imports for most of its
hydrocarbon needs. Crude oil comes primarily from Argentina, Ecuador, Nigeria, and
Venezuela, and is processed by one of the country's three state-owned refineries.
Natural gas is imported via pipelines from Argentina. Coal is imported mainly from
Australia. Chile imported 95% of its oil consumption, 80% gas and 92% coal. A
significant amount of the country's electricity is supplied by domestic hydropower.

With respect to electricity supply, Chile can be divided in four areas, as follows. The
map can be seen in the Appendix A.[1]

• The Northern Interconnected System (SING) which supplies the northern zone
of the country, from Arica in the north to Antofagasta in the south. The
distance between both locations is around 700 km. The installed capacity is
99% thermo-electric and reached 3,634 MW in December 2003. The energy
generation is based on natural gas and coal. Some fuel-oil and diesel oil units
exist in the system, but are not dispatched in normal conditions.

• The Central Interconnected System (SIC) which supplies the central zone of
the country, from Taltal in the north to Quellón (in the Chiloé island) in the
south. The distance between both locations is around 2100 km. In December
2003 the installed capacity reached 6,996 MW of which 58% was
hydroelectric.

• The Aysén Electric System consisting of 5 isolated electric systems powered


by small hydroelectric plants and diesel units. The total installed capacity
reached 37 MW in December 2003.

• The Magallanes Electric System supplying the cities located in the Magallanes
zone (Punta Arenas, Puerto Natales and Puerto Porvenir) powered by thermal
generation based on natural gas. The total installed capacity reached 65 MW in
December 2003.

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Table 1.1.1 Characteristics of the four mentioned systems.[1]

System Installed Capacity Generation


MW % hydro GWh
SING 3634 0% 11424
SIC 6996 58% 33708
Aysén 37 42% 103
Magallanes 65 0% 187
Self Producers 684 10% 2836
Total 11416 38% 48244

As a result of Argentina’s energy policies following devaluation of its currency in December


2001, no investments in gas exploration and exploitation were made while domestic gas
consumption increased sharply. In March 2004 when gas shortages occurred, the Argentine
government breached the Gas Treaty with Chile and unilaterally curtailed exports to Chile.
On average the reduction has been about 30% since March 2004. This event combined with
low inflow to the hydroelectric plants, spot prices in SIC increased sharply as can be seen
from the next two graphs. The average energy spot price in 2003 was 16.8 USD/MWh, while
the 2004 first semester average has been 42.0 USD/MWh.

Fig. 1.1.1 Daily Spot Prize for 2003 and 2004 in one node of the SIC[1]
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This new situation in Chile resulted in chaos during winter 2005, since the prices where still
increasing, and the households where then aware of the power supply situation in Chile. The
government realized that the Chilean Power System was in crisis and not as robust as they
thought it was. To solve the problem the government has been forced to be more open to
building new hydropower plants since the water flow is more constant than the government
relation to Argentina. Regardless this situation the implementation of “La Higuera” was
planned long before, but now it is on the spotlight since the hydro power plant will increase
the power generation in the SIC with 155 MW at the beginning.

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2 Stability in the Power System

Stability of a power system refers to its capability of returning to normal operation following
a disturbance, much as a sailing vessel rights itself after being heeled over by wind or wave.
System stability is largely determined by the behaviour of generators and their controls.
Oscillatory instability is typically reflected in uncontrollable oscillations of frequency and
voltage leading to breakdown.
When such an occurrence creates an unbalance between the system generation and load, it
results in the establishment of a new steady-state operating condition, with the subsequent
adjustment of the voltages angles. The perturbation could be a major disturbance such as the
loss of a generator previously mentioned, a fault or the loss of a line, or a combination of such
events. Adjustment to the new operating condition is called the transient period. The system
behaviour during this time is called the dynamic system performance, which is of concern in
defining system stability. The dynamic behaviour of the generators within a power system is
of fundamental importance to the overall quality of the power supply. The synchronous
generator converts mechanical power to electrical power at a specific voltage and frequency
(50 Hz). A dynamic phenomenon is initiated either by a disturbance of the system or by the
variation of some system variable. The disturbance can originate either in the occurrence of
some fault or from a switching action. Disturbances originating in some fault, like phase to
ground faults or short circuits can cause a large change in the system’s state, which in the
worst case that can render the system or parts of the system unstable.[5]
The main criterion for stability is that the synchronous machines maintain synchronism at the
end of the transient period.

Definition: “If the oscillatory response of a power system during the transient
period following a disturbance is damped and the system settles in a finite time
to a new steady state operating condition, we say the system is stable. If the
system is not stable, it is considered unstable.”[4]

According to the definition of stability, it requires that the system oscillations be damped.
This condition is sometimes called asymptotic stability and means that the system contains
inherent forces that tend to reduce oscillations. Note that in some cases the system can go
unstable with virtually no oscillations. For example “voltage collapse”.

When looking at a large power system with its numerous machines, lines, and loads and
consider the complexity of the consequences of any impact, we may take the first step in a
stability study, which is to make a mathematical model of the system during the transient. The
elements included in the model are those affecting the acceleration of the machine rotors. The
complexity of the model depends upon the type of transient and the components of the power
system that influence the electrical and mechanical torques of the machines.

To define the power system stability technically it is necessary to find its equilibrium point
which is the initial conditions. These are defined from the differential algebraic equations
governing the dynamics of the power system, which defines the system in numerous variables
which becomes the representation of the power system in a mathematical manner. This is
more specifically explained in the next chapter.

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2.1 Definition of Power System Rotor Stability
The definition of power system rotor stability is explained briefly below, a more extended
explanation is found in the ref [5].

2.1.1 Small-Signal Stability

Small-signal instability is a problem of insufficient damping of oscillations in a large power


system, when it is subject to small disturbances. Such disturbances occur continually on the
system because of small variations in loads and generation. The instability that may result can
be of two forms, one steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of sufficient synchronizing
torque, or rotor oscillations of increasing amplitude due to insufficient damping torque.

The nature of system response to small disturbances depends on a number of factors including
the initial operating condition; the transmission system robustness, and the type of generator
excitation controls used. For a radially connected generator to a large power system, in the
absence of automatic voltage regulators the instability might occur due to lack of sufficient
synchronizing torque.

This results in instability through a non-oscillatory mode. With continuously acting voltage
regulators, the small-disturbance stability problem is one of ensuring sufficient damping of
system oscillations, since instability is normally trough oscillations of increasing amplitude.

This type of stability can be shown in local modes, which are associated with the swinging of
units at a generating station with respect to the rest of the power system or in inter-area modes
which is associated with the swinging of many machines in one part of the system against
machines in other parts, they are caused by two or more groups of closely coupled machines
being interconnected by weak ties.

The behaviour of the studied dynamic system is described by the swing equation, which is a
non-linear ordinary differential equation of the form described in the next chapter. The
equilibrium points are those points where all the derivatives are simultaneously zero. In a non-
linear system there may be more than one equilibrium point.

The equilibrium points are in fact characteristic of the behaviour of the dynamic system, and
therefore we can draw conclusion about stability from their nature.

Since we are dealing with a non-linear system, we have to linearize the swing equation around
the equilibrium points of the studied power system in order to analyze the small-signal
stability in the system. As the perturbation is assumed to be small, the nonlinear functions of
the swing equation can be expressed in terms of Taylor’s series expansion. These can be
studied in the next chapter.

2.1.2 Definition of Power System Transient Stability

Transient stability is defined as the ability of the power system to maintain in synchronism
during a severe transient disturbance, such as fault on transmission facilities, loss of
generation or loss of a large load. This means that the stability depends on the initial operating
state and the severity of the disturbance.

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The disturbances that are considered in transient stability studies are either symmetric or
asymmetric short circuits; these are occurred relatively often on the transmission lines.

The fault is often cleared by opening the appropriate circuit breaker to isolate the faulted
element. To study this kind of stability the so called equal area criterion is used, this method
helps in understanding basic factors that influence the transient stability of any system, but is
not applicable to multi-machine systems with detailed representation of synchronous
machines.

2.2 Definition of Power System Voltage Stability

The concept of voltage stability can be divided in two subcategories, namely Small and Large
Disturbance Voltage Stability. This is done since the instability phenomena can occur in
different time frames, from fractions of a second to tens of minutes.

A power system is said to be small-disturbance voltage stable if it is able to maintain voltages


identical or close to the steady values when subjected to small disturbances. Consequently a
power system that is large-disturbance voltage stable is able to maintain voltages identical or
close to the steady state values when subjected to large perturbations.

A power system enters in a state of voltage instability as a disturbance-increase in load


demand, or changes in system condition-causes a progressive and uncontrollable drop in
voltage.

There are some factors that may cause voltage instability.

- One of the main factors causing instability is the inability of the power system to meet
the demand of reactive power, the voltage drop occurs when active power and reactive
power flow through inductive reactance associated with the transmission network.

- Overload on the transmission lines

- Voltage sources are too far from the loads centers

- The source voltages are too low

- There is insufficient load reactive compensation.

A criterion for voltage stability is that, at a given operating condition for every bus in the
system, the bus voltage magnitude increases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is
increased. A system is voltage unstable if, for at least one bus in the system, the bus voltage
magnitude decreases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is increased. [5]

A voltage stable power system is capable of maintaining the post-fault voltages near the pre-
fault values. If a power system is unable to maintain the voltage within acceptable limits, the
system undergoes voltage collapse, which may be total (blackout) or partial.

To analyze power system voltage stability we may consider the relationships between the
transmitted power, receiving end voltage, and the reactive power injection. System dynamics
influencing voltage stability are usually slow. Therefore, many aspects of the problem can be

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effectively analyzed by using static methods, which examine the viability of the equilibrium
point represented by a specified operating condition of the power system.

The static analysis techniques allow examination of a wide range of system conditions, and
can provide much insight into the nature of the problem and identify the key contributing
factors.

Dynamic analysis is useful for detailed study of specific voltage collapse situations,
coordination of protections and controls and testing of remedial measures. Dynamic
simulations also examine whether and how the steady-state equilibrium point will be reached.

