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harmonic background.

voice leading Also, one


so important mustexposition
in the call attention
of atomelody,
the faultless
so as to
voice leadingand
emphasize so feature
important in the exposition
it without of a melody, so as to
complications.
emphasize and feature it without complications.
Example V-I. Haydn, String Quartet Op, 76, No.3, second
Example V-I.mm.
movement, Haydn,
1-12String Quartet Op, 76, No.3, second
movement, mm. 1-12

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aJJIQ cantab"ue
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aJJIQ cantab"ue oc_

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2.2.Now
Now we we examine
examinea aseriesseriesof of
variations showing
variations showing thatthat
HaydnHaydn
regarded each of the four members of the ensemble as
regarded each of the four members of the ensemble as an equal part-an equal part-
ner.
ner.InInthethefirst
firstvariation,
variation,thethe
second
second violin presents
violin the the
presents theme while
theme while
the first plays a "melodized" harmonic counterpoint
the first plays a "melodized" harmonic counterpoint against it. against it.

Example V-2. Haydn, String Quartet Op. 76, No.3, second


Example V-2. Haydn, String Quartet Op. 76, No.3, second
movement, Variation I
movement, Variation I
Var.. I
' A l l Var.. I --
. ..:. .. • ..:.#J. ... ...
. . ..:. .. • ..:.#J. ... ...
- .............. ttl...
., ""!-:
'All

., ...prw pUa.G
All
. .
""!-: .
...prw pUa.G
............ -- - - - .............. ttl...

All




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1
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'1 Scoring for Strings
---------------------

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25

30

....

3. The next variation gives the theme to the cello. This is an


important one for us to study, for the cello rises above the second
violin in mm. 10-11. One may speculate that Haydn did this because
of the more intense quality of the cello in that register, whereas the
.- ; second violin would be in its weakest register if it had been assigned
the cello part. In this setting the second violin is only coupling the
2
cello, which is in a much more opulent register. Notice also that the
viola is simply used as a pedal instrument, emphasizing mostly the
112 The Study of Orchestration

Example V-3. Haydn, String Quartet Op. 76, No.3, second


movement, Variation II

J M
Var.'';'';''
II
-- --. . - ...... «r-;
-
M

.. &
.. ..
-
r

-- .
..1lf:
.. .. .. - ,-

:-- {II. 1;:-'" .ss: IlL
I.
". 1_- ... >:<-
\ 45

oJ M_ - ,.-;-
-
Y r -....."
-
-
JI

. ... ........
- •
fI"
::....
'-

1£ ..
., -et
,;=;: --- .-::. -
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a
... 50

4. In Variation III, the melody is assigned to the viola, and Haydn


places it above the two violins. This results in a glorious sound
brought forth by an instrument too long neglected. Here we must
call attention to the fact that Haydn does not bother to place dynam-
ics at the beginning of each variation except the first, where the
direction is sempre piano. He relies entirely on the registers of the
instruments and his scoring to achieve the correct dynamics; but
more than this, he assures by his craft that the desired voice domi-
nates, while the others support. In this variation also, we find the
cello taking on a supporting role, not simply providing a bass, but
providing an involved contrapuntal countermelody. 3
Scoring for Strings

Example V-4. Haydn, String Quartet Op. 76, No.3, second


movement, Variation III
Var. III

.. " - - ,-
' - '*R-' :#
r,.

.. r ,..
.... ---* f!:; f1L-" :00.- fit

II
'"
I . ... r; n .. " I

"
.-
- -- I

""=..
.; .. -
II- ..- 0(. ti="-
'# u

fit
---
:: ... 1_--- f1L---"
B - - __
'-'--
65 I i

5. The final variation is a variant of the first statement of the


theme. The composer restrained himself from using the octave trans-
position until these last moments in the movement-and how glo-
rious it sounds here, and how climactic! This is a wonderful lesson
in orchestration, for too often the extremes in the range are wasted
too early in a work, and the final buildup is, as a result, anticlimac-
tic. The other formal factor to notice is that the entire structure is an
accumulation of the elements which have slowly entered the har-
monic and contrapuntal scheme in the course of the variations and
have become a natural part of the statement. (Compare with 4first
appearance of the theme.) The pedal point in the cello is another
device used by Haydn to give a feeling of resolution and ending.
14 The Study of Orchestration

Example V-5. Haydn, String Quartet Op. 76, No.3, second


movement, Variation IV

While this is, of course, a chamber music piece for four solo play-
ers, the principles it illustrates may easily be applied to the string
orchestra and, by extension, to the string choir in a symphony
orchestra.
A word about the double bass. As the cello took on a greater role
as the tenor voice of the strings, the double bass assumed even greater
significance, as we shall see in nineteenth- and twentieth-century
string writing. In Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert, it is usual
for the bass to double the cello in most passages, especially in the
tutti sections. When a lighter string texture is desired, the double
bass was eliminated. Independent double bass parts became increas-
ingly popular as the nineteenth century progressed, as we shall see
in some of the studies in this chapter. If Haydn had used a double
bass in the fourth variation, he probably would have doubled the
cello (an octave below) for the anacrusis plus the first three-and-a-
half measures. He would then have dropped it until the dominant
pedal in mm. 8-12, bringing it back once more at the cadence of mm.
5
15-16. Here is the way it would look: '
Scoring for Strings 115

Example V-5. Haydn, String Quartet Op. 76. No.3. second


movement, Variation IV with added bass

A JI
Var IV
. - l>e_ .. ,... l!: - .-
I I
- -
I
(P)
..-=.

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I....
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.......

........ _"!" II

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(.I. ..--.-
I I . .(P) 85
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