Isbi Felix
When setting up a new hydropower plant, it is important to foresee how the hydropower plant
would affect the existing transmission grid in different situations during operation as well as
how events in the grid may affect the La Higuera and/or Confluencia hydropower stations. In
this report three kind of analysis are highlighted, which are static analysis, large signal
stability and rotor angle stability. To perform these analyses a simulation tool named
DigSilent is used. DigSilent is used to perform these analyses in a simulated network of the
studied transmission system.
These two hydropower stations as shown in the results will improve the existing transmission
system by enhancing the stability margins in the presence of a fault. When performing the
simulation of the existing transmission system with the newly installed hydropower plant we
could see that it had a poor damping after a disturbance; this might be due to the large
distance between production plants and the existing loads. This phenomenon can be alleviated
if a power system stabilizer (PSS) is integrated in the hydropower plant.
The final conclusion is that the integration of the two hydropower plants will improve the
existing transmission system in Chile.
Keywords
Electric Power System, Load flow, Voltage Stability, Hydropower, DigSilent
2
Acknowledgements
First of all I would like to express my deepest gratitude for being given this opportunity by
Gunnar Frostberg at SwedPower International AB to perform my Master Thesis abroad.
In the beginning it was difficult to perform a consulting job without contacts in a foreign
country like Chile, but it turned out well thanks to the people that I learned to know. Specially
thanks to, Ing. Anibal Ramos Romero who helped me through the design of the existing
transmission system in the DigSilent environment, Ing.Hugo Tapia Muñoz for the given data
and the people at the newly formed company Hidroeléctrica “La Higuera” for their hospitality
and kindness.
Also I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Valerij Knyazkin and examiner
Professor Mehrdad Ghandhari for the help and skilled guidance through the project.
Finally, thanks to my mother who has given me the strength and inspiration to become an
engineer.
3
Table of Contents
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 5
7 Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 35
8 References ................................................................................................................ 36
9 Appendix .................................................................................................................. 37
1.1 Background
Chile has limited indigenous energy resources and relies on imports for most of its
hydrocarbon needs. Crude oil comes primarily from Argentina, Ecuador, Nigeria, and
Venezuela, and is processed by one of the country's three stateowned refineries.
Natural gas is imported via pipelines from Argentina. Coal is imported mainly from
Australia. Chile imported 95% of its oil consumption, 80% gas and 92% coal. A
significant amount of the country's electricity is supplied by domestic hydropower.
With respect to electricity supply, Chile can be divided in four areas, as follows. The
map can be seen in the Appendix A.[1]
• The Northern Interconnected System (SING) which supplies the northern zone
of the country, from Arica in the north to Antofagasta in the south. The
distance between both locations is around 700 km. The installed capacity is
99% thermoelectric and reached 3,634 MW in December 2003. The energy
generation is based on natural gas and coal. Some fueloil and diesel oil units
exist in the system, but are not dispatched in normal conditions.
• The Central Interconnected System (SIC) which supplies the central zone of
the country, from Taltal in the north to Quellón (in the Chiloé island) in the
south. The distance between both locations is around 2100 km. In December
2003 the installed capacity reached 6,996 MW of which 58% was
hydroelectric.
• The Magallanes Electric System supplying the cities located in the Magallanes
zone (Punta Arenas, Puerto Natales and Puerto Porvenir) powered by thermal
generation based on natural gas. The total installed capacity reached 65 MW in
December 2003.
5
Table 1.1.1 Characteristics of the four mentioned systems.[1]
Fig. 1.1.1 Daily Spot Prize for 2003 and 2004 in one node of the SIC[1]
6
This new situation in Chile resulted in chaos during winter 2005, since the prices where still
increasing, and the households where then aware of the power supply situation in Chile. The
government realized that the Chilean Power System was in crisis and not as robust as they
thought it was. To solve the problem the government has been forced to be more open to
building new hydropower plants since the water flow is more constant than the government
relation to Argentina. Regardless this situation the implementation of “La Higuera” was
planned long before, but now it is on the spotlight since the hydro power plant will increase
the power generation in the SIC with 155 MW at the beginning.
7
2 Stability in the Power System
Stability of a power system refers to its capability of returning to normal operation following
a disturbance, much as a sailing vessel rights itself after being heeled over by wind or wave.
System stability is largely determined by the behaviour of generators and their controls.
Oscillatory instability is typically reflected in uncontrollable oscillations of frequency and
voltage leading to breakdown.
When such an occurrence creates an unbalance between the system generation and load, it
results in the establishment of a new steadystate operating condition, with the subsequent
adjustment of the voltages angles. The perturbation could be a major disturbance such as the
loss of a generator previously mentioned, a fault or the loss of a line, or a combination of such
events. Adjustment to the new operating condition is called the transient period. The system
behaviour during this time is called the dynamic system performance, which is of concern in
defining system stability. The dynamic behaviour of the generators within a power system is
of fundamental importance to the overall quality of the power supply. The synchronous
generator converts mechanical power to electrical power at a specific voltage and frequency
(50 Hz). A dynamic phenomenon is initiated either by a disturbance of the system or by the
variation of some system variable. The disturbance can originate either in the occurrence of
some fault or from a switching action. Disturbances originating in some fault, like phase to
ground faults or short circuits can cause a large change in the system’s state, which in the
worst case that can render the system or parts of the system unstable.[5]
The main criterion for stability is that the synchronous machines maintain synchronism at the
end of the transient period.
Definition: “If the oscillatory response of a power system during the transient
period following a disturbance is damped and the system settles in a finite time
to a new steady state operating condition, we say the system is stable. If the
system is not stable, it is considered unstable.”[4]
According to the definition of stability, it requires that the system oscillations be damped.
This condition is sometimes called asymptotic stability and means that the system contains
inherent forces that tend to reduce oscillations. Note that in some cases the system can go
unstable with virtually no oscillations. For example “voltage collapse”.
When looking at a large power system with its numerous machines, lines, and loads and
consider the complexity of the consequences of any impact, we may take the first step in a
stability study, which is to make a mathematical model of the system during the transient. The
elements included in the model are those affecting the acceleration of the machine rotors. The
complexity of the model depends upon the type of transient and the components of the power
system that influence the electrical and mechanical torques of the machines.
To define the power system stability technically it is necessary to find its equilibrium point
which is the initial conditions. These are defined from the differential algebraic equations
governing the dynamics of the power system, which defines the system in numerous variables
which becomes the representation of the power system in a mathematical manner. This is
more specifically explained in the next chapter.
8
2.1 Definition of Power System Rotor Stability
The definition of power system rotor stability is explained briefly below, a more extended
explanation is found in the ref [5].
The nature of system response to small disturbances depends on a number of factors including
the initial operating condition; the transmission system robustness, and the type of generator
excitation controls used. For a radially connected generator to a large power system, in the
absence of automatic voltage regulators the instability might occur due to lack of sufficient
synchronizing torque.
This results in instability through a nonoscillatory mode. With continuously acting voltage
regulators, the smalldisturbance stability problem is one of ensuring sufficient damping of
system oscillations, since instability is normally trough oscillations of increasing amplitude.
This type of stability can be shown in local modes, which are associated with the swinging of
units at a generating station with respect to the rest of the power system or in interarea modes
which is associated with the swinging of many machines in one part of the system against
machines in other parts, they are caused by two or more groups of closely coupled machines
being interconnected by weak ties.
The behaviour of the studied dynamic system is described by the swing equation, which is a
nonlinear ordinary differential equation of the form described in the next chapter. The
equilibrium points are those points where all the derivatives are simultaneously zero. In a non
linear system there may be more than one equilibrium point.
The equilibrium points are in fact characteristic of the behaviour of the dynamic system, and
therefore we can draw conclusion about stability from their nature.
Since we are dealing with a nonlinear system, we have to linearize the swing equation around
the equilibrium points of the studied power system in order to analyze the smallsignal
stability in the system. As the perturbation is assumed to be small, the nonlinear functions of
the swing equation can be expressed in terms of Taylor’s series expansion. These can be
studied in the next chapter.