As mentioned active power and voltage curves (PV-curves) are useful for conceptual analysis
of voltage stability and for study of radial systems. The method is also used for large meshed
networks where P is the total load in an area and V is the voltage at a critical or representative
bus. We can analyze at the same time the reactive power (Q) versus the voltage in a V-Q
curve, V-Q curves plot voltage at a test or critical bus versus reactive power on the same bus.

The advantage of V-Q curves is closely related to reactive power, and a V-Q curve gives
reactive power margin at the test bus. The reactive power margin is the MVAr distance from
the operating point or either the bottom of the curve, to a point where the voltage squared
characteristic of an applied capacitor is tangent to V-Q curve.

In the chapter 5 we will analyze the existing power system and some critical buses, and
further on with their representative P-V-curves.

In the next chapter we will emphasize importance of the balance between generation and
loads, and the most important components of a transmission system in the power system, such
as: the synchronous machine, the two/tree winding transformer, the reactive power
compensation by the capacitors, transmission lines, and finally the loads of the system. A
brief review of these components as the applied theory is presented below.

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3 Applied Theory
3.1 Balance between generation and loads

If just looking at the power, there is power generation in one end and in the other end there
are the consumers (loads). In between there are losses that also are mathematically treated as
loads. The equation of generation equals load must be balanced at all times and the system
needs constant power regulation to remain stable and within its safety margins.

3.2 Synchronous machine

The synchronous machine is the main component responsible for the generation of electric
power. The synchronous machine converts mechanical energy to electricity. The mechanical
to electric energy conversion takes place in an electric generator, usually of the three-phase
synchronous type, and is based on Faraday’s induction law.[5]

A feature of the synchronous machine is that the power factor of the machine can be
controlled; which means that the field current could control the amount of produced active
and reactive power. The machine behaves as a variable inductor or capacitor as the field
current changes.

When two or more synchronous machines are interconnected, the stator voltages and currents
of all the machines must have the same frequency and the rotor mechanical speed of each is
synchronized to this frequency. Therefore, the rotors of all interconnected synchronous
machines must be in synchronism.

An unloaded synchronous machine is called a synchronous condenser and may be used to


regulate the voltage in a part of the grid; there are two with such of description in the designed
power system. This is just a brief explanation of a synchronous machine, more information
can be found in [5].

The generating units that are modelled in DigSilent for the dynamic studies are shown in
Appendix C and Appendix D.

3.3 Transmission System

Transmitting power over significant distances to consumers spread over a wide area requires a
transmission system comprising subsystems operating at different voltages levels. Electric
power is produced at generating units, and transmitted to the consumers trough a complex
network of individual components, including transmission lines, transformers, and switching
devices. The transmission system interconnects all major generating stations and main load
centres in the system, the model used is explained more specifically in the next chapter.

The Chilean transmission system that is modelled in DigSilent for the dynamic studies is
shown in the Appendix B.

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3.4 Transformer

A transformer is an electrical device that by electromagnetic induction transforms electric


energy from one or more circuits to one or more other circuits at the same frequency. By
varying magnetic relationships or values of the input versus the output, a transformer
produces changed values of voltage and current.

One particular example is that of using transformers to step up voltages at a power station to a
very high level before transmission, due to reduce power losses in transmission lines
resistances. To regulate the voltage at the secondary side it is a common way to use tap
changers in the winding, which gives a voltage change.

3.4.1 The two-winding Transformer

The definition above concludes in that the main and most common task of the transformer is
to change the voltage from one level to another. Transformers used in most power systems are
three-phase transformers. These transformers works in a similar way as the one-phase
transformers, they are like three parallel single-phase transformers one in each phase.

In the primary winding the electric energy is converted to magnetic flux which is leaded to the
secondary winding by the iron core. The secondary winding converts the magnetic flux to
electric energy once again. In an ideal transformer, the amount of energy taken out form the
secondary side matches the amount of energy injected in to the primary winding.

The law of induction also gives that the voltage at the secondary side terminals is proportional
to the number of turns of the secondary winding. This fact can be seen in the equation below,
which represents the connection between the number of turns at each winding and the
voltages terminals. [8]

3.4.2 The three-winding Transformer

The 3-winding transformer is similar to a 2-winding transformer except that the secondary
side has two sections and is quite often suitable for series or parallel connection. In our
studied system a typical example would be a 500 kV primary with a secondary of 220/154
kV. "Windings" can be affected by putting taps at various places on one large winding or by
making separate coils (either primary or secondary). This kind of transformer can be seen in
the Appendix F specifically the Part2, Part4, and Part5.

3.5 Load Forecast

The load varies every single instant, so there are no exact loads forecast. What we can do is to
assume a load quantity according to the season of the year e.g. summer or winter. In the
performed simulation the loads are represented as impedances according to the given data
from the CDEC-SIC in Chile.

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3.6 Load-flow calculation

When analyzing the steady state in a power system a load flow calculation is performed by
the simulation tool DigSilent with the appropriate input data for the power system.

This mentioned tool solves the system equations using iterative procedures since the power
system is a nonlinear problem. This procedure is known as Newton Raphson´s method.

The load-flow is preformed to see if the system voltages converge and also to find out if the
transmission system remains within acceptable operating ranges or if they are exceeded. If the
iterative procedure converges, then we have fulfilled a necessary condition for stability in the
power system.

The purpose of the load-flow calculation is to find the voltage magnitude and phase angle at
all buses. The power balance in each bus in the power system has to be satisfied according to
Kirchhoff´s first law, which means that the generated power must be equal to the demanded
power in each bus added to the power losses.

When these are known, the power flow on the lines is straight forward to calculate in
accordance with the following equation:

U i2 UU
S in = ⋅ j − i n ⋅ j ⋅ (cos θ i , n + j ⋅ sin θ in )
X X

Where:
{ }
Pin = Re S in =
U iU n
X
⋅ sin θ in

{ }
Qin = Im S in =
U i2 U iU n
X

X
⋅ cos θ in

To compute the power injected in the bus “i”, the separate powers Pin should be summed up as
follows:
N
Pi = ∑ Pin
n =1

N
Qi = ∑ Qin
n =1

The real part of the equation gives the active power flow and the imaginary part gives the
reactive power flow. This is shown in the equations above, where “i” and “n” are two
connected nodes in the power system, “X” the total reactance of the line between nodes “m”
and “n”, “U” the voltage in each node and finally the angle “θ “at each node.

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3.7 State-Space Representation

The behaviour of a dynamic system, such as this analyzed power system, may be described by
a set of “n” first order nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the following form [5] [7].
Assume that there are m synchronous generators in the system. The rotor dynamics of each
generator can be described by the following equations:

dδ i
= ωi − ω s
dt
dω i 1 ⎛ E 'U ⎞
= ⎜⎜ Pmi − i ' i sin(δ i − θ i ) ⎟⎟
dt M⎝ X di ⎠

Depending on the model used the state vector x = (δ , ω ) T will be augmented by several other
state variables that describe the dynamics of the extra pieces of equipment such as the exciter,
the governer, PSS, etc

The power system dynamics can be described as follows:

⎡ x1 − ω s ⎤
⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢
⎢ x ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎛ EU'
⎞⎥
⎜ Pmi − i ' i sin(δ i − θ i ) ⎟⎥
⎢ 2 ⎥ = ⎢M ⎜ X di ⎟⎥
⎢ .. ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠
... ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ x k ⎦ ⎢ ... ⎥⎦

Where:

- δ and ω stand for the rotor angle [rad] and angular frequency [rad/s].

- Ei' stand for the transient EMF(Electromotive force)[p.u]. X di' reactance of the
synchronous machine. Mi moment of inertia [s2]. Pmi mechanical power [p.u].

- Ui and θ i stand for voltage magnitude and angle of the generation node.

The algebraic equations describing the power balance in the generator stator are as follows:

E 'U Ei' Ui
0 = − i ' i sin(δ i − θ i ) + Pi jx’di
X di

U i2 Ei'U i
0=− − ' cos(δ i − θ i ) + Qi
X di' X di

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The following equations reflect the power balance in the network.

n
PLi (U i ) − ∑ U iU k Yik cos(θ i − θ k − α ik ) = 0
k =1
n
QLi (U i ) − ∑ U iU k Yik sin(θ i − θ k − α ik ) = 0
k =1

Where the Yik and αik are defined as Yik = Yik e jαik , with Yik being the (i,k)- element of the
network admittance matrix. Since typically the resistances in transmission system can be
neglected, we assume that αik = л/2 for all “i” and “k”.

The column vector ”x” is referred to as the state vector and its entries xi as the state variables.
In our case the dimension of this vector is m, where “m” is the number of generators in the
system. To simplify notation, the derivative of the state variable “x” with respect to time is
denoted by x .

Now let us define another new vector variable “y” defined as showed below:

y = (U i ,θ i )

with U i and θ i defined as above.


Finally the differential algebraic equations describing the system can be put in vector form:

x = f ( x, y ) {1}
0 = g ( x, y ) {2}

3.8 Linearization of the Power System

Linear analysis has proven to be an invaluable tool for the investigation of the dynamics of
power systems. Linearization of power system equations must be done around an operating
equilibrium point, which defines the steady state of the system. To find the equilibrium points
it is necessary to equate equation{1}{2} simultaneously to zero

x = f ( xo , y 0 ) = 0

and solve the nonlinear equations for the unknowns xo y o .

It should be noted that a linear system has only a unique equilibrium state, while a nonlinear
system may have more than one equilibrium point.

To linearize the system add a small disturbance to the system to obtain:


x = x 0 + ∆x ; y = y 0 + ∆y ; where the prefix ∆ denotes a small deviation.

