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# IP Primer

Spring 2016

## Classfull IP Addressing ................................................................ 3

Assignment#1 ................................................................................ 9
Assignment#2 .............................................................................. 15
Assignment#3 .............................................................................. 16
Assignment #4 Subnets ............................................................... 17
(Online assignment 4 problems at
https://elearning.cpp.edu/learning-objects/subnets/) ............... 17

Binary Math

## Before understanding how IP

addressing works, you need to OK … a cute HP, single, and Oh yeah, it’s 134.71.16.7,
loaded with RAM. Wow! And right here on campus … and
understand how binary math works. what was his address again? did I mention the size of his
Binary math is simply a way of hard drive?
expressing numbers using only ones
and zeroes. In a binary number, begin
by looking at the one or zero farthest to
the right, and then proceed to the one
or zero to its left. A one means you
count the decimal number represented
by that position and a zero means you
don’t count it. You then add all of the
decimal numbers represented by ones,

## In binary, the one or zero farthest to

the right stands for the decimal number
one. As you move left, each decimal
number represented by the binary one
or zero is DOUBLE the previous
number. To see how this works, let’s
take the number 23 and see how it is
expressed in binary form:

## Decimal number places 16 8 4 2 1

Binary ones or zeroes 1 0 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1 is equal to 16 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 23

As you can see, the decimal number place farthest to the right represents the number one,
the place to its left represents two, the place to the two’s left represents four, and so on.
The ones and zeroes corresponding to the decimal numbers indicate whether that number
is “turned” on or off. A one means the number is turned on, and you must add it to the
total. A zero means it is turned off, and you don’t add it to the total. In the above
example, the eight’s position is represented by a zero, and that is why we did not add the
eight to our total.

An IP address consists of four octets (1 octet = 8 bits), or 32 bits. The value in each octet
can range from 0 to 255 in decimal notation, or 00000000 - 11111111 in binary. This is
how the decimal number 255 is expressed in binary form:

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1 11111

## 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 is equal to 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 255

As you can see, 255 is the largest number that can possibly be expressed using an 8 bit
binary notation, since all the decimal number positions are turned on (represented by
ones). It is important to note that there are 256 total numbers possible because zero is
counted as a number (0 – 255 = 256 total values). The above example is only one octet.
An IP address contains four octets and looks like this in decimal form:

134.71.64.229

## 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 . 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 . 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 . 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 0 0 00110. 0 1 0 0 0111. 0 1 0 00000. 1 1 1 00101

## So the IP address 134.71.64.229 is 10000110.01000111.01000000.11100101 in binary.

Network Classes
IP address octets provide an addressing method that accommodates large, small and
medium networks. These are divided into five classes of networks: A, B, C, D, and E. D
and E are reserved for special purposes, so they will not be discussed here. Network
classes A, B and C compose the following address space (The numbers in bold represent
the FIRST of the four octets in an IP address):

## Class A: 1-126 (eg. 24.2.23.15)

Class B: 128-191 (eg. 172.32.16.16)
Class C: 192-223 (eg. 192.64.12.252)

Class A is the largest class of network, followed by class B and finally class C. In a class
A network, the FIRST octet identifies the entire network. In a class B network, the first
TWO octets identify the network, and in a class C network, the first THREE octets
identify the network. But how does this all work?

Look at the class A address used above (24.2.23.15). In this address, the number 24
defines the network, meaning that everything to the right of the 24 is within the same

class A network. In other words, any IP address that has 24 as its first octet will be within
network 24. The same can be said for ANY IP address where the first octect is a number
from 1-126. The total class A network range is from 1.0.0.0. to 126.255.255.255.

Our example of a class B network is 172.32.16.16. The 172.32 portion of the address is
the network portion of the address, meaning that any number following the first two
octets (172.32.x.x where ‘x’ represents any number from 0-255) will be located within
that class B network. The total class B network range is from 128.0.0.0 to
191.255.255.255.

## Finally, our example of a class C

network is 192.64.12.252, where the
final octet can be any one of the 256
addresses located on a class C
network. The first three octets define
a class C network. In other words,
the class C network 192.64.12.x
192.64.12.0 to 192.64.12.255. Notice
the first three octets remain the same,
just like in a class A network the first
octet always remains the same and in a class B network the first two octets always remain
the same. The total class C network range is from 192.0.0.0. to 223.255.255.255.