Transient stability is defined as the ability of the power system to maintain in synchronism
during a severe transient disturbance, such as fault on transmission facilities, loss of
generation or loss of a large load. This means that the stability depends on the initial operating
state and the severity of the disturbance.
9
The disturbances that are considered in transient stability studies are either symmetric or
asymmetric short circuits; these are occurred relatively often on the transmission lines.
The fault is often cleared by opening the appropriate circuit breaker to isolate the faulted
element. To study this kind of stability the so called equal area criterion is used, this method
helps in understanding basic factors that influence the transient stability of any system, but is
not applicable to multimachine systems with detailed representation of synchronous
machines.
The concept of voltage stability can be divided in two subcategories, namely Small and Large
Disturbance Voltage Stability. This is done since the instability phenomena can occur in
different time frames, from fractions of a second to tens of minutes.
 One of the main factors causing instability is the inability of the power system to meet
the demand of reactive power, the voltage drop occurs when active power and reactive
power flow through inductive reactance associated with the transmission network.
A criterion for voltage stability is that, at a given operating condition for every bus in the
system, the bus voltage magnitude increases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is
increased. A system is voltage unstable if, for at least one bus in the system, the bus voltage
magnitude decreases as the reactive power injection at the same bus is increased. [5]
A voltage stable power system is capable of maintaining the postfault voltages near the pre
fault values. If a power system is unable to maintain the voltage within acceptable limits, the
system undergoes voltage collapse, which may be total (blackout) or partial.
To analyze power system voltage stability we may consider the relationships between the
transmitted power, receiving end voltage, and the reactive power injection. System dynamics
influencing voltage stability are usually slow. Therefore, many aspects of the problem can be
10
effectively analyzed by using static methods, which examine the viability of the equilibrium
point represented by a specified operating condition of the power system.
The static analysis techniques allow examination of a wide range of system conditions, and
can provide much insight into the nature of the problem and identify the key contributing
factors.
Dynamic analysis is useful for detailed study of specific voltage collapse situations,
coordination of protections and controls and testing of remedial measures. Dynamic
simulations also examine whether and how the steadystate equilibrium point will be reached.
As mentioned active power and voltage curves (PVcurves) are useful for conceptual analysis
of voltage stability and for study of radial systems. The method is also used for large meshed
networks where P is the total load in an area and V is the voltage at a critical or representative
bus. We can analyze at the same time the reactive power (Q) versus the voltage in a VQ
curve, VQ curves plot voltage at a test or critical bus versus reactive power on the same bus.
The advantage of VQ curves is closely related to reactive power, and a VQ curve gives
reactive power margin at the test bus. The reactive power margin is the MVAr distance from
the operating point or either the bottom of the curve, to a point where the voltage squared
characteristic of an applied capacitor is tangent to VQ curve.
In the chapter 5 we will analyze the existing power system and some critical buses, and
further on with their representative PVcurves.
In the next chapter we will emphasize importance of the balance between generation and
loads, and the most important components of a transmission system in the power system, such
as: the synchronous machine, the two/tree winding transformer, the reactive power
compensation by the capacitors, transmission lines, and finally the loads of the system. A
brief review of these components as the applied theory is presented below.
11
3 Applied Theory
3.1 Balance between generation and loads
If just looking at the power, there is power generation in one end and in the other end there
are the consumers (loads). In between there are losses that also are mathematically treated as
loads. The equation of generation equals load must be balanced at all times and the system
needs constant power regulation to remain stable and within its safety margins.
The synchronous machine is the main component responsible for the generation of electric
power. The synchronous machine converts mechanical energy to electricity. The mechanical
to electric energy conversion takes place in an electric generator, usually of the threephase
synchronous type, and is based on Faraday’s induction law.[5]
A feature of the synchronous machine is that the power factor of the machine can be
controlled; which means that the field current could control the amount of produced active
and reactive power. The machine behaves as a variable inductor or capacitor as the field
current changes.
When two or more synchronous machines are interconnected, the stator voltages and currents
of all the machines must have the same frequency and the rotor mechanical speed of each is
synchronized to this frequency. Therefore, the rotors of all interconnected synchronous
machines must be in synchronism.
The generating units that are modelled in DigSilent for the dynamic studies are shown in
Appendix C and Appendix D.
Transmitting power over significant distances to consumers spread over a wide area requires a
transmission system comprising subsystems operating at different voltages levels. Electric
power is produced at generating units, and transmitted to the consumers trough a complex
network of individual components, including transmission lines, transformers, and switching
devices. The transmission system interconnects all major generating stations and main load
centres in the system, the model used is explained more specifically in the next chapter.
The Chilean transmission system that is modelled in DigSilent for the dynamic studies is
shown in the Appendix B.
12
3.4 Transformer
One particular example is that of using transformers to step up voltages at a power station to a
very high level before transmission, due to reduce power losses in transmission lines
resistances. To regulate the voltage at the secondary side it is a common way to use tap
changers in the winding, which gives a voltage change.
The definition above concludes in that the main and most common task of the transformer is
to change the voltage from one level to another. Transformers used in most power systems are
threephase transformers. These transformers works in a similar way as the onephase
transformers, they are like three parallel singlephase transformers one in each phase.
In the primary winding the electric energy is converted to magnetic flux which is leaded to the
secondary winding by the iron core. The secondary winding converts the magnetic flux to
electric energy once again. In an ideal transformer, the amount of energy taken out form the
secondary side matches the amount of energy injected in to the primary winding.
The law of induction also gives that the voltage at the secondary side terminals is proportional
to the number of turns of the secondary winding. This fact can be seen in the equation below,
which represents the connection between the number of turns at each winding and the
voltages terminals. [8]
The 3winding transformer is similar to a 2winding transformer except that the secondary
side has two sections and is quite often suitable for series or parallel connection. In our
studied system a typical example would be a 500 kV primary with a secondary of 220/154
kV. "Windings" can be affected by putting taps at various places on one large winding or by
making separate coils (either primary or secondary). This kind of transformer can be seen in
the Appendix F specifically the Part2, Part4, and Part5.
The load varies every single instant, so there are no exact loads forecast. What we can do is to
assume a load quantity according to the season of the year e.g. summer or winter. In the
performed simulation the loads are represented as impedances according to the given data
from the CDECSIC in Chile.
13
3.6 Loadflow calculation
When analyzing the steady state in a power system a load flow calculation is performed by
the simulation tool DigSilent with the appropriate input data for the power system.
This mentioned tool solves the system equations using iterative procedures since the power
system is a nonlinear problem. This procedure is known as Newton Raphson´s method.
The loadflow is preformed to see if the system voltages converge and also to find out if the
transmission system remains within acceptable operating ranges or if they are exceeded. If the
iterative procedure converges, then we have fulfilled a necessary condition for stability in the
power system.
The purpose of the loadflow calculation is to find the voltage magnitude and phase angle at
all buses. The power balance in each bus in the power system has to be satisfied according to
Kirchhoff´s first law, which means that the generated power must be equal to the demanded
power in each bus added to the power losses.
When these are known, the power flow on the lines is straight forward to calculate in
accordance with the following equation:
U i2 UU
S in = ⋅ j − i n ⋅ j ⋅ (cos θ i , n + j ⋅ sin θ in )
X X
Where:
{ }
Pin = Re S in =
U iU n
X
⋅ sin θ in
{ }
Qin = Im S in =
U i2 U iU n
X
−
X
⋅ cos θ in
To compute the power injected in the bus “i”, the separate powers Pin should be summed up as
follows:
N
Pi = ∑ Pin
n =1
N
Qi = ∑ Qin
n =1
The real part of the equation gives the active power flow and the imaginary part gives the
reactive power flow. This is shown in the equations above, where “i” and “n” are two
connected nodes in the power system, “X” the total reactance of the line between nodes “m”
and “n”, “U” the voltage in each node and finally the angle “θ “at each node.
14
3.7 StateSpace Representation
The behaviour of a dynamic system, such as this analyzed power system, may be described by
a set of “n” first order nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the following form [5] [7].