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Taylor’s formula gives:
.
⎡ ∂f ⎤ ⎡ ∂f ⎤
Ö ∆ x = f ( x0 , y 0 ) + ⎢ ⎥ ∆x + ⎢ ⎥ ∆y + .......
⎣ ∂x ⎦ x = x0 ⎢⎣ ∂y ⎥⎦ y = y0

⎡ ∂g ⎤ ⎡ ∂g ⎤
0 = g ( x0 , y 0 ) + ⎢ ⎥ ∆x + ⎢ ⎥ ∆y + .....
⎣ ∂x ⎦ x = x0 ⎣⎢ ∂y ⎦⎥ y = y0

The higher order terms of the Taylor series expansion are neglected.

Let us denote the various Jacobians as follows:

⎡ ∂f ⎤ ⎡ ∂f ⎤
A=⎢ ⎥ B=⎢ ⎥
⎣ ∂x ⎦ x = x 0 ⎣⎢ ∂y ⎥⎦ y = y0

⎡ ∂g ⎤ ⎡ ∂g ⎤
C=⎢ ⎥ D=⎢ ⎥
⎣ ∂x ⎦ x = x0 ⎣⎢ ∂y ⎦⎥ y = y0

Therefore, the linearized system can be written in matrix form as follows.

.
∆ x = A∆x + B∆y
0 = C∆x + D∆y

where A, B, C, and D are matrices of appropriate dimensions.

Since the equations above are now linear, the unknown algebraic equations can be eliminated
as follows:
.
∆ x = ( A − BD −1C )∆x = Anew ∆x

By taking the Laplace´s transform of the above equations, we obtain the state equations in the
frequency domain.
det( sI − Anew ) = 0

The polynomial equation in the variable “s” and the values of “s” which satisfy the above are
known as eigenvalues (λ) of matrix Anew, and it is referred as the characteristic equation of
matrix Anew. These eigenvalues give us the characterization of the stability of the equilibrium
points.

when:

- All the eigenvalues have negative real parts; the original system is asymptotically
stable.

- At least one of the eigenvalues has a positive real part, the original system is unstable.

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- The eigenvalues have real parts equal to zero, it is not possible to define if it is stable
or unstable

A real eigenvalue corresponds to a non-oscillatory mode. A negative real eigenvalue


represents a decaying mode. The larger its magnitude is the faster the decay. A positive real
eigenvalue represents aperiodic instability. Complex eigenvalues occur in conjugate pairs, and
each pair corresponds to an oscillatory mode (complex eigenvalue).
The real part of the eigenvalues gives the damping, and imaginary component gives the
frequency oscillation. Thus,

λ i = σ i ± jω i

The frequency of oscillation can be expressed in Hz as follows:

ωi
fi =

To define the rate of decay of the amplitude of the oscillation, we define the damping ratio,
which is:
−σi
ξi =
σ i 2 + ωi 2

The eigenvalues of a matrix are given by the values of the scalar parameter λ, for which there
exist a non-trivial solution (i.e., other than) φi to the equation.

Anewφi = λiφi

Where Anew is the system state matrix and φi is a vector of appropriate dimensions. For any
eigenvalue λi, the vector φi which satisfies the equation ( Anew − λI )φi = 0 is called the right
eigenvector of Anew associated with the eigenvalue λi.

The right eigenvectors can be combined in the right eigenvector matrix as shown below:

Φ = [φ1 φ 2 ..... φ n ]

Since the equation ( Anew − λI )φi = 0 is homogeneous, kφi is also a solution. Thus, the
eigenvectors are determined only to within a scalar multiplier. Similarly, the vector ψi which
satisfies:
ψ i Anew = λiψ i

The equation above is called the left eigenvector associated with the eigenvalue λi.
The left eigenvectors can be combined in the left eigenvector matrix as shown below:

[
Ψ = ψ 1T ψ 2T ...... ψ nT ]
T

The left and right eigenvector will be used to explain the participation factor of the power
system.

18
3.9 Participation factor

To identify how each dynamic variable affects a given eigenvalue an aid called participation
factor analysis is used. Due to the large size of the Chilean Power system, it was necessary to
only retain a few modes (complex frequencies) to perform the stability studies; these can be
seen in chapter 6.

The participation factor is a tool for identifying the state variables that have significant
participation in a selected mode. The result is given by a graph were we can see the different
generating units oscillate against each other (see chapter 6)

The participation matrix “P” combines the right and left eigenvectors as follows.

P = [ p1 p2 ... pn ]

⎡ p1i ⎤ ⎡ Φ 1i Ψi1 ⎤
⎢ p ⎥ ⎢Φ Ψ ⎥
pi = ⎢ 2i ⎥ = ⎢ 2i i 2 ⎥
⎢ ... ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ p ni ⎦ ⎣ Φ ni Ψin ⎦

The element p ki = Φ ki Ψik is termed the participation factor. It is a measure of the relative
participation of the kth state variable in the ith mode, and vice versa. Since Φ ki measures the
activity of xk in the ith mode and Ψik weighs the contribution of this activity to the mode, the
product p ki measures the total participation. [5]

Determining the dynamic behaviour of the analyzed power system with more than one
generator is a difficult task, than describing the dynamic behaviour of a system with only one
generator, since the electric power system is a nonlinear system. Not only is the model large-
scale, it is also nonlinear, which makes analytical stability studies infeasible. Therefore, one
normally resorts to numerical studies, which are greatly facilitated by specialized software,
such as DigSilent

19
4 Inspection and description of the existing power system
The participating power generation companies of the SIC must be able to supply their power
demand every year. For this purpose, they have to consider potential dry-hydrology
conditions in their hydroelectric Power Plants and the average availability in their thermal
units. (see Appendix C) Every year the SIC checks that its integrating companies are indeed
able to assure the demand supply of their customers.

In order to determine the generating capacity of a self-generating company, and the supplies
of other generating entities, that operate synchronized with the system and whose partial or
total output has been assured through a signed agreement at a freely agreed price, and also to
determine the power demand to be taken into consideration.

As an input of the firm capacity of the hydroelectric Power Plants for dry hydrological
conditions (see Appendix D), generation is defined according to hydrology of the year with
hydrologic statistic potential surplus close to 90%. For thermoelectric Power Plants, the
maximum annual power that they can generate as an average is considered, taking into
account failures and maintenance periods. To inspect the existing power system we use a
reduce network model in the environment of the tool DigSilent, which is described in the next
chapter.

4.1 Reduced Network Model

The reason why using a reduced network model in these analyzes is in order to highlight the
most important involved parts in the Chilean transmission network. A model of the Chilean
transmission network that was suggested from the CDEC-SIC is implemented in DigSilent
(see next chapter which describes briefly the software DigSilent).

The implemented network includes the highest operating voltage levels in the country, 500
kV, 220 kV and 154 kV. The initial conditions for dynamic simulations are taken from the
results of the power flow in the system, with a given typical scenario of generation and
demand. The parts of the power system with low voltages levels are modelled as loads.

The calculation of the equivalent system is done from the results of a power flow that includes
all voltage levels and the typical scenario of generation. The estimation of the loads at the
nodes (substations) is found by simply considering that the generated power should be equal
to the demanded power; if this relationship is not fulfilled, then either a generation or
consumption of power exists in that substation. Following this procedure lower voltage levels
are eliminated from the network.

Of course, the reduction of the network to high and extra high voltage exclusively does not
include the generators; however there is a reduction in the number of them. Synchronous
generators that are connected directly to either 220 kV or 154 kV through a step up
transformer make part of the equivalent network, but if they are connected to lower voltage
levels, they are not considered and make part of the calculation of the load. The behaviour of
the network with those three voltage levels should give a good resemblance of the behaviour
of the interconnected transmission system.

20
5 Introduction to DigSilent Power Factory
The development of DigSilent (DIgital SImuLator for Electrical NeTwork) software began in
1976, since the inception of DIgSILENT, the program has grown to incorporate a vast array
of analysis features that are required to plan, operate and maintain any aspect of the power
system.

The voltage stability analysis performance of a power system in DigSilent is represented in P-


V curves of the selected buses and loads. To compensate reactive power, shunt capacitors are
used. These can be effectively used up to a certain point to extend the voltage stability limits
by correcting the receiving and power factor.

To perform the different calculations it is first necessary to build the power system in
DigSilent environment. The reduced network model of the Chilean transmission system is
build according to the following structure process.

1. Design of the buses in the power system that will be analyzed.


2. Definition of the designed buses as the type and locate the data at the indicated fields.
3. Design of the lines/cables of the transmission system,
4. Define the lines/cables type and locate the data at the indicated places.
5. Design of the three winding transformators
6. Define the data of the three winding transformators
7. Design of the generators and loads at the buses
8. Define the designed generators type and locate the data at the indicated places.
9. Define the designed loads type and locate the data at the indicated places
10. Run a loadflow to verify that the power system actually converges.

The designed power system in the DigSilent environment is shown in Appendix F.

The whole process of performing a transient simulation in DigSilent typically takes the
following steps:

1. Calculation of Initial Values, which includes a load-flow calculation.


2. Defining result variables and/or simulation events.
3. Optionally defining result graphs.
4. Run Simulation
5. Creating additional result graphs
6. Changing settings, repeating calculations.
7. Printing results.

Designing one power plant, and specifically “La Higuera” the models mentioned below where
used. The graph of the model is followed. This design must be performed for each one of the
generating units, these to se the dynamical behaviour of the power system.

21
In DigSilent the model of the generating unit is used, which has been described in the chapter
3.6.1. The specific data for each generator is placed in the fields that are required when
modelling each generator in the environment of DigSilent. To model each power plant, the
followed models are used for each part of the power plant.

DIgSILENT
Complete Frame:

curex

0 0

upss 1
VCO 0
* uerrs
2
Syn.Generator
1
ElmSym*
1
2
pt

PCO g PMU
* *

speed

Fig 5.1 Complete model frame of a power plant

- The voltage controller is of the type vcoBBSEX1 which is a typical IEEE model of
type AC1. This can be seen in the Appendix E fig 9.5.1.

- The model of the hydro governor of a hydropower plant according to the IEEE model
(pcu_HYGOV). This can be seen in the Appendix E fig 9.5.2.

- The model of the turbine of a hydropower plant is modelled according to the build-in
model in DigSilent. This can be seen in the Appendix E fig 9.5.3.