This means that a class A network can have 256 * 256 * 256, or 16,777,216 addresses,
because each of the three right octets can have up to 256 addresses (0-255) each. A class
B network can have 256 * 256, or 65,536 addresses, and a class C network can have 256

You may be wondering whether these different classes of networks can be broken down
into smaller subnetworks. For instance, let’s say you’re a network manager and you want
one network with 32 addresses and another with only 16. According to what we’ve
learned so far, the smallest network available is a class C network, which includes 256
addresses (0-255), which means you’re out of luck.

Good news, though – there is indeed a way to divide a network into smaller networks.
This is known as subnetting. It is also possible to combine smaller networks into larger
ones. An example of this would be combining two class C networks into one network
with 512 addresses (256 from one class C network and 256 from the other). This
technique is known as supernetting. Subnetting and supernetting are “classless”
addressing schemes, meaning the existing A, B and C class networks can be combined or
divided to create different sized networks. So far, we have discussed “classfull”
addressing, which divides networks up perfectly along class lines. In the classless IP
addressing module we will learn how subnetting and supernetting are used to further
divide networks.

There is a network mask that is associated with each of the three classes of networks we
have discussed. Next week when we talk about subnetting and supernetting we’ll refer to
this network mask as a subnet mask. Let’s take a look at the network mask for each of the
three network classes we discussed:

## Class A: 255.0.0.0 or 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000

Class B: 255.255.0.0 or 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
Class C: 255.255.255.0 or 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

## The role of the network mask is two-fold. First, the

network mask allows a computer to take an IP
address and solve for its network definition.
Second, the network mask will tell us the number
of addresses in the network, which allows us to

## Within a network, there are two addresses that are

“special.” These addresses are the very lowest and
very highest addresses in a network. The lowest
network definition, while the highest address is
network mask helps us find each of these. First let’s
look at our Class A address.

We looked at the class A address 24.2.23.15 earlier. We discussed the fact that we know
this is a class A address because its first octet is within the range 1 – 126. We also
discussed earlier that the network mask for this address range is 255.0.0.0. All that is
required now is a binary AND operation to get the network definition. For our example
we can think of a binary AND operation as multiplication. We’ll take the binary

24.0.0.0 00011000.00000000.00000000.00000000 (Network Definition)

Note that each bit in the IP address is “multiplied” with its corresponding bit in the
network mask. Only when each bit is a “1” do we get a “1” in the network definition. By

doing this we now have the network definition, which we will discover later is an
important piece of information. Let’s look at a class C example:

192.64.12.0 11100000.01000000.00001100.00000000 (Network Definition)

## Recall earlier we discussed that with a

class A address the first octet
identifies the network. With a class C
network, the first three octets identify
the network. Notice that in a class A
a full row of ones in the first octet.
Likewise, in a class C address, the
network mask has all ones in the first
three octets.

## In each case the “host” portion of the

address (the last three octets in a class
A and the last octet in a class C) is ANDed with the zeroes in the network mask. This
process “masks out” the host portion bits and leaves only the network bits, thus the name

Recall we said you can also discover the broadcast address, which is the highest
address in the network. First let’s look at the class C example we were just working on:

192.64.12.0 11100000.01000000.00001100.00000000 (Network Definition)

We can simply take all the bits that are “0” in the network mask and set the
corresponding “0” bits in the network definition to “1,” and that is the broadcast address.
In other words, each of the last eight bits in the network mask above were zeroes, and to
find the broadcast address, we write out the network definition, but we now leave the
network portion of the address alone and place “1’s” in the host portion of the address.

addresses to the network definition. The total number of addresses can be found by
counting the number of zeros in the network mask. In our class C example, we see
that there are eight zeros in the network definition. We know the total number of zeroes
(8), so now we raise the number 2 (recall this is binary math) to this power, or 28 = 256.
Now comes the tricky part - you must add the 256 to the network definition, but recall
that we count zero as a number. Thus 0 - 255 = 256 addresses.