Assume that there are m synchronous generators in the system. The rotor dynamics of each
generator can be described by the following equations:
dδ i
= ωi − ω s
dt
dω i 1 ⎛ E 'U ⎞
= ⎜⎜ Pmi − i ' i sin(δ i − θ i ) ⎟⎟
dt M⎝ X di ⎠
Depending on the model used the state vector x = (δ , ω ) T will be augmented by several other
state variables that describe the dynamics of the extra pieces of equipment such as the exciter,
the governer, PSS, etc
⎡ x1 − ω s ⎤
⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢
⎢ x ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎛ EU'
⎞⎥
⎜ Pmi − i ' i sin(δ i − θ i ) ⎟⎥
⎢ 2 ⎥ = ⎢M ⎜ X di ⎟⎥
⎢ .. ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠
... ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ x k ⎦ ⎢ ... ⎥⎦
⎣
Where:
 δ and ω stand for the rotor angle [rad] and angular frequency [rad/s].
 Ei' stand for the transient EMF(Electromotive force)[p.u]. X di' reactance of the
synchronous machine. Mi moment of inertia [s2]. Pmi mechanical power [p.u].
 Ui and θ i stand for voltage magnitude and angle of the generation node.
The algebraic equations describing the power balance in the generator stator are as follows:
E 'U Ei' Ui
0 = − i ' i sin(δ i − θ i ) + Pi jx’di
X di
U i2 Ei'U i
0=− − ' cos(δ i − θ i ) + Qi
X di' X di
15
The following equations reflect the power balance in the network.
n
PLi (U i ) − ∑ U iU k Yik cos(θ i − θ k − α ik ) = 0
k =1
n
QLi (U i ) − ∑ U iU k Yik sin(θ i − θ k − α ik ) = 0
k =1
Where the Yik and αik are defined as Yik = Yik e jαik , with Yik being the (i,k) element of the
network admittance matrix. Since typically the resistances in transmission system can be
neglected, we assume that αik = л/2 for all “i” and “k”.
The column vector ”x” is referred to as the state vector and its entries xi as the state variables.
In our case the dimension of this vector is m, where “m” is the number of generators in the
system. To simplify notation, the derivative of the state variable “x” with respect to time is
denoted by x .
Now let us define another new vector variable “y” defined as showed below:
y = (U i ,θ i )
x = f ( x, y ) {1}
0 = g ( x, y ) {2}
Linear analysis has proven to be an invaluable tool for the investigation of the dynamics of
power systems. Linearization of power system equations must be done around an operating
equilibrium point, which defines the steady state of the system. To find the equilibrium points
it is necessary to equate equation{1}{2} simultaneously to zero
x = f ( xo , y 0 ) = 0
It should be noted that a linear system has only a unique equilibrium state, while a nonlinear
system may have more than one equilibrium point.
16
Taylor’s formula gives:
.
⎡ ∂f ⎤ ⎡ ∂f ⎤
Ö ∆ x = f ( x0 , y 0 ) + ⎢ ⎥ ∆x + ⎢ ⎥ ∆y + .......
⎣ ∂x ⎦ x = x0 ⎢⎣ ∂y ⎥⎦ y = y0
⎡ ∂g ⎤ ⎡ ∂g ⎤
0 = g ( x0 , y 0 ) + ⎢ ⎥ ∆x + ⎢ ⎥ ∆y + .....
⎣ ∂x ⎦ x = x0 ⎣⎢ ∂y ⎦⎥ y = y0
The higher order terms of the Taylor series expansion are neglected.
⎡ ∂f ⎤ ⎡ ∂f ⎤
A=⎢ ⎥ B=⎢ ⎥
⎣ ∂x ⎦ x = x 0 ⎣⎢ ∂y ⎥⎦ y = y0
⎡ ∂g ⎤ ⎡ ∂g ⎤
C=⎢ ⎥ D=⎢ ⎥
⎣ ∂x ⎦ x = x0 ⎣⎢ ∂y ⎦⎥ y = y0
.
∆ x = A∆x + B∆y
0 = C∆x + D∆y
Since the equations above are now linear, the unknown algebraic equations can be eliminated
as follows:
.
∆ x = ( A − BD −1C )∆x = Anew ∆x
By taking the Laplace´s transform of the above equations, we obtain the state equations in the
frequency domain.
det( sI − Anew ) = 0
The polynomial equation in the variable “s” and the values of “s” which satisfy the above are
known as eigenvalues (λ) of matrix Anew, and it is referred as the characteristic equation of
matrix Anew. These eigenvalues give us the characterization of the stability of the equilibrium
points.
when:
 All the eigenvalues have negative real parts; the original system is asymptotically
stable.
 At least one of the eigenvalues has a positive real part, the original system is unstable.
17
 The eigenvalues have real parts equal to zero, it is not possible to define if it is stable
or unstable
λ i = σ i ± jω i
ωi
fi =
2π
To define the rate of decay of the amplitude of the oscillation, we define the damping ratio,
which is:
−σi
ξi =
σ i 2 + ωi 2
The eigenvalues of a matrix are given by the values of the scalar parameter λ, for which there
exist a nontrivial solution (i.e., other than) φi to the equation.
Anewφi = λiφi
Where Anew is the system state matrix and φi is a vector of appropriate dimensions. For any
eigenvalue λi, the vector φi which satisfies the equation ( Anew − λI )φi = 0 is called the right
eigenvector of Anew associated with the eigenvalue λi.
The right eigenvectors can be combined in the right eigenvector matrix as shown below:
Φ = [φ1 φ 2 ..... φ n ]
Since the equation ( Anew − λI )φi = 0 is homogeneous, kφi is also a solution. Thus, the
eigenvectors are determined only to within a scalar multiplier. Similarly, the vector ψi which
satisfies:
ψ i Anew = λiψ i
The equation above is called the left eigenvector associated with the eigenvalue λi.
The left eigenvectors can be combined in the left eigenvector matrix as shown below:
[
Ψ = ψ 1T ψ 2T ...... ψ nT ]
T
The left and right eigenvector will be used to explain the participation factor of the power
system.
18
3.9 Participation factor
To identify how each dynamic variable affects a given eigenvalue an aid called participation
factor analysis is used. Due to the large size of the Chilean Power system, it was necessary to
only retain a few modes (complex frequencies) to perform the stability studies; these can be
seen in chapter 6.
The participation factor is a tool for identifying the state variables that have significant
participation in a selected mode. The result is given by a graph were we can see the different
generating units oscillate against each other (see chapter 6)
The participation matrix “P” combines the right and left eigenvectors as follows.
P = [ p1 p2 ... pn ]
⎡ p1i ⎤ ⎡ Φ 1i Ψi1 ⎤
⎢ p ⎥ ⎢Φ Ψ ⎥
pi = ⎢ 2i ⎥ = ⎢ 2i i 2 ⎥
⎢ ... ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ p ni ⎦ ⎣ Φ ni Ψin ⎦
The element p ki = Φ ki Ψik is termed the participation factor. It is a measure of the relative
participation of the kth state variable in the ith mode, and vice versa. Since Φ ki measures the
activity of xk in the ith mode and Ψik weighs the contribution of this activity to the mode, the
product p ki measures the total participation. [5]
Determining the dynamic behaviour of the analyzed power system with more than one
generator is a difficult task, than describing the dynamic behaviour of a system with only one
generator, since the electric power system is a nonlinear system. Not only is the model large
scale, it is also nonlinear, which makes analytical stability studies infeasible. Therefore, one
normally resorts to numerical studies, which are greatly facilitated by specialized software,
such as DigSilent
19
4 Inspection and description of the existing power system
The participating power generation companies of the SIC must be able to supply their power
demand every year. For this purpose, they have to consider potential dryhydrology
conditions in their hydroelectric Power Plants and the average availability in their thermal
units. (see Appendix C) Every year the SIC checks that its integrating companies are indeed
able to assure the demand supply of their customers.