The angular speed (w) is regulated by the PCO which is the hydro governor, trough the hydro
governor the opening of the gate is regulated (g). The water though the gate generates
mechanical power, which is the output signal from the hydro turbine. The mechanical power
is now the input signal for the synchronous generator, which generates electrical power and
has as output signals the current, voltage and voltage angle/speed.

Now when the power plants, transmission lines, and loads are generated (shown in the
Appendix F) in the DigSilent environment we can proceed to analyze the transmission
system, which is done in the next chapter.

22
6 Results & Analysis
The main purpose in this chapter is to analyze the results of the simulation in the DigSilent
environment of the existing power system versus the power system in the presence of the
newly installed generator.

The analyses are performed for five buses of the power system. The buses were chosen based
on the load flow analysis which revealed that those buses were more critical in stability terms
than the others and are geographically near the newly installed hydropower plant.

These are:

1. Rancagua 154 kV

2. Punta Cortez 154 kV

3. Tilcoco 154 kV

4. San Fernando/1 154 kV

5. Teno/1 154 kV

These buses can be found in the Appendix F figure 8.5.3, which is the figure before the
integration of “La Higuera” to the Chilean power system.

As described in the previous chapters we can see that there are wide variety of stability
phenomena to be considered in the system.. In this chapter we constrain ourselves to:

- Static analysis contained by voltage levels and voltage stability. This is done in order
to get a picture of how the hydro power station of “La Higuera” improves the Chilean
transmission system. The results for the static analysis are shown as voltage levels and
PV-curves for the five selected buses. This can be seen in the next chapter.

- Rotor Angle stability analysis contained by small-signal analysis. Since the analysis is
done before and after the integration of “La Higuera” in the transmission system, we
are able see the improvement of the transmission system. This can be seen when the
eigenvalues moves further away from the imaginary axis in the left hand side of the
complex “s-plane” half plane.

- Large disturbance analysis contained by the simulation of a disturbance such as the


disconnection of one transmission line between two significant buses. This kind of
analysis gives us knowledge of how rapidly the transmission system recovers from the
disturbance.

23
6.1 Static Analysis
6.1.1 Voltage levels before and after the integration of “La Higuera”
The table below illustrates the voltage levels before and after “La Higuera” in the
above mentioned buses.
Table 5.1.1.1 Voltages levels
N° Station Before After
1. Punta Cortez 154kV 0.965 p.u 0.970 p.u
2. Tilcoco/1 154 kV 0.955 p.u 0.970 p.u
3. San Fernando/1 154kV 0.950 pu 0.975 p.u
4. Teno/1 154 kV 0.965 p.u 0.980 p.u
5. Rancagua 154 kV 0.970 p.u 0.970 p.u

As we can see in the table above, the voltage levels increases with the incorporation of
“La Higuera” to values closer to 1. p.u in this case 154 kV. This new situation gives us
a more stable power system, since the electrical components are operated closer to
their designed conditions.

6.1.2 Voltage stability


In this chapter we will analyze PV-curves of the 5 mentioned buses with (straight line)
and without (broken line) the integration of “La Higuera”. The PV-curve in each bus is
performed with the maximal power factor that is allowed for preserving the stability.

Voltage (p.u)

0.9

0.8

0.7
PmaxWithout = 263 MW

PmaxWith = 443 MW
0.6

Fig. 6.1.2.1 Bus 1: Rancagua 154 kV with and without “La Higuera”
24
As it is shown above in the figure 6.1.2.1 we can see that the system has improved or
enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 263 MW to 443 MW. These two
mentioned points of convergence are also the so-called sadde nodes (Bifurcations-
nodes). [5]

Voltage (p.u)

0.9 PmaxWithout = 180 MW

PmaxWith = 421 MW

0.8

0.7

0.6

Fig. 6.1.2.2 Bus 2: Punta Cortez 154 kV with and without “La Higuera

As it is shown above in the figure 6.1.2.2 we can see that the system has improved or
enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 180 MW to 421 MW.

25
Voltage (p.u)

0.9

0.8 PmaxWithout = 280 MW


PmaxWith = 425 MW

0.7

0.6

Fig. 6.1.2.3 Bus 3: Tilcoco 154 kV with and without “La Higuera”

As it is shown above in the figure 6.1.2.3 we can see that the system has improved or
enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 180 MW to 421 MW.

26
Voltage (p.u)

0.9

DIgSILENT
1.00

0.8
0.90

PmaxWithout = 400 MW

PmaxWith = 650 MW
0.80

0.7
0.70

0.60

0.6
0.50
32.35 132.35 232.35 332.35 432.35
x-Axis: P-V curves: Total Load of selected loads in MW
TAP OFF SAN FERNANDO 1\S.FERNA.154/1: Voltage, Magnitude in p.u.

P-V curves Date: 12/26/2005

Annex: /1

Fig. 6.1.2.4 Bus 4: San Fernando 154 kV with and without“La Higuera”

As it is shown above in the figure 5.1.2.7 and figure 5.1.2.8 we can see that the system
has improved or enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 400 MW to 650 MW

27
Voltage (p.u)

0.9

0.8

PmaxWithout = 635 MW

PmaxWith = 810 MW

0.7

0.6

Fig. 6.1.2.5 Bus 5 Teno 154 kV with and without “La Higuera”

As it is shown above in the figure 6.1.2.5 we can see that the system has improved or
enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 400 MW to 650 MW

28
6.2 Rotor Angle stability analysis
6.2.1 Small signal stability analysis

This analysis is performed using the eigenvalues and participation matrixes. It is


shown below the eigenvalues for which the power system is stable before “La
Higuera”

Then a graph is shown for the eigenvalues that are nearest the imaginary axis. These
eigenvalues will be our measure instrument. This since we can se the improvement,
when integrating the new generating unit, by seeing that the eigenvalues has been
moved a distance from the imaginary axis.

Fig.6.2.1.1 Eigenvalues near the imaginary and real axis. Z = σ ± jϖ

The critical eigenvalues of the system are shown below. These are those that are near
the imaginary axis.

Fig.6.2.1.2 Critical Eigenvalues before “La Higuera”

29
Here we can observe that the integration of the new power plant “La Higuera” places
the eigenvalue further away in the left halfplane from the imaginary axis, which is an
indication of improvement of small-signal stability.

Fig.6.2.1.3 Critical Eigenvalues with “La Higuera”

To summarize the placement of the eigenvalues, we can observe in the followed table
the damping ratio and the frequency for each mode, with and without “La Higuera”.

Table 6.2.1.1 Eigenvalues with and without “La Higuera”


Without ”La Higuera” With ”La Higuera”
Modes ξ (damping ratio) f(frecuency) ξ (damping ratio) f(frecuency)
181 0.943 0.556 0.866 0.998
202 0.075 0.999 0.565 0.837
257 0.223 0.629 0.551 0.633

The participation factor illustrates how the different generating units oscillate against
each other. This can be seen as a sensitivity measure of an eigenvalue to a diagonal
entry of the system A-matrix.

In the next page we can see the participation factor for the generating units in the
Chilean transmission system. These for one of the critical eigenvalues, the
participation factor for the rest of the critical eigenvalues are shown in the Appendix
H.

30
Table 6.2.1.1 Participation factor for the system mode 181 before “La Higuera”
DIgSILENTPowerFactory
Damping ratio: 0.943 Date: 12/26/2005
System Study:
Element Modal Analysis Busbar Participation Factors
Mode 181
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 <<<<<<<<<<<|
G ACONCAGUA POLPAICO/POLPAICO.220 <|
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 |>>>>>
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <<<<<<<<|
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 <<<|
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G CAPULLO BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 |
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 |
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 |>>
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 <<|
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 <|
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 <|
G CORONEL CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <|
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 |>
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <|
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |
G HUASCO TV MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 |
G HUASCO TG MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 |
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.4 |>>>>>
G L.ALTA ALTA/L.ALTA.220 <<<<|
G LAJA VERDE HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 |
G LOS MOLLES NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <|
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA <<<<|
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 |>>>>>>
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 |>>>>>>
G NEHUENCO TG SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<|
G NEHUENCO TV SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G NUEVA RENCA NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 |
G PANGUE PANGUE/PANGUE.220 |>>>>>
G PEHUENCHE PEHUENCHE/PEHUEN.220 |>>
G PETROOPOWER HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 |>>>>>>
G PULLINQUE TEMUCO/TEMUCO.220 |>
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <|
G RALCO RALCO/RALCO.220 |>>>>>>>>
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<|
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<|
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G SAN FCO MOST. PAINE/A.PAINE.154 <|
G SAN IGNACIO ITAHUE/ITAHUE.154 <<|
G SAN ISIDRO TG SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<|
G SAN ISIDRO TV SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<|
G SAUZAL JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>>>>>>>
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 |>>>
G VALDIVIA CIRUELOS/L.CIRUEL.220 <|
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 |>>>>>>>
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 |>>>
G VOLCAN JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |
G LOS MOLLES AZUCAR/P.AZUCAR.220 |
DIEGO DE
G ALMAGRO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 |

31
Table 6.2.1.2 Participation factor for the system mode 181 with “La Higuera”
DIgSILENTPowerFactory
Damping ratio: 0.866 Date: 12/26/2005
System
Modal Analysis
Study
Element Busbar Participation Factors
Mode 181
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<|
G ACONCAGUA POLPAICO/POLPAICO.220 <|
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 |>>>>>>>
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <<<<<<<<|
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 <<<|
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G CAPULLO BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 |
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 |
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 |>
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 <<|
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 <|
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 <|
G CORONEL CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <|
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 |>
G DIEGO DE ALMAGRO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 <<|
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <|
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 |
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 |
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.154 |>>>>>>
G L.ALTA ALTA/L.ALTA.220 <<<<|
G LAJA CHARRUA/CHARRUA.154 |
G LOS NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <|
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA <<<<<|
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <|
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 |>>>>>>
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 |>>>>>>
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<|
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G NUEVA NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 |>
G PANGUE PANGUE/PANGUE.220 |>>>>>
G PEHUENCHE PEHUENCHE/PEHUEN.220 |>>
G PETROOPOWER HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 |>>>>>
G PULLINQUE TEMUCO/TEMUCO.220 |>
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <|
G RALCO RALCO/RALCO.220 |>>>>>>>>>>
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<<|
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<<|
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G SAN FCO. MOST PAINE/A.PAINE.154 <<|
G SAN IGNACIO ITAHUE/ITAHUE.154 |
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<|
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<|
G SAUZAL JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>>>>>>>>>>
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 |>>>
G VALDIVIA CIRUELOS/L.CIRUEL.220 <|
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 |>>>>>>>
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 |>>>
G VOLCAN JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |
G LOS MOLLES AZUCAR/P.AZUCAR.220 |
G LA HIGUERA LA HIGUERA.154 |>>>>>

32
6.3 Large Signal Analysis

This type of analysis is to see how the system responds to a significant disturbance. In
this case it is simulated a short circuit in the transmission line between San Fernando/1
and La Higuera. This transmission line is the one that will connect “La Higuera” to the
rest of the grid. The duration of the fault is 0,0325 seconds. In the graph below the
angular speed and rotor angle of “San Luis” generation unit is presented during the
fault. As we can see it takes more than 5 seconds to dampen the oscillation for the
power system. With this result we can conclude that the power system exhibits quite an
oscillatory behaviour followed by a large disturbance. The angular speed oscillates until
it reaches steady state.

Rotor angle (deg)

Time(s)

Fig. 6.3.1 Oscillation of the rotor angle of the generating unit “San Luis” during a
disturbance with (straight line) and without (broken line) “La Higuera”.

33
Angular speed (p.u)

Time(s)

Fig. 6.3.2 Oscillation of the angular speed during a disturbance, with and without the
integration of “La Higuera”

From the graphs above we can see that the oscillations of the rotor angle and the angular
speed are a bit more damped when integrating “La Higuera”

34
7 Conclusions
To conclude this report we can summarize that according to the performed stability
analyses in the environment of DigSilent, that:

- The synchronous machine of “La Higuera” contributes to small-signal stability in the


system, and it oscillates against the rest of the system in a stable manner. It should
however be noted that the damping of the dominant mode appears to be insufficient,
suggesting that an auxiliary controller might be needed. We therefore suggest the use
of a PSS to further enhance the small-signal stability of the system with “La Higuera”.

- At the five analyzed buses we can se that when incorporating “La Higuera” the
voltage levels increases near the wanted voltage at the buses which is 154 kV and an
improvement to the voltage stability margin occurs.

- The responding time of the transmission system is too slow, which is for the reason
that the transmission lines are extensive, and it is too far between the generation units
and loads in the system

- The system with “La Higuera” appears to be transiently stable and small-signal stable.

35
8 References
[1] Internal Report CDEC-SIC

[2] G. Andersson. Power System Dynamics and Stability. An Introduction. Department of


Electrical Engineering. Royal Institute of Technology,1997

[3] Carson W. Taylor Power System Voltage Stability. Electric Power Research Institute,
1994

[4] Paul M. Anderson. A.A. Fouad. Power System Control and Stability, IEEE Press,
1993

[5] Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, Electric Power Research Institute,
1993

[6] Valerijs Knazkins, Stability of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Distributed
Generation, Doctoral Thesis 2004

[7] Peter W.Sauer, M.A. Pai, Power System Dynamics and Stability, Department of
Electrical and computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

[8] David K.Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics, Addison-Wesley Publishing


Company, 1989

36
9 Appendix
9.1 Appendix A: Chilean Power System

Figure 9.1.1 The four areas of electricity supply in Chile

37
9.2 Appendix B: SIC Transmission Lines
Table 9.2.1 Transmission Lines

Transmission Lines Company VOLTAGE kV LONG. Km


Alfalfal-Los Almendros CHILGENER 220 43,4
Colbún-Maipo COLBÚN S.A. 220 261
Pangue-Santa Bárbara PANGUE S.A. 220 31
Pehuenche-Ancóa PEHUENCHE S.A. 220 25
Loma Alta-Pehuenche 220 23
Guacolda-Maitencillo GUACOLDA 220 34,7
Maitencillo-Cardones 220 133,3
Rapel Cerro Navia ENDESA 220 114,26
El Toro-Antuco 220 17,74
Antuco-Charrúa 220 67,46
Canutillar-Pto. Montt 220 59,6
Charrúa-Inforsa 220 73,7
Maria Dolores-Laja 220 29,8
Trupan-Charrúa 220 45
Cipreses-Itahue 154 111
Isla-Cipreses 154 3,34
Abanico-Charrúa 154 80,5
El Rodeo - Polpaico TRANSELEC 500 62,22
Ancoa - Alto Jahuel circ 1 500 240,51
Ancoa - Alto Jahuel circ 2 500 257,8
P. de Azucar - Maitencillo 220 196,83
Los Vilos - P. de Azucar 220 228,11
San Isidro - Los Vilos 220 124,61
Polpaico - San Isidro 220 49,54
Cerro Navia - Polpaico 220 29,99
Alto Jahuel - Cerro Navia 220 39,2
Alto Jahuel - El Rodeo 220 9,69
Charrúa - Ancoa 1y 2 220 182,94
C. Pinto - D. de Almagro 220 72,29
Cardones - C. Pinto 220 75,33
Maitencillo - Cardones 220 132,69
Charrúa - Ancoa 3 220 196,25
Charrúa - Concepción 220 72,1
Charrúa - Hualpen 220 83,78
Temuco - Charrúa 220 195,64
Valdivia - Temuco 220 151,65
Puerto Montt - Temuco 220 359,08
Puerto Montt - Valdivia 220 215,01
Concepción - San Vicente 154 10,79
Arranque Paine 154 0,94
Rancagua - Alto Jahuel 154 60,7
Sauzal - Rancagua 154 13,11
Itahue - Rancagua 154 143,4
Itahue - Alto Jahuel 154 184,02
Arranque Chillan 154 3
Charrúa - Itahue 154 242,61
Charrúa - Concepción 154 72,17
San Vicente - Hualpen 154 5,23
Desviación Petroquímicas 154 2,23
Desviación Petroq - Hualpen 154 2,86
Coronel - Hualpen 154 25,13
Concepción - CGE 154 0,07
San Vicente - CGE 154 0,14

38
9.3 Appendix C: Thermal Power generating units in SIC

Table. 9.3.1 Thermal Units


THERMAL UNITS
Name of the Nº
TOTAL
Power Plant Owner TURBINE UNITS MW
ARAUCO GENERACION
Arauco S.A. Black liquor steam 1 33,0
ARAUCO GENERACION
Celco S.A. Black liquor steam 2 20,0
ARAUCO GENERACION
Cholguan S.A. Vapor-des.forest 1 9,0
Laguna Verde GENER S.A. Coal steam 2 54,7
Renca GENER S.A. Diesel steam 2 100,0
Ventanas GENER S.A. Coal steam 2 338,0
El Indio TG GENER S.A. Diesel fuel 1 18,8
S. Fco Moztazal GENER S.A Diesel fuel type B 1 25,0
Huasco Vapor ENDESA Coal steam 2 16,0
Bocamina ENDESA Coal steam 1 125,0
Huasco TG ENDESA IFO 180 gas 180 3 64,23
D. De Almagro ENDESA Diesel fuel 1 23,75
Tatal ENDESA gas 2 240,0
Guacolda GUACOLDA S.A. Coal steam 2 304,0
Laja E. VERDE S.A. Forest water steam 1 8,7
Constitución E. VERDE S.A. Forest water steam 1 8,7
Combined cycle (natural
Nueva Renca S.E. SANTIAGO S.A. gas) 1 379,0
Petropower PETROPOWER S.A. Oil derived fuel 1 75,0
Combined cycle (natural
Nehuenco COLBUN S.A. gas) 1 370,0
Nehuenco 9B COLBUN S.A. gas 1 108,0
Nehuenco II COLBUN S.A. gas 1 250
Combined cycle (natural
San Isidro SAN ISIDRO S.A. gas) 1 370,0
TOTAL Thermal
Power 2 940,88

39
9.4 Appendix D: Hydro Power generating units in SIC
Table. 9.4.1 Hydro generating units
HYDRO UNITS
Total Installed
Name Tupe Nº Capacity
Power Plant Owner Turbine Units MW
Alfalfal GENER S.A. Pelton 2 160,00
Maitenes GENER S.A. Francis 5 30,80
Queltehues GENER S.A. Pelton 3 41,07
Volcán GENER S.A. Pelton 1 13,00
Colbún COLBUN S.A. Francis 2 400,00
Machicura COLBUN S.A. Kaplán 2 90,00
San Ignacio COLBUN S.A. Kaplán 1 37,00
Rucúe COLBUN S.A. Francis 2 170,00
Los Molles ENDESA Pelton 2 16,00
Rapel ENDESA Francis 5 350,00
Sauzal ENDESA Francis 3 76,80
Sauzalito ENDESA Kaplán 1 9,50
Cipreses ENDESA Pelton 3 101,40
Isla ENDESA Francis 2 68,00
Antuco ENDESA Francis 2 300,00
El Toro ENDESA Pelton 4 400,00
Abanico ENDESA Francis 6 136,00
Canutillar ENDESA Francis 2 145,00
Pangue PANGUE S.A. Francis 2 467,00
Pehuenche PEHUENCHE S.A. Francis 2 500,00
Curillinque PEHUENCHE S.A. Francis 1 85,00
Loma Alta PEHUENCHE S.A. Francis 1 38,00
Mampil IBENER S.A Francis 2 49,00
Peuchen IBENER S.A Francis 2 75,00
Pilmaiquén PILMAIQUEN S.A. Francis 5 39,00
Pullinque PILMAIQUEN S.A. Francis 3 48,60
Aconcagua ACONCAGUA S.A. Pelton 2 72,90
Florida S.C. DEL MAIPO Francis 5 28,00
H.G. VIEJA Y M.
Los Quilos VALPO. Pelton 3 39,30
Capullo E.E. CAPULLO Francis 1 10,70
S. Andes GEN. S. ANDES Francis 4 1,104
Carbomet CARBOMET Francis 4 10,896
Puntilla E.E PUNTILLA S.A Francis 1 14,7

TOTAL HYDRO 4023, 77


TOTAL
Generation in
SIC 6964,65

40
9.5 Appendix E: Models used in a Power Plant in the DigSilent
Environment

The voltage controller is of the type vcoBBSEX1 which is a typical IEEE model of type AC1.