In order to determine the generating capacity of a selfgenerating company, and the supplies
of other generating entities, that operate synchronized with the system and whose partial or
total output has been assured through a signed agreement at a freely agreed price, and also to
determine the power demand to be taken into consideration.
As an input of the firm capacity of the hydroelectric Power Plants for dry hydrological
conditions (see Appendix D), generation is defined according to hydrology of the year with
hydrologic statistic potential surplus close to 90%. For thermoelectric Power Plants, the
maximum annual power that they can generate as an average is considered, taking into
account failures and maintenance periods. To inspect the existing power system we use a
reduce network model in the environment of the tool DigSilent, which is described in the next
chapter.
The reason why using a reduced network model in these analyzes is in order to highlight the
most important involved parts in the Chilean transmission network. A model of the Chilean
transmission network that was suggested from the CDECSIC is implemented in DigSilent
(see next chapter which describes briefly the software DigSilent).
The implemented network includes the highest operating voltage levels in the country, 500
kV, 220 kV and 154 kV. The initial conditions for dynamic simulations are taken from the
results of the power flow in the system, with a given typical scenario of generation and
demand. The parts of the power system with low voltages levels are modelled as loads.
The calculation of the equivalent system is done from the results of a power flow that includes
all voltage levels and the typical scenario of generation. The estimation of the loads at the
nodes (substations) is found by simply considering that the generated power should be equal
to the demanded power; if this relationship is not fulfilled, then either a generation or
consumption of power exists in that substation. Following this procedure lower voltage levels
are eliminated from the network.
Of course, the reduction of the network to high and extra high voltage exclusively does not
include the generators; however there is a reduction in the number of them. Synchronous
generators that are connected directly to either 220 kV or 154 kV through a step up
transformer make part of the equivalent network, but if they are connected to lower voltage
levels, they are not considered and make part of the calculation of the load. The behaviour of
the network with those three voltage levels should give a good resemblance of the behaviour
of the interconnected transmission system.
20
5 Introduction to DigSilent Power Factory
The development of DigSilent (DIgital SImuLator for Electrical NeTwork) software began in
1976, since the inception of DIgSILENT, the program has grown to incorporate a vast array
of analysis features that are required to plan, operate and maintain any aspect of the power
system.
To perform the different calculations it is first necessary to build the power system in
DigSilent environment. The reduced network model of the Chilean transmission system is
build according to the following structure process.
The whole process of performing a transient simulation in DigSilent typically takes the
following steps:
Designing one power plant, and specifically “La Higuera” the models mentioned below where
used. The graph of the model is followed. This design must be performed for each one of the
generating units, these to se the dynamical behaviour of the power system.
21
In DigSilent the model of the generating unit is used, which has been described in the chapter
3.6.1. The specific data for each generator is placed in the fields that are required when
modelling each generator in the environment of DigSilent. To model each power plant, the
followed models are used for each part of the power plant.
DIgSILENT
Complete Frame:
curex
0 0
upss 1
VCO 0
* uerrs
2
Syn.Generator
1
ElmSym*
1
2
pt
PCO g PMU
* *
speed
 The voltage controller is of the type vcoBBSEX1 which is a typical IEEE model of
type AC1. This can be seen in the Appendix E fig 9.5.1.
 The model of the hydro governor of a hydropower plant according to the IEEE model
(pcu_HYGOV). This can be seen in the Appendix E fig 9.5.2.
 The model of the turbine of a hydropower plant is modelled according to the buildin
model in DigSilent. This can be seen in the Appendix E fig 9.5.3.
The angular speed (w) is regulated by the PCO which is the hydro governor, trough the hydro
governor the opening of the gate is regulated (g). The water though the gate generates
mechanical power, which is the output signal from the hydro turbine. The mechanical power
is now the input signal for the synchronous generator, which generates electrical power and
has as output signals the current, voltage and voltage angle/speed.
Now when the power plants, transmission lines, and loads are generated (shown in the
Appendix F) in the DigSilent environment we can proceed to analyze the transmission
system, which is done in the next chapter.
22
6 Results & Analysis
The main purpose in this chapter is to analyze the results of the simulation in the DigSilent
environment of the existing power system versus the power system in the presence of the
newly installed generator.
The analyses are performed for five buses of the power system. The buses were chosen based
on the load flow analysis which revealed that those buses were more critical in stability terms
than the others and are geographically near the newly installed hydropower plant.
These are:
1. Rancagua 154 kV
3. Tilcoco 154 kV
5. Teno/1 154 kV
These buses can be found in the Appendix F figure 8.5.3, which is the figure before the
integration of “La Higuera” to the Chilean power system.
As described in the previous chapters we can see that there are wide variety of stability
phenomena to be considered in the system.. In this chapter we constrain ourselves to:
 Static analysis contained by voltage levels and voltage stability. This is done in order
to get a picture of how the hydro power station of “La Higuera” improves the Chilean
transmission system. The results for the static analysis are shown as voltage levels and
PVcurves for the five selected buses. This can be seen in the next chapter.
 Rotor Angle stability analysis contained by smallsignal analysis. Since the analysis is
done before and after the integration of “La Higuera” in the transmission system, we
are able see the improvement of the transmission system. This can be seen when the
eigenvalues moves further away from the imaginary axis in the left hand side of the
complex “splane” half plane.
23
6.1 Static Analysis
6.1.1 Voltage levels before and after the integration of “La Higuera”
The table below illustrates the voltage levels before and after “La Higuera” in the
above mentioned buses.
Table 5.1.1.1 Voltages levels
N° Station Before After
1. Punta Cortez 154kV 0.965 p.u 0.970 p.u
2. Tilcoco/1 154 kV 0.955 p.u 0.970 p.u
3. San Fernando/1 154kV 0.950 pu 0.975 p.u
4. Teno/1 154 kV 0.965 p.u 0.980 p.u
5. Rancagua 154 kV 0.970 p.u 0.970 p.u
As we can see in the table above, the voltage levels increases with the incorporation of
“La Higuera” to values closer to 1. p.u in this case 154 kV. This new situation gives us
a more stable power system, since the electrical components are operated closer to
their designed conditions.
Voltage (p.u)
0.9
0.8
0.7
PmaxWithout = 263 MW
PmaxWith = 443 MW
0.6
Fig. 6.1.2.1 Bus 1: Rancagua 154 kV with and without “La Higuera”
24
As it is shown above in the figure 6.1.2.1 we can see that the system has improved or
enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 263 MW to 443 MW. These two
mentioned points of convergence are also the socalled sadde nodes (Bifurcations
nodes). [5]
Voltage (p.u)
PmaxWith = 421 MW
0.8
0.7
0.6
Fig. 6.1.2.2 Bus 2: Punta Cortez 154 kV with and without “La Higuera
As it is shown above in the figure 6.1.2.2 we can see that the system has improved or
enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 180 MW to 421 MW.
25
Voltage (p.u)
0.9
0.7
0.6
Fig. 6.1.2.3 Bus 3: Tilcoco 154 kV with and without “La Higuera”
As it is shown above in the figure 6.1.2.3 we can see that the system has improved or
enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 180 MW to 421 MW.
26
Voltage (p.u)
0.9
DIgSILENT
1.00
0.8
0.90
PmaxWithout = 400 MW
PmaxWith = 650 MW
0.80
0.7
0.70
0.60
0.6
0.50
32.35 132.35 232.35 332.35 432.35
xAxis: PV curves: Total Load of selected loads in MW
TAP OFF SAN FERNANDO 1\S.FERNA.154/1: Voltage, Magnitude in p.u.
Annex: /1
Fig. 6.1.2.4 Bus 4: San Fernando 154 kV with and without“La Higuera”
As it is shown above in the figure 5.1.2.7 and figure 5.1.2.8 we can see that the system
has improved or enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 400 MW to 650 MW
27
Voltage (p.u)
0.9
0.8
PmaxWithout = 635 MW
PmaxWith = 810 MW
0.7
0.6
Fig. 6.1.2.5 Bus 5 Teno 154 kV with and without “La Higuera”
As it is shown above in the figure 6.1.2.5 we can see that the system has improved or
enlarged the limits of convergence in Bus1 from 400 MW to 650 MW
28
6.2 Rotor Angle stability analysis
6.2.1 Small signal stability analysis
Then a graph is shown for the eigenvalues that are nearest the imaginary axis. These
eigenvalues will be our measure instrument. This since we can se the improvement,
when integrating the new generating unit, by seeing that the eigenvalues has been
moved a distance from the imaginary axis.