DIgSILENT
vco_BBSEX1: Brown Boveri Static Excitation

usetp

x1 X2
Vrmax Efdmax

u 1/(1+sT) udel - du (1+sTb)/(1+sTa) dud dudd K(T2/T1) uout Limiter uoutl uouts LimVar uerrs
Tf T4,T3 K,T1,T2

Vrmin Efdmin
ustab

x3

1/K(T1/T2-1)(1/1+sT2)
K,T1,T2
zero
switch

upss1

upss2
upss

Fig.9.5.1 Model of the voltage controller vcoBBSEX1 of type AC1

Where: Upss =0, since there are no PSS


Input signal: u = voltage from the synchronous generator
Output signal: uerrs = voltage difference according to the voltage controller

41
The model of the hydro governor of a hydropower plant according to the IEEE model
(pcu_HYGOV) is modelled as the figure below:

DIgSILENT
Hydr Governor:

w_ref
0

Rmax gmax

1
w - dw yi Dband(K) yi1 (1/(1+sT)) yi2 Limiter_K yi3 _(K/s)_ yi4 (1/(1+sT)) g
K Tp Ks Ki Tg
-

Rmin gmin
yi4(1..
o12

o1 K
Rp

o11 ksT/(1+sT) yi4(2..


Rt,Tr

Figure 9.5.2 Model of the hydro governor (pcu_HYGOV)

Where: Input signal: w = the voltage angle of the synchronous generator


wref = the required voltage angle of the synchronous generator
Output signal: g = the opening of the gate at the hydropower plant

42
The model of the turbine of a hydropower plant is modelled according to the build-in
model in DigSilent.

DIgSILENT
Hydr Turbine:

H(1)
U_G(1..

g At U_G H - dh 1/sT U o14 pt


gFL,gNL Tw
G
-

UNL
H0

gNL,g..
Const
H0

U(1)

Figure 9.5.3 Model of the hydro turbine

Where: Input signal: g = the opening of the gate at the hydro power plant
Output signal: Pt = the mechanical power

All these models shown above give us a complete model frame of a hydropower plant
modelled in DigSilent.

43
9.6 Appendix F: Results of the Load Flow analysis in DigSilent:
The Power System is illustrated from North to South of SIC. Transmission System

DIEGO DE ALM.. 221.40


1.01
-26.00
88.26 -57.98 -58.77 0.05 28.55
17.92 1.87 2.24 2.95 6.24
90.06 58.01 58.81 2.95 29.22

G
~
58.52 59.32 G DI..
-21.82 -21.78
62.46 63.19

PAPOSO/PAPOS.. 219.40
1.00
-20.86 -28.41
117.84
-43.60 -15.69
125.65 32.45

G C.PINTO/C.PI..
~ 219.07
1.00
G TA.. -26.87
19.53 8.88
3.97 11.72
19.93 14.71

-8.83 -0.00
-21.09 -9.70
22.86 9.70

CARDONES/CAR.. 216.64
0.98
-27.03
159.26 -75.21 -75.21
32.34 -0.78 -0.78
162.51 75.22 75.22

SVS
-0.00 -0.00 76.78 76.78
182.51 -11.00 -10.68 -10.68
182.51 11.00 77.52 77.52

MAITENCILLO/.. 219.96
1.00
-22.20
48.21 -101.91 -101.91 -0.01 -0.01 1.01 1.01
9.79 -66.24 -66.24 0.07 -0.07 -13.73 -13.73
49.20 121.55 121.55 0.07 0.07 13.77 13.77

G G
~ ~
102.39 102.39 G HU.. G HU..
63.64 63.64
120.56 120.56
222.89
1.01
SVS
-21.43
GUACOLDA/GUA.. -1.01 -1.01 -0.00 -0.00 -0.00
-13.33 -13.33 35.21 -10.99 -11.99
13.37 13.37 35.21 10.99 11.99
68.90 135.88
42.89 84.39 PAN DE AZUCA..
81.16 159.95
219.94
1.00
G G -22.29
117.08 -55.80 -55.80 3.45
~ ~ 23.77 -3.61 -3.61 2.11
G GU.. G GU.. 119.47 55.92 55.92 4.04

G
~
LOS ..

57.32 57.32
-22.14 -22.14
61.45 61.45

LOS VILOS/L... 222.00


1.01
-16.09
18.73 -66.68 -66.68
3.80 20.24 20.24
19.11 69.69 69.69

G VE.. G VE..
~ ~
G G
-1.07 -0.79 68.00 68.00
160.66 -0.05 -32.35 -32.35
160.66 0.79 75.30 75.30

QUILLOTA/QUI.. 219.90
1.00
-11.84
-430.70 -430.70 253.61 234.96 234.96
89.81 89.81 73.97 -14.14 -14.14
439.96 439.96 264.18 235.39 235.39

436.70 436.70
-61.51 -61.51
441.02 441.02

SAN LUIS/S.L.. 219.95


1.00
-7.35 -232.58 -232.58
172.54 172.39 172.15 332.24 369.16 -0.00 30.51 30.51
50.32 108.63 107.31 -298.29 229.53 219.89 234.57 234.57
179.73 203.76 202.86 446.50 434.70 219.89

G G G G POLPAICO/POL..
~ ~ ~ ~ 219.76
1.00
G SA.. G SA.. G NE.. G NE.. -17.57

Figure 9.6.1 Part1 of the SIC Transmission System


44
DIgSILENT
POLPAICO/POLP.. 219.76
1.00
-17.57
-14.19 -14.19 79.86 359.80 101.99 111.60
-1.61 -1.61 52.93 104.94 -25.32 -24.61
14.28 14.28 95.81 374.79 105.09 114.28

G -111.15
~ 24.05
113.72
G AC..
LAMPA/LAM..
219.63
1.00
-18.47
92.48 18.68
-27.84 3.79
96.58 19.06 G LO.. G CH.. G AL..
~ ~ ~
G G G
-101.32 -92.22 33.37 21.37 178.23
23.87 27.00 20.80 13.33 -40.59
104.10 96.09 39.33 25.19 182.80
ALFALFAL/ALF..
CERRO NAVIA/C...
219.71 219.58
1.00 1.00
-19.08 -12.90
-60.35 -60.35 362.83 634.21 63.47 34.14 64.50 113.73
41.73 41.73 101.78 184.98 -7.08 -16.72 -18.49 -22.10
73.37 73.37 376.84 660.64 63.86 38.01 67.10 115.86

G
~
G NU.. -62.99 -33.98 -112.99
1.06 9.37 21.19
63.00 35.25 114.96
218.48 220.16
0.99 1.00 LA ERMITA/L...
-20.79 -20.07
ALTO MELIPIL.. ALTO MELIPIL..
219.44
1.00
60.48 60.49 -14.67
59.42 3.57 33.98 112.99
-42.83 -42.83 17.33 -18.39 -9.37 -21.19
74.11 74.11 61.89 18.73 35.25 114.96
CHENA/C.CHEN..
219.13
1.00
-18.67 -3.55 -33.84 -63.87 -112.71
159.28 -120.95 -159.30
46.46 16.49 22.71 10.60 2.10 8.53 20.84
165.92 122.07 160.91 11.18 33.91 64.44 114.62
219.87
1.00
-20.99 RAPEL/RAPEL... LOSALMENDROS/L..
219.37
1.00
-15.32
-1.61 -1.63 34.15 88.29 88.29
21.43 1.23 9.96 -14.68 -14.68
21.49 2.04 35.57 89.51 89.51

G G
~ ~
14.20 14.20 121.63 160.19 G RA.. G RA.. -87.94 -87.94
-8.48 -8.48 -16.77 -21.08 11.89 11.89
16.54 16.54 122.78 161.57 88.74 88.74

219.53
1.00
-17.10 ALTO JAHUEL/A.JA..
-36.84 654.53 53.33 28.57 13.56 75.46 14.34 100.46 -0.00
-52.43 190.90 32.17 -62.56 8.59 46.75 9.15 77.93 109.53
64.08 681.80 62.28 68.77 16.05 88.77 17.01 127.14 109.53

G G G G G
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
36.84 G VO.. G FL.. G PU.. G SA.. G MA..
52.31

-0.00
-0.00
63.98

0.00
219.59
1.00
MAIPO/MAIPO... -17.09

-49.33
61.24
0.93
-100.43
-72.45
123.83
-18.42 -18.42

ALTO JAHUEL/..
-26.15 -26.15
31.99 31.99
154.93
1.01
-19.09 ALTO JAHUEL/..

18.49 18.49
-20.50 -20.50
27.61 27.61
221.45
1.01
CANDELARIA/CAND.. -15.41

-98.84 -98.84 160.62


4.19 4.19 32.62
98.93 98.93 163.90

100.40 100.40
-29.45 -29.45
104.63 104.63

COLBUN/COLBU.. 219.89
1.00
-7.62
196.07 -37.93 33.20
-74.20 -24.98 9.68
209.64 45.42 34.58

G
~
G CO.. 37.96
24.08
44.95

MACHICURA/MA.. 220.34
1.00
-7.51
37.96
24.08
44.95

G
~
G MA..

Figure 9.6.2 Part2 of the SIC Transmission System

45
ALTO JAHUEL/.. 154.93
1.01
-19.09
21.39 -12.94 91.98
6.24 19.41 46.80
22.28 23.33 103.20

-91.36
-45.10
101.88

TAP OFF PAINE/A..