The critical eigenvalues of the system are shown below. These are those that are near
the imaginary axis.
29
Here we can observe that the integration of the new power plant “La Higuera” places
the eigenvalue further away in the left halfplane from the imaginary axis, which is an
indication of improvement of smallsignal stability.
To summarize the placement of the eigenvalues, we can observe in the followed table
the damping ratio and the frequency for each mode, with and without “La Higuera”.
The participation factor illustrates how the different generating units oscillate against
each other. This can be seen as a sensitivity measure of an eigenvalue to a diagonal
entry of the system Amatrix.
In the next page we can see the participation factor for the generating units in the
Chilean transmission system. These for one of the critical eigenvalues, the
participation factor for the rest of the critical eigenvalues are shown in the Appendix
H.
30
Table 6.2.1.1 Participation factor for the system mode 181 before “La Higuera”
DIgSILENTPowerFactory
Damping ratio: 0.943 Date: 12/26/2005
System Study:
Element Modal Analysis Busbar Participation Factors
Mode 181
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 <<<<<<<<<<<
G ACONCAGUA POLPAICO/POLPAICO.220 <
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 >>>>>
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <<<<<<<<
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 <<<
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
G CAPULLO BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 >>
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 <<
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 <
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 <
G CORONEL CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 >
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 
G HUASCO TV MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 
G HUASCO TG MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.4 >>>>>
G L.ALTA ALTA/L.ALTA.220 <<<<
G LAJA VERDE HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 
G LOS MOLLES NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA <<<<
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 >>>>>>
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 >>>>>>
G NEHUENCO TG SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<
G NEHUENCO TV SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<
G NUEVA RENCA NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 
G PANGUE PANGUE/PANGUE.220 >>>>>
G PEHUENCHE PEHUENCHE/PEHUEN.220 >>
G PETROOPOWER HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 >>>>>>
G PULLINQUE TEMUCO/TEMUCO.220 >
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <
G RALCO RALCO/RALCO.220 >>>>>>>>
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G SAN FCO MOST. PAINE/A.PAINE.154 <
G SAN IGNACIO ITAHUE/ITAHUE.154 <<
G SAN ISIDRO TG SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<
G SAN ISIDRO TV SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<
G SAUZAL JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 >>>>>>>
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 >>>
G VALDIVIA CIRUELOS/L.CIRUEL.220 <
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 >>>>>>>
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 >>>
G VOLCAN JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 
G LOS MOLLES AZUCAR/P.AZUCAR.220 
DIEGO DE
G ALMAGRO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 
31
Table 6.2.1.2 Participation factor for the system mode 181 with “La Higuera”
DIgSILENTPowerFactory
Damping ratio: 0.866 Date: 12/26/2005
System
Modal Analysis
Study
Element Busbar Participation Factors
Mode 181
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<
G ACONCAGUA POLPAICO/POLPAICO.220 <
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 >>>>>>>
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <<<<<<<<
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 <<<
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
G CAPULLO BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 >
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 <<
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 <
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 <
G CORONEL CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 >
G DIEGO DE ALMAGRO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 <<
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.154 >>>>>>
G L.ALTA ALTA/L.ALTA.220 <<<<
G LAJA CHARRUA/CHARRUA.154 
G LOS NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA <<<<<
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 >>>>>>
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 >>>>>>
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
G NUEVA NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 >
G PANGUE PANGUE/PANGUE.220 >>>>>
G PEHUENCHE PEHUENCHE/PEHUEN.220 >>
G PETROOPOWER HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 >>>>>
G PULLINQUE TEMUCO/TEMUCO.220 >
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <
G RALCO RALCO/RALCO.220 >>>>>>>>>>
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<<
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<<
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G SAN FCO. MOST PAINE/A.PAINE.154 <<
G SAN IGNACIO ITAHUE/ITAHUE.154 
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<<<<<<<<
G SAUZAL JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 >>>>>>>>>>
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 >>>
G VALDIVIA CIRUELOS/L.CIRUEL.220 <
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 >>>>>>>
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 >>>
G VOLCAN JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 
G LOS MOLLES AZUCAR/P.AZUCAR.220 
G LA HIGUERA LA HIGUERA.154 >>>>>
32
6.3 Large Signal Analysis
This type of analysis is to see how the system responds to a significant disturbance. In
this case it is simulated a short circuit in the transmission line between San Fernando/1
and La Higuera. This transmission line is the one that will connect “La Higuera” to the
rest of the grid. The duration of the fault is 0,0325 seconds. In the graph below the
angular speed and rotor angle of “San Luis” generation unit is presented during the
fault. As we can see it takes more than 5 seconds to dampen the oscillation for the
power system. With this result we can conclude that the power system exhibits quite an
oscillatory behaviour followed by a large disturbance. The angular speed oscillates until
it reaches steady state.
Time(s)
Fig. 6.3.1 Oscillation of the rotor angle of the generating unit “San Luis” during a
disturbance with (straight line) and without (broken line) “La Higuera”.
33
Angular speed (p.u)
Time(s)
Fig. 6.3.2 Oscillation of the angular speed during a disturbance, with and without the
integration of “La Higuera”
From the graphs above we can see that the oscillations of the rotor angle and the angular
speed are a bit more damped when integrating “La Higuera”
34
7 Conclusions
To conclude this report we can summarize that according to the performed stability
analyses in the environment of DigSilent, that:
 At the five analyzed buses we can se that when incorporating “La Higuera” the
voltage levels increases near the wanted voltage at the buses which is 154 kV and an
improvement to the voltage stability margin occurs.
 The responding time of the transmission system is too slow, which is for the reason
that the transmission lines are extensive, and it is too far between the generation units
and loads in the system
 The system with “La Higuera” appears to be transiently stable and smallsignal stable.
35
8 References
[1] Internal Report CDECSIC
[3] Carson W. Taylor Power System Voltage Stability. Electric Power Research Institute,
1994
[4] Paul M. Anderson. A.A. Fouad. Power System Control and Stability, IEEE Press,
1993
[5] Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, Electric Power Research Institute,
1993
[6] Valerijs Knazkins, Stability of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Distributed
Generation, Doctoral Thesis 2004
[7] Peter W.Sauer, M.A. Pai, Power System Dynamics and Stability, Department of
Electrical and computer Engineering University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign
36
9 Appendix
9.1 Appendix A: Chilean Power System
37
9.2 Appendix B: SIC Transmission Lines
Table 9.2.1 Transmission Lines
38
9.3 Appendix C: Thermal Power generating units in SIC
39
9.4 Appendix D: Hydro Power generating units in SIC
Table. 9.4.1 Hydro generating units
HYDRO UNITS
Total Installed
Name Tupe Nº Capacity
Power Plant Owner Turbine Units MW
Alfalfal GENER S.A. Pelton 2 160,00
Maitenes GENER S.A. Francis 5 30,80
Queltehues GENER S.A. Pelton 3 41,07
Volcán GENER S.A. Pelton 1 13,00
Colbún COLBUN S.A. Francis 2 400,00
Machicura COLBUN S.A. Kaplán 2 90,00
San Ignacio COLBUN S.A. Kaplán 1 37,00
Rucúe COLBUN S.A. Francis 2 170,00
Los Molles ENDESA Pelton 2 16,00
Rapel ENDESA Francis 5 350,00
Sauzal ENDESA Francis 3 76,80
Sauzalito ENDESA Kaplán 1 9,50
Cipreses ENDESA Pelton 3 101,40
Isla ENDESA Francis 2 68,00
Antuco ENDESA Francis 2 300,00
El Toro ENDESA Pelton 4 400,00
Abanico ENDESA Francis 6 136,00
Canutillar ENDESA Francis 2 145,00
Pangue PANGUE S.A. Francis 2 467,00
Pehuenche PEHUENCHE S.A. Francis 2 500,00
Curillinque PEHUENCHE S.A. Francis 1 85,00
Loma Alta PEHUENCHE S.A. Francis 1 38,00
Mampil IBENER S.A Francis 2 49,00
Peuchen IBENER S.A Francis 2 75,00
Pilmaiquén PILMAIQUEN S.A. Francis 5 39,00
Pullinque PILMAIQUEN S.A. Francis 3 48,60
Aconcagua ACONCAGUA S.A. Pelton 2 72,90
Florida S.C. DEL MAIPO Francis 5 28,00
H.G. VIEJA Y M.