152.13
0.99
-20.41
38.68 52.49 -0.19
11.28 34.94 1.13
40.29 63.06 1.14

G
~
-51.88 G S A ..
-34.97
62.56

RANCAGUA/RAN..
147.06
0.95
-22.30
83.41 -31.54
24.33 10.65
86.89 33.28

13.07 31.78
-23.07 -13.21
26.51 34.41

TAP OFF PUNT..


TAP OFF PUNT.. 152.19 146.37
0.99 0.95
-18.13 -20.42
21.11 -34.18 21.11 -52.89
6.16 16.91 6.16 7.05
21.99 38.13 21.99 53.36

34.32 53.19
-17.76 -7.23
38.65 53.68

TAP OFF TILC.. TAP OFF TILC..


151.76 146.79
0.99 0.95
-17.33 -19.21 0.61
0.61 -34.93 -53.80
0.18 17.58 0.18 7.05
0.63 39.11 0.63 54.26

35.19 54.32
-18.91 -7.31
39.95 54.81
TAP OFF SAN ..
TAP OFF SAN .. 150.98 147.51
0.98 0.96
-15.96 -17.17
32.16 -67.35 32.16 -86.47
9.38 9.53 9.38 -2.07
33.50 68.02 33.50 86.50

67.99 87.56
-9.09 4.19
68.60 87.66
TAP OFF TENO..
TAP OFF TENO 1/..
151.69 149.60
0.99 0.97
-13.94 -14.60
11.82 -79.81 11.81 -99.38
3.45 5.64 3.45 -7.64
12.31 80.01 12.31 99.67

81.01 101.29
-3.90 11.99
81.11 102.00

ITAHUE/ITAHU.. 153.48
1.00
-10.78
10.46
-7.15
12.67

G
~
G S A ..

Figure 9.6.3 Part 3 of the SIC Transmission System

46
ITAHUE/ITAHU.. 213.96
0.97
-8.82
92.74
98.99
135.64

-0.00
0.00
0.00

-41.01
65.53
0.99
-92.70

ITAHUE/ITA..
-92.39
130.87

ITAHUE/ITAHU.. 153.48
1.00
-10.78
64.75 50.48 -45.76 -148.62
18.88 -1.39 9.09 50.56
67.45 50.50 46.65 156.99

-49.87
0.64
49.87

MAULE/MAULE... 151.73
46.63
-11.62
0.99 48.06
-12.98
6.79 8.29 40.00 24.95 MELADO/M.MEL..
4.83 5.75 11.67 -1.73
8.33 10.09 41.67 25.01 155.72
153.99 -28.94
1.00 158.38
G G -6.80
-46.63 CURILLINQUE/..
~ ~ 11.62
GCO.. GCO.. -24.80 48.06
-0.39 153.82
24.80 1.00
-1.07
-69.83 85.89
18.58 -10.36
LINARES/LINARES... 150.88 72.26 86.51
0.98
-14.09
19.84 4.96 G
5.79 -5.40
~
20.67 7.33 48.17 70.16 GCU..
-15.30 -18.31
50.54 72.50

-4.95
CIPRESES/CIP..
3.20 153.85
5.89 1.00
-0.08
-34.27 -34.27 49.80 0.01
-21.86 -21.86 -77.32 0.00
PARRAL/PARRA.. 151.15
40.65 40.65 91.97 0.01
0.98
-14.33
-18.32 23.27 G
-9.98 6.79
~
20.86 24.24 G CI..

34.30 34.30
21.75 21.75
40.61 40.61
18.47
6.60
19.61 ISLA/ISLA.15..
154.14
1.00
TAPOFFCHIL.. 153.54
0.01
68.60
1.00 43.49
-13.33 81.22

G
~
G IS..

Figure 9.6.4 Part 4 of the SIC Transmission System

47
DIgSILENT
TAP OFF CHILLA.. 153.54
1.00
-13.33
39.18 -0.03 -57.67
7.96 60.60 46.05
39.98 60.60 73.80

G
~
G IT.. 60.23
-42.91
73.95
CONCEPCION/CONCEP..
CHARRUA/CHAR.. 147.89 214.40
0.96 0.97
-7.20 -11.34
-19.59 -19.59 6.97 90.50 91.25 168.73
-20.45 -20.45 6.24 26.40 -33.63 -40.35
28.31 28.31 9.36 94.27 97.25 173.48

G
~
19.93 19.93 G LA..
16.67 16.67

-0.00
-0.00
0.00
25.99 25.99

-44.85
12.37
0.95
ABANICO/ABAN.. -88.20 -168.71

CONCEPCION/CON..
153.38 39.90 49.79
1.00 96.81 175.90
-6.04
39.86
33.35
51.97 CONCEPCION/C.. 150.44
0.98
G -14.33
72.70 72.70 111.52
~ -61.11 -61.11 32.53
G AB.. 94.97 94.97 116.16

-12.56 12.63 -72.02 -72.02


78.64 -78.54 59.47 59.47
79.64 79.55 93.40 93.40

TAP OFF PETR.. 151.95 151.48


0.99 0.98
-15.52
75.56 -63.00
-15.44
-27.47
SAN VICENTE/.. 158.88
15.34 -93.99 -86.74 46.34
77.11 113.15 90.99 G PETROOPOWE.. 165.50

~
G

63.16 27.67 52.33


94.40 87.13 109.82
113.59 91.42 121.65

HUALPEN/HUAL.. 152.75
0.99
-15.42
91.64 -165.34 35.20
-29.46 60.61 10.27
96.26 176.10 36.67
-0.00
0.00
0.00

-45.81
65.64
0.99

-91.19
30.44
96.13
MAPAL/MAPAL...
HUALPEN/HUA..

165.41
152.91 -50.40
0.99 172.92
-16.49
9.17 82.02
1.86 -32.30
9.35 88.15
217.47
0.99 HUALPEN/HUAL..
-12.24

-81.80
32.69
88.09
FOPACO/FOPAC..
153.09
0.99
-17.04
16.52 65.29
3.35 -36.05
16.85 74.58

-65.12
36.22
74.51
QUINENCO/QUI..
153.41
1.00
-17.52
0.12 65.00
-5.77 -30.45
5.77 71.78

-0.12 -64.98
5.57 30.47
5.57 71.76
CORONEL/CORO..
BOCAMINA/BOC.. 153.46 153.45
1.00 1.00
-17.53 -17.58
-0.12 64.73 -0.21 -0.04
5.57 18.88 48.36 0.98
5.57 67.43 48.36 0.98

G G G
~ ~ ~
G BO.. G AR.. G CO..

Figure 9.6.5 Part 5 of the SIC Transmission System

48
G RALCO
~
G
CHARRUA/CHAR..
234.79
-239.42 147.89
0.96
335.33
-7.20
-195.84
97.28

-0.00
-0.00
0.00

-37.80
RALCO/RALCO...

12.19
218.67

0.94
210.29
0.96
-3.37
117.39 117.39

CHARRUA/CHA..
-119.71 -119.71
167.66 167.66

-116.50 -116.50 195.88 0.00


122.84 122.84 -88.52 47.91
169.30 169.30 214.95 47.91
CHARRUA/CHAR..

215.35
0.98
-5.10
-82.35 -82.35 -210.32 -209.15 -211.08 -165.21 83.10
-16.20 -16.20 5.94 5.86 0.25 -16.86 24.24
83.92 83.92 210.41 209.23 211.08 166.07 86.56

213.00 211.81
9.86 9.75
213.23 212.03
82.82 82.82
11.98 11.98 ANTUCO/ANTUC..
83.68 83.68
RUCUE/RUCUE... 218.33
0.99
1.69
218.06 281.14 -187.41 -187.41 231.14
0.99 35.60 7.88 7.88 0.21
-2.84 283.39 187.57 187.57 231.14
117.09 -48.56
-3.47 -27.42
117.14 55.76 G
~
G G ANTUCO -230.07 212.78
~ 6.41 9.41
230.16 212.99
G RU.. 48.63
23.92 TRUPAN/TRUPA..
54.20
MAMPIL/MAMPI.. 217.44
0.99
-0.75 -0.00 165.83
219.68 17.29 19.10
-15.83 4.86
1.00 4.86 166.92
-2.22 23.44
8.36 8.36 -31.92
13.60 13.60 3.28 CHOLGUAN/CHO..
15.96 15.96 32.09 187.94 187.94
-5.31 -5.31 216.93
188.02 188.02 0.99
G G ELTORO/EL.TORO... -3.19
-182.25 16.42
~ ~ -27.29 3.33
GMA.. G MA.. 31.95 184.28 16.76
-7.28 218.74
32.77 0.99
3.24
PEUCHEN/PEUC.. 375.89
-10.62
376.04
219.59
1.00
-1.77
31.95 G -17.26 182.86
-7.28
~ 3.77 30.07
32.77 17.67 185.31
G EL TORO U1 PANGUE/PANGU..
G
~ 218.67
0.99
G PE.. -1.50
165.60
33.84
169.02

G
~
G PA..

Figure 9.6.6 Part 6 of the SIC Transmission System

49
DIgSILENT
ALTO JAHUEL/A.JA..
219.53
1.00
-17.10
-333.61 -333.61
-130.39 -130.39
358.19 358.19

127.64
127.64

127.64
127.64
-0.00

-0.00
ALTO JAHUEL/A...
LOMA ALTA/L...