Los Quilos VALPO. Pelton 3 39,30
Capullo E.E. CAPULLO Francis 1 10,70
S. Andes GEN. S. ANDES Francis 4 1,104
Carbomet CARBOMET Francis 4 10,896
Puntilla E.E PUNTILLA S.A Francis 1 14,7
40
9.5 Appendix E: Models used in a Power Plant in the DigSilent
Environment
The voltage controller is of the type vcoBBSEX1 which is a typical IEEE model of type AC1.
DIgSILENT
vco_BBSEX1: Brown Boveri Static Excitation
usetp
x1 X2
Vrmax Efdmax
u 1/(1+sT) udel  du (1+sTb)/(1+sTa) dud dudd K(T2/T1) uout Limiter uoutl uouts LimVar uerrs
Tf T4,T3 K,T1,T2
Vrmin Efdmin
ustab
x3
1/K(T1/T21)(1/1+sT2)
K,T1,T2
zero
switch
upss1
upss2
upss
41
The model of the hydro governor of a hydropower plant according to the IEEE model
(pcu_HYGOV) is modelled as the figure below:
DIgSILENT
Hydr Governor:
w_ref
0
Rmax gmax
1
w  dw yi Dband(K) yi1 (1/(1+sT)) yi2 Limiter_K yi3 _(K/s)_ yi4 (1/(1+sT)) g
K Tp Ks Ki Tg

Rmin gmin
yi4(1..
o12
o1 K
Rp
42
The model of the turbine of a hydropower plant is modelled according to the buildin
model in DigSilent.
DIgSILENT
Hydr Turbine:
H(1)
U_G(1..
UNL
H0
gNL,g..
Const
H0
U(1)
Where: Input signal: g = the opening of the gate at the hydro power plant
Output signal: Pt = the mechanical power
All these models shown above give us a complete model frame of a hydropower plant
modelled in DigSilent.
43
9.6 Appendix F: Results of the Load Flow analysis in DigSilent:
The Power System is illustrated from North to South of SIC. Transmission System
G
~
58.52 59.32 G DI..
21.82 21.78
62.46 63.19
PAPOSO/PAPOS.. 219.40
1.00
20.86 28.41
117.84
43.60 15.69
125.65 32.45
G C.PINTO/C.PI..
~ 219.07
1.00
G TA.. 26.87
19.53 8.88
3.97 11.72
19.93 14.71
8.83 0.00
21.09 9.70
22.86 9.70
CARDONES/CAR.. 216.64
0.98
27.03
159.26 75.21 75.21
32.34 0.78 0.78
162.51 75.22 75.22
SVS
0.00 0.00 76.78 76.78
182.51 11.00 10.68 10.68
182.51 11.00 77.52 77.52
MAITENCILLO/.. 219.96
1.00
22.20
48.21 101.91 101.91 0.01 0.01 1.01 1.01
9.79 66.24 66.24 0.07 0.07 13.73 13.73
49.20 121.55 121.55 0.07 0.07 13.77 13.77
G G
~ ~
102.39 102.39 G HU.. G HU..
63.64 63.64
120.56 120.56
222.89
1.01
SVS
21.43
GUACOLDA/GUA.. 1.01 1.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
13.33 13.33 35.21 10.99 11.99
13.37 13.37 35.21 10.99 11.99
68.90 135.88
42.89 84.39 PAN DE AZUCA..
81.16 159.95
219.94
1.00
G G 22.29
117.08 55.80 55.80 3.45
~ ~ 23.77 3.61 3.61 2.11
G GU.. G GU.. 119.47 55.92 55.92 4.04
G
~
LOS ..
57.32 57.32
22.14 22.14
61.45 61.45
G VE.. G VE..
~ ~
G G
1.07 0.79 68.00 68.00
160.66 0.05 32.35 32.35
160.66 0.79 75.30 75.30
QUILLOTA/QUI.. 219.90
1.00
11.84
430.70 430.70 253.61 234.96 234.96
89.81 89.81 73.97 14.14 14.14
439.96 439.96 264.18 235.39 235.39
436.70 436.70
61.51 61.51
441.02 441.02
G G G G POLPAICO/POL..
~ ~ ~ ~ 219.76
1.00
G SA.. G SA.. G NE.. G NE.. 17.57
G 111.15
~ 24.05
113.72
G AC..
LAMPA/LAM..
219.63
1.00
18.47
92.48 18.68
27.84 3.79
96.58 19.06 G LO.. G CH.. G AL..
~ ~ ~
G G G
101.32 92.22 33.37 21.37 178.23
23.87 27.00 20.80 13.33 40.59
104.10 96.09 39.33 25.19 182.80
ALFALFAL/ALF..
CERRO NAVIA/C...
219.71 219.58
1.00 1.00
19.08 12.90
60.35 60.35 362.83 634.21 63.47 34.14 64.50 113.73
41.73 41.73 101.78 184.98 7.08 16.72 18.49 22.10
73.37 73.37 376.84 660.64 63.86 38.01 67.10 115.86
G
~
G NU.. 62.99 33.98 112.99
1.06 9.37 21.19
63.00 35.25 114.96
218.48 220.16
0.99 1.00 LA ERMITA/L...
20.79 20.07
ALTO MELIPIL.. ALTO MELIPIL..
219.44
1.00
60.48 60.49 14.67
59.42 3.57 33.98 112.99
42.83 42.83 17.33 18.39 9.37 21.19
74.11 74.11 61.89 18.73 35.25 114.96
CHENA/C.CHEN..
219.13
1.00
18.67 3.55 33.84 63.87 112.71
159.28 120.95 159.30
46.46 16.49 22.71 10.60 2.10 8.53 20.84
165.92 122.07 160.91 11.18 33.91 64.44 114.62
219.87
1.00
20.99 RAPEL/RAPEL... LOSALMENDROS/L..
219.37
1.00
15.32
1.61 1.63 34.15 88.29 88.29
21.43 1.23 9.96 14.68 14.68
21.49 2.04 35.57 89.51 89.51
G G
~ ~
14.20 14.20 121.63 160.19 G RA.. G RA.. 87.94 87.94
8.48 8.48 16.77 21.08 11.89 11.89
16.54 16.54 122.78 161.57 88.74 88.74
219.53
1.00
17.10 ALTO JAHUEL/A.JA..
36.84 654.53 53.33 28.57 13.56 75.46 14.34 100.46 0.00
52.43 190.90 32.17 62.56 8.59 46.75 9.15 77.93 109.53
64.08 681.80 62.28 68.77 16.05 88.77 17.01 127.14 109.53
G G G G G
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
36.84 G VO.. G FL.. G PU.. G SA.. G MA..
52.31
0.00
0.00
63.98
0.00
219.59
1.00
MAIPO/MAIPO... 17.09
49.33
61.24
0.93
100.43
72.45
123.83
18.42 18.42
ALTO JAHUEL/..
26.15 26.15
31.99 31.99
154.93
1.01
19.09 ALTO JAHUEL/..
18.49 18.49
20.50 20.50
27.61 27.61
221.45
1.01
CANDELARIA/CAND.. 15.41
100.40 100.40
29.45 29.45
104.63 104.63
COLBUN/COLBU.. 219.89
1.00
7.62
196.07 37.93 33.20
74.20 24.98 9.68
209.64 45.42 34.58
G
~
G CO.. 37.96
24.08
44.95
MACHICURA/MA.. 220.34
1.00
7.51
37.96
24.08
44.95
G
~
G MA..