ALTO JAHUEL/A...
219.07
1.00
-6.56
38.20 38.20
-3.85 -3.85
38.39 38.39 333.77 333.77
37.35 37.35
335.86 335.86
G
~
-38.17 G L.ALTA
483.40
ITAHUE/ITAHUE... 0.81
0.97
38.18
-12.59
213.96 -356.86 -310.69
0.97 -27.03 -47.68
-8.82
-92.74 219.00 PEHUENCHE/PE.. 357.88 314.32
-98.99 1.00
135.64 -6.97
ALTO JAHUEL/A..
146.21 146.21 254.25
60.26 60.26 111.43

70.10
70.10

70.10
70.10
-0.00

-0.00
158.14 158.14 277.59

G
~
93.05 -145.67 -145.67 G PE.. 0.13
99.19 -58.74 -58.74 0.03
136.00 157.07 157.07 0.13

ANCOA/ANCOA... 215.75
0.98
-8.55
99.08 99.08
9.13 9.13
99.50 99.50

-360.54

-313.27
360.64

317.30
72.40
72.40

50.45

71.23
71.23
-0.00

-8.68

-0.00
-99.07 -99.07 -0.00 360.54 313.27 -0.00
-6.38 -6.38 0.00 -15.71 -65.83 0.00
99.28 99.28 0.00 360.88 320.11 0.00

ANCOA/ANCO.. 491.59
0.98
-9.83
-0.00 -237.31 -238.35 -0.00
0.00 55.02 39.28 0.00
0.00 243.60 241.57 0.00
237.31

245.39

238.35
243.05
-62.45

-47.55
74.73
74.73

74.55
74.55
-0.00

-0.00
73.30
73.30

73.30
73.30
-0.00

-0.00

238.62 239.57
-55.65 -51.95
245.02 245.13
CHARRUA/CHAR..
CHARRUA/CHARR..

CHARRUA/CHARR..

CONCEPCION/CONCEP.. 490.42
0.98
-8.02
214.40 -239.09 -239.09
0.97 53.80 53.80
-11.34 245.07 245.07
-168.73
40.35
173.48
-34.51
60.93
0.92

-0.00

-0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

-34.51
60.93
0.92

173.50 239.09 239.09


-33.35 -41.14 -41.14
176.67 242.61 242.61

CHARRUA/CHAR.. 215.35
0.98
-5.10
169.57 93.22
-42.63 -33.82
174.85 99.17

-165.41 -91.78
50.40 28.74
172.92 96.18
ESPERANZA/ES..
HUALPEN/HUAL.. 217.47 217.56
0.99 0.99
-12.24 -9.47
91.78
-28.74
96.18

-90.27
22.06
92.93

TEMUCO/TEMUC.. 219.01
1.00
-14.22

Figure 9.6.7 Part 7 of the SIC Transmission System

50
TEMUCO/TEMUC.. 219.01
1.00
-14.22
-5.83 27.62 86.10 17.61
-24.71 -24.83 25.11 -2.37
25.39 37.14 89.69 17.77

G
~
G P U ..

-27.42
13.91
30.75

LOS CIRUELOS..
220.77
1.00
-15.45
48.64 21.22
2.93 16.84
48.73 27.09

G
~
G V A ..

-48.05
-12.93
49.76

VALD IVIA/VAL..
217.10
0.99
-17.02
-19.20 67.26
-6.69 19.62
20.33 70.06

19.29
-8.31
21.01

BARRO BLANCO..
217.94
0.99
-16.02
-57.37 60.72 19.12 3.52
5.08 17.71 12.17 2.31
57.59 63.25 22.67 4.21

G G
~ ~
G PI.. G C A ..

5.88 58.14
-30.28 -16.90
30.84 60.55

PUERTO MONTT.. 218.71


0.99
-13.05
-84.08 -84.08 104.13
8.40 8.40 30.37
84.50 84.50 108.47

84.97 84.97
-13.05 -13.05
85.96 85.96

CANUTILLAR/C.. 219.84
1.00
-10.61
169.93
-26.09
171.92

G
~
G C A ..

Figure 9.6.8 Part 8 of the SIC Transmission system

51
9.7 Appendix G: Some eigenvalues and their respective
participation factors before “La Higuera”

Table 9.7.1 Participation factor for the system mode 202

Dig SILENT PowerFactory


13.1.257 Date: 12/26/2005
System Study Modal Analysis
Element Busbar Participation Factors
Mode 202
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 |>>>>>>>>>
G ACONCAGUA POLPAICO/POLPAICO.220 |
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 <<<<|
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 <<<<|
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 |>>>>
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 |>
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 |>>>>>>
G CAPULLO BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 |
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <<|
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 |>>>>>>>>>>>
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 <<<|
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 |>
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 |>
G CORONEL CORONEL/CORONEL.154 |>
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 <<<|
G EL TORO/EL.TORO.220 <<<<<<|
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |>
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 |
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 |
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.154 |>>
G L.ALTA ALTA/L.ALTA.220 |>>>>>
G LAJA E. VERDE CHARRUA/CHARRUA.154 |
G LOS QUILLOS NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <<<<|
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA <<<<<<|
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <|
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <|
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<<|
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G NUEVA RENCA NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <|
G PANGUE PANGUE/PANGUE.220 <|
G PEHUENCHE PEHUENCHE/PEHUEN.220 <|
G PETROOPOWER HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 |>>>>
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 |>>>>>
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 <<<<|
G PULLINQUE TEMUCO/TEMUCO.220 <|
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>>>
G RALCO RALCO/RALCO.220 <<|
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 <<<|
G SAN FCO. MOST PAINE/A.PAINE.154 |>
G SAN IGNACIO IGNACIO |>>>>>>>>>>
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<<|
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<<|
G SAUZAL JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<|
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 |>>>
G VALDIVIA CIRUELOS/L.CIRUEL.220 |>
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 |>>>>>>>
G VOLCAN JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |
G LOS MOLLES AZUCAR/P.AZUCAR.220 |
G DIEGO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 <<|

52
Table 9.7.2 Participation factor for the system mode 257
DIgSILENT PowerFactory
Modal-Analysis 13.1.257 Date: 12/26/2005
Element System Study Busbar Participation Factors
Mode 257
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 <<<<|
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 <<|
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 <<<<|
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <<<<<<<<|
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 <<<<|
G CAPULLO BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 |>>>>>>
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 |
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<|
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 <<|
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 |>>>>>>>>
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 |>>>>>>>
G CORONEL CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <<<<<<|
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 <<|
G EL TORO TORO/EL.TORO.220 <<<<<<|
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>>>>>>>>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 <<<<|
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.154 <<|
G L.ALTA ALTA/L.ALTA.220 <<|
G LAJA E.VERDE CHARRUA/CHARRUA.154 |>>
G LOS QUILLOS NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <|
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA <<|
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <|
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <<|
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <<|
G NEHUENCO TG SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 |>>
G NEHUENCO TV SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 |>>
G NUEVA RENCA NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <|
G PANGUE PANGUE/PANGUE.220 <<|
G PEHUENCHE PEHUENCHE/PEHUEN.220 <|
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 <<<<<<|
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 <<<|
G PULLINQUE TEMUCO/TEMUCO.220 <<<<<|
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<<<|
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<<<<|
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 <<|
G SAN FCO. MOST PAINE/A.PAINE.154 <<|
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<|
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 |>
G VALDIVIA QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 <<|
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 |>>>>
G VOLCAN JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <|
G LOS MOLLES AZUCAR/P.AZUCAR.220 <<<<<<<<<|
G DIEGO DE ALMAGRO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

53
9.8 Appendix H: Some eigenvalues and their respective
participation factors including “La Higuera”

Table 9.8.1 Participation factor for the system mode 202.


DIgSILENT PowerFactory
13.1.257 Date: 12/26/2005
Element System Study Modal-Analysis Participation Factors
Mode 202 Busbar
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 |>>>>>>>>>>>
G ACONCAGUA POLPAICO/POLPAICO.220 |>>>
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 <<<<|
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 <<<<<|
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 |>>>>>
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 |>>
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 |>>>>>>>>
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 |>>>>
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 <<<<|
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 |>
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 |>
G CORONEL CORONEL/CORONEL.154 |>
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 <<<<<|
G DIEGO DE ALMAGRO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 <<|
G EL TORO TORO/EL.TORO.220 <<<<<<<|
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |>
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.154 |>>>
G L.ALTA LOMA |>>>>>>>>>
G LOS QUILLOS NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <<<|
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA <<<<<<<|
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <<|
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <<|
G NEHUENCO TG SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<|
G NEHUENCO TV SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<|
G NUEVA RENCA NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <|
G PANGUE PANGUE/PANGUE.220 <<|
G PEHUENCHE PEHUENCHE/PEHUEN.220 <|
G PETROOPOWER HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 |>>>>>
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 |>>>>>>
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 |>>>>>
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>>>>
G RALCO RALCO/RALCO.220 <<<|
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 <<<<|
G SAN FCO. MOST PAINE/A.PAINE.154 |>>
G SAN IGNACIO ITAHUE/ITAHUE.154 |>
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<|
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<|
G SAUZAL JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<<|
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 |>>
G VALDIVIA CIRUELOS/L.CIRUEL.220 |>
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 |>>>>>>
G LA HIGUERA LA HIGUERA 154 <<<<|

54
Table 9.8.2 Participation factor for the system mode 257
DIgSILENT PowerFactory
13.1.257 Date: 12/26/2005
Element System Study Modal-Analysis Participation Factors
Mode 257 Busbar
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 <|
G ACONCAGUA POLPAICO/POLPAICO.220 <<<|
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 < <<<|
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 <|
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 |>>>>
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 <<<<<<<|
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 <|
G CAPULLO BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 <<<<|
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 |>>>>
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 <|
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 |>>>>
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 |>
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 |>>>>
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 <<<|
G DIEGO DE ALMAGRO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 |>
G EL TORO TORO/EL.TORO.220 <|
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 |>>>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 |>
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 |
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.154 |>>>
G L.ALTA ALTA/L.ALTA.220 |>>
G LAJA CHARRUA/CHARRUA.154 |>
G LOS QUILLOS NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 |>>>>>>
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA |
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <|
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 |>>>
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <<<<|
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <|
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <|
G PETROOPOWER HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 <|
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 <<<<|
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 <|
G PULLINQUE TEMUCO/TEMUCO.220 <<|
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<|
G RALCO RALCO/RALCO.220 <<<<<<|
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <|
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <|
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 |>>>
G SAN FCO.MOST PAINE/A.PAINE.154 <|
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <|
G SAUZAL JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<<<<<|
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 <<<|
G VALDIVIA CIRUELOS/L.CIRUEL.220 <|
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 <|
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 |>>>
G VOLCAN JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<<<<<|
G LA HIGUERA LA HIGUERA.154 |>>>

55