45
ALTO JAHUEL/.. 154.93
1.01
19.09
21.39 12.94 91.98
6.24 19.41 46.80
22.28 23.33 103.20
91.36
45.10
101.88
G
~
51.88 G S A ..
34.97
62.56
RANCAGUA/RAN..
147.06
0.95
22.30
83.41 31.54
24.33 10.65
86.89 33.28
13.07 31.78
23.07 13.21
26.51 34.41
34.32 53.19
17.76 7.23
38.65 53.68
35.19 54.32
18.91 7.31
39.95 54.81
TAP OFF SAN ..
TAP OFF SAN .. 150.98 147.51
0.98 0.96
15.96 17.17
32.16 67.35 32.16 86.47
9.38 9.53 9.38 2.07
33.50 68.02 33.50 86.50
67.99 87.56
9.09 4.19
68.60 87.66
TAP OFF TENO..
TAP OFF TENO 1/..
151.69 149.60
0.99 0.97
13.94 14.60
11.82 79.81 11.81 99.38
3.45 5.64 3.45 7.64
12.31 80.01 12.31 99.67
81.01 101.29
3.90 11.99
81.11 102.00
ITAHUE/ITAHU.. 153.48
1.00
10.78
10.46
7.15
12.67
G
~
G S A ..
46
ITAHUE/ITAHU.. 213.96
0.97
8.82
92.74
98.99
135.64
0.00
0.00
0.00
41.01
65.53
0.99
92.70
ITAHUE/ITA..
92.39
130.87
ITAHUE/ITAHU.. 153.48
1.00
10.78
64.75 50.48 45.76 148.62
18.88 1.39 9.09 50.56
67.45 50.50 46.65 156.99
49.87
0.64
49.87
MAULE/MAULE... 151.73
46.63
11.62
0.99 48.06
12.98
6.79 8.29 40.00 24.95 MELADO/M.MEL..
4.83 5.75 11.67 1.73
8.33 10.09 41.67 25.01 155.72
153.99 28.94
1.00 158.38
G G 6.80
46.63 CURILLINQUE/..
~ ~ 11.62
GCO.. GCO.. 24.80 48.06
0.39 153.82
24.80 1.00
1.07
69.83 85.89
18.58 10.36
LINARES/LINARES... 150.88 72.26 86.51
0.98
14.09
19.84 4.96 G
5.79 5.40
~
20.67 7.33 48.17 70.16 GCU..
15.30 18.31
50.54 72.50
4.95
CIPRESES/CIP..
3.20 153.85
5.89 1.00
0.08
34.27 34.27 49.80 0.01
21.86 21.86 77.32 0.00
PARRAL/PARRA.. 151.15
40.65 40.65 91.97 0.01
0.98
14.33
18.32 23.27 G
9.98 6.79
~
20.86 24.24 G CI..
34.30 34.30
21.75 21.75
40.61 40.61
18.47
6.60
19.61 ISLA/ISLA.15..
154.14
1.00
TAPOFFCHIL.. 153.54
0.01
68.60
1.00 43.49
13.33 81.22
G
~
G IS..
47
DIgSILENT
TAP OFF CHILLA.. 153.54
1.00
13.33
39.18 0.03 57.67
7.96 60.60 46.05
39.98 60.60 73.80
G
~
G IT.. 60.23
42.91
73.95
CONCEPCION/CONCEP..
CHARRUA/CHAR.. 147.89 214.40
0.96 0.97
7.20 11.34
19.59 19.59 6.97 90.50 91.25 168.73
20.45 20.45 6.24 26.40 33.63 40.35
28.31 28.31 9.36 94.27 97.25 173.48
G
~
19.93 19.93 G LA..
16.67 16.67
0.00
0.00
0.00
25.99 25.99
44.85
12.37
0.95
ABANICO/ABAN.. 88.20 168.71
CONCEPCION/CON..
153.38 39.90 49.79
1.00 96.81 175.90
6.04
39.86
33.35
51.97 CONCEPCION/C.. 150.44
0.98
G 14.33
72.70 72.70 111.52
~ 61.11 61.11 32.53
G AB.. 94.97 94.97 116.16
~
G
HUALPEN/HUAL.. 152.75
0.99
15.42
91.64 165.34 35.20
29.46 60.61 10.27
96.26 176.10 36.67
0.00
0.00
0.00
45.81
65.64
0.99
91.19
30.44
96.13
MAPAL/MAPAL...
HUALPEN/HUA..
165.41
152.91 50.40
0.99 172.92
16.49
9.17 82.02
1.86 32.30
9.35 88.15
217.47
0.99 HUALPEN/HUAL..
12.24
81.80
32.69
88.09
FOPACO/FOPAC..
153.09
0.99
17.04
16.52 65.29
3.35 36.05
16.85 74.58
65.12
36.22
74.51
QUINENCO/QUI..
153.41
1.00
17.52
0.12 65.00
5.77 30.45
5.77 71.78
0.12 64.98
5.57 30.47
5.57 71.76
CORONEL/CORO..
BOCAMINA/BOC.. 153.46 153.45
1.00 1.00
17.53 17.58
0.12 64.73 0.21 0.04
5.57 18.88 48.36 0.98
5.57 67.43 48.36 0.98
G G G
~ ~ ~
G BO.. G AR.. G CO..
48
G RALCO
~
G
CHARRUA/CHAR..
234.79
239.42 147.89
0.96
335.33
7.20
195.84
97.28
0.00
0.00
0.00
37.80
RALCO/RALCO...
12.19
218.67
0.94
210.29
0.96
3.37
117.39 117.39
CHARRUA/CHA..
119.71 119.71
167.66 167.66
215.35
0.98
5.10
82.35 82.35 210.32 209.15 211.08 165.21 83.10
16.20 16.20 5.94 5.86 0.25 16.86 24.24
83.92 83.92 210.41 209.23 211.08 166.07 86.56
213.00 211.81
9.86 9.75
213.23 212.03
82.82 82.82
11.98 11.98 ANTUCO/ANTUC..
83.68 83.68
RUCUE/RUCUE... 218.33
0.99
1.69
218.06 281.14 187.41 187.41 231.14
0.99 35.60 7.88 7.88 0.21
2.84 283.39 187.57 187.57 231.14
117.09 48.56
3.47 27.42
117.14 55.76 G
~
G G ANTUCO 230.07 212.78
~ 6.41 9.41
230.16 212.99
G RU.. 48.63
23.92 TRUPAN/TRUPA..
54.20
MAMPIL/MAMPI.. 217.44
0.99
0.75 0.00 165.83
219.68 17.29 19.10
15.83 4.86
1.00 4.86 166.92
2.22 23.44
8.36 8.36 31.92
13.60 13.60 3.28 CHOLGUAN/CHO..
15.96 15.96 32.09 187.94 187.94
5.31 5.31 216.93
188.02 188.02 0.99
G G ELTORO/EL.TORO... 3.19
182.25 16.42
~ ~ 27.29 3.33
GMA.. G MA.. 31.95 184.28 16.76
7.28 218.74
32.77 0.99
3.24
PEUCHEN/PEUC.. 375.89
10.62
376.04
219.59
1.00
1.77
31.95 G 17.26 182.86
7.28
~ 3.77 30.07
32.77 17.67 185.31
G EL TORO U1 PANGUE/PANGU..
G
~ 218.67
0.99
G PE.. 1.50
165.60
33.84
169.02
G
~
G PA..
49
DIgSILENT
ALTO JAHUEL/A.JA..
219.53
1.00
17.10
333.61 333.61
130.39 130.39
358.19 358.19
127.64
127.64
127.64
127.64
0.00
0.00
ALTO JAHUEL/A...
LOMA ALTA/L...
ALTO JAHUEL/A...
219.07
1.00
6.56
38.20 38.20
3.85 3.85
38.39 38.39 333.77 333.77
37.35 37.35
335.86 335.86
G
~
38.17 G L.ALTA
483.40
ITAHUE/ITAHUE... 0.81
0.97
38.18
12.59
213.96 356.86 310.69
0.97 27.03 47.68
8.82
92.74 219.00 PEHUENCHE/PE.. 357.88 314.32
98.99 1.00
135.64 6.97
ALTO JAHUEL/A..
146.21 146.21 254.25
60.26 60.26 111.43
70.10
70.10
70.10
70.10
0.00
0.00
158.14 158.14 277.59
G
~
93.05 145.67 145.67 G PE.. 0.13
99.19 58.74 58.74 0.03
136.00 157.07 157.07 0.13
ANCOA/ANCOA... 215.75
0.98
8.55
99.08 99.08
9.13 9.13
99.50 99.50
360.54
313.27
360.64
317.30
72.40
72.40
50.45
71.23
71.23
0.00
8.68
0.00
99.07 99.07 0.00 360.54 313.27 0.00
6.38 6.38 0.00 15.71 65.83 0.00
99.28 99.28 0.00 360.88 320.11 0.00
ANCOA/ANCO.. 491.59
0.98
9.83
0.00 237.31 238.35 0.00
0.00 55.02 39.28 0.00
0.00 243.60 241.57 0.00
237.31
245.39
238.35
243.05
62.45
47.55
74.73
74.73
74.55
74.55
0.00
0.00
73.30
73.30
73.30
73.30
0.00
0.00
238.62 239.57
55.65 51.95
245.02 245.13
CHARRUA/CHAR..
CHARRUA/CHARR..
CHARRUA/CHARR..
CONCEPCION/CONCEP.. 490.42
0.98
8.02
214.40 239.09 239.09
0.97 53.80 53.80
11.34 245.07 245.07
168.73
40.35
173.48
34.51
60.93
0.92
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
34.51
60.93
0.92
CHARRUA/CHAR.. 215.35
0.98
5.10
169.57 93.22
42.63 33.82
174.85 99.17
165.41 91.78
50.40 28.74
172.92 96.18
ESPERANZA/ES..
HUALPEN/HUAL.. 217.47 217.56
0.99 0.99
12.24 9.47
91.78
28.74
96.18
90.27
22.06
92.93
TEMUCO/TEMUC.. 219.01
1.00
14.22
50
TEMUCO/TEMUC.. 219.01
1.00
14.22
5.83 27.62 86.10 17.61
24.71 24.83 25.11 2.37
25.39 37.14 89.69 17.77
G
~
G P U ..
27.42
13.91
30.75
LOS CIRUELOS..
220.77
1.00
15.45
48.64 21.22
2.93 16.84
48.73 27.09
G
~
G V A ..
48.05
12.93
49.76
VALD IVIA/VAL..
217.10
0.99
17.02
19.20 67.26
6.69 19.62
20.33 70.06
19.29
8.31
21.01
BARRO BLANCO..
217.94
0.99
16.02
57.37 60.72 19.12 3.52
5.08 17.71 12.17 2.31
57.59 63.25 22.67 4.21
G G
~ ~
G PI.. G C A ..
5.88 58.14
30.28 16.90
30.84 60.55
84.97 84.97
13.05 13.05
85.96 85.96
CANUTILLAR/C.. 219.84
1.00
10.61
169.93
26.09
171.92
G
~
G C A ..
51
9.7 Appendix G: Some eigenvalues and their respective
participation factors before “La Higuera”
52
Table 9.7.2 Participation factor for the system mode 257
DIgSILENT PowerFactory
ModalAnalysis 13.1.257 Date: 12/26/2005
Element System Study Busbar Participation Factors
Mode 257
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 <<<<
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 <<
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 <<<<
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <<<<<<<<
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<<
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 <<<<
G CAPULLO BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 >>>>>>
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 <<<<<<<<<<<<
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 <<
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 >>>>>>>>
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 >>>>>>>
G CORONEL CORONEL/CORONEL.154 <<<<<<
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 <<
G EL TORO TORO/EL.TORO.220 <<<<<<
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 >>>>>>>>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G HUASCO MAITENCILLO/MAITENC.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 <<<<
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.154 <<
G L.ALTA ALTA/L.ALTA.220 <<
G LAJA E.VERDE CHARRUA/CHARRUA.154 >>
G LOS QUILLOS NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA <<
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <<
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <<
G NEHUENCO TG SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 >>
G NEHUENCO TV SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 >>
G NUEVA RENCA NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 <
G PANGUE PANGUE/PANGUE.220 <<
G PEHUENCHE PEHUENCHE/PEHUEN.220 <
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 <<<<<<
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 <<<
G PULLINQUE TEMUCO/TEMUCO.220 <<<<<
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<<<
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <<<<<
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 <<
G SAN FCO. MOST PAINE/A.PAINE.154 <<
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <<
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 >
G VALDIVIA QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 <<
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 >>>>
G VOLCAN JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <
G LOS MOLLES AZUCAR/P.AZUCAR.220 <<<<<<<<<
G DIEGO DE ALMAGRO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
53
9.8 Appendix H: Some eigenvalues and their respective
participation factors including “La Higuera”
54
Table 9.8.2 Participation factor for the system mode 257
DIgSILENT PowerFactory
13.1.257 Date: 12/26/2005
Element System Study ModalAnalysis Participation Factors
Mode 257 Busbar
G ABANICO ABANICO/ABANICO.154 <
G ACONCAGUA POLPAICO/POLPAICO.220 <<<
G ALFALFAL ALFALFAL/ALFALFAL.220 < <<<
G ANTUCO ANTUCO/ANTUCO.220 <
G ARAUCO CORONEL/CORONEL.154 >>>>
G BOCAMINA BOCAMINA/BOCAMINA.154 <<<<<<<
G CANUTILLAR CANUTILLAR/CANUTIL.220 <
G CAPULLO BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 <<<<
G CHACABUQUITO NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 >>>>
G CIPRESES CIPRESES/CIPRESES.154 <
G COLBUN COLBUN/COLBUN.220 >>>>
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 >
G CONSTITUCION MAULE/MAULE.154 >>>>
G CURILLINQUE CURILLINQUE/CURILLI.154 <<<
G DIEGO DE ALMAGRO ALMAGRO/D.ALMAG.220 >
G EL TORO TORO/EL.TORO.220 <
G FLORIDA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 >>>
G GUACOLDA GUACOLDA/GUACOLDA.220 >
G ISLA ISLA/ISLA.154 
G ITATA CHILLAN/T.O.CHILL.154 >>>
G L.ALTA ALTA/L.ALTA.220 >>
G LAJA CHARRUA/CHARRUA.154 >
G LOS QUILLOS NAVIA/C.NAVIA.220 >>>>>>
G MACHICURA MACHICURA/MACHICURA 
G MAITENES JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 >>>
G MAMPIL MAMPIL/MAMPIL.220 <<<<
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <
G NEHUENCO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <
G PETROOPOWER HUALPEN/HUALPEN.154 <
G PEUCHEN PEUCHEN/PEUCHEN.220 <<<<
G PILMAIQUEN BLANCO/B.BLANCO.220 <
G PULLINQUE TEMUCO/TEMUCO.220 <<
G PUNTILLA JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<
G RALCO RALCO/RALCO.220 <<<<<<
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <
G RAPEL RAPEL/RAPEL.220 <
G RUCUE RUCUE/RUCUE.220 >>>
G SAN FCO.MOST PAINE/A.PAINE.154 <
G SAN ISIDRO SAN LUIS/S.LUIS.220 <
G SAUZAL JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<<<<<
G TALTAL PAPOSO/PAPOSO.220 <<<
G VALDIVIA CIRUELOS/L.CIRUEL.220 <
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 <
G VENTANAS QUILLOTA/QUILLOTA.220 >>>
G VOLCAN JAHUEL/A.JAHUEL.220 <<<<<<
G LA HIGUERA LA HIGUERA.154 >>>
55
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