## 192.64.12.0 11100000.01000000.00001100.00000000 (Network Definition)

This method may seem harder at first, but we’ll see this is useful when we get to
subnetting and supernetting in the following module. Recall that in this module we
learned about the form of an IP address, and the three basic network classes (A, B and C).
We also learned how to derive both the network definition and the broadcast address for a
given network. The network definition is the identifier for the entire network. For
instance, the rest of the world knows Chico States network as 132.241.0.0. This is our
class B network definition. Of course here on campus we break this network down into
many smaller subnetworks, but that’s a topic for later.

When we work with Ethernet addresses and IPv6 addresses we’ll discover a need to work
with hexadecimal (hex) numbers as well. Instead of being binary (base 2) hex has sixteen
possible values, (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F) the numbers A-F refer to 10 –
15 respectively making 16 total values 0-F. We’ll be dealing with octets so let’s look at
an example where we want to convert the decimal 195 to its hex equivalent. There are a
number of ways to do this, however, this time we’ll convert our number to binary first
and then to hex. In the example below we convert the decimal number to binary then we
divide the byte of data in half make two nibbles. We then convert the nibbles to hex by
noting that the leftmost bit in a nibble has a value of 8, the next bit is a 4, then 2 and
finally 1. The left nibble is then 8+4 = 12 = C and the right nibble is 2+1 = 3.

## 195 = 11000011 = 1100 | 0011 = C3

8421 8421

134.71.0.0 /16

Assignment#1
1. What is the decimal equivalent of 11001001?
a. 209
b. 200
c. 201
d. 129

a. 224
b. 240
c. 253
d. 250

a. 11001010
b. 11000011
c. 10001000
d. 10001001

______________

a. D2
b. D7
c. E1
d. DA

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

Introduction

## In the classfull IP section, we talked about

the different classes of networks:

## Class A: 1-126 (eg. 24.2.23.15)

Class B: 128-191 (eg. 172.32.16.16)
Class C: 192-223 (eg. 192.64.12.252)

## As we discovered, these classes can be

confining. Let’s say you’re a network
manager and you want to create one network
with 32 addresses and another with only 16.
In a classfull environment, the smallest
network available is a class C network,

## However, there is a way to divide a network

into smaller networks. This is known as
subnetting. An example of this would be Exhibit A: The Three Stooges
splitting one class C network into two smaller generally played “classless”
networks with 128 addresses each. It is also characters in their film shorts, thus
possible to combine smaller networks into relating them to classless IP
larger ones. This technique is known as supernetting. An example of this would be
combining two class C networks into a single network containing 512 addresses (256
from one class C network and 256 from the other). Subnetting and supernetting are
“classless” addressing schemes, meaning the existing A, B and C class networks can be
combined or divided to create different sized networks. Blocks of addresses that have
been created in this way are referred to as CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing)
blocks. While many organizations, such as Boeing, still have their original class B
address range, nearly all organizations then implement CIDR and subdivide the classful
network range internally to create many smaller networks.

Subnetting

Let’s look at a class C example and see how an existing class C network can be split into
three smaller networks (one with 128 addresses, and two with 64 addresses):

192.64.12.0 11100000.01000000.00001100.00000000 (Network Definition)

Let’s take the first 128 addresses of this network (192.64.12.0 – 192.64.12.127) and make
a subnetwork out of them. To do this, we must change the network mask from
255.255.255.0 to 255.255.255.128. (A subnet mask of 255.255.255.128 means there will
be 128 addresses in the new network because the fourth octet of .128 is .10000000, which
contains seven zeroes. This means there are 2*2*2*2*2*2*2 = 128 addresses in the
network.) “ANDing” the given IP address (192.64.12.24) with the new subnet mask
(255.255.255.128) results in the same network definition:

192.64.12.0 11100000.01000000.00001100.00000000 (Network Definition)

within this new smaller network. Here is how to find the broadcast address:

## 1. Count the number of zeroes in the subnet mask

2. Take two to the same power as the number of zeroes in the mask. This will give
you the number of addresses within the network (example: if there are four zeroes
in the subnet mask, there are 2*2*2*2 = 16 addresses in that network).

3. Now, since you know the network definition (the FIRST address in the network)
and the total number of addresses in the network, simply take the last address in

Let’s see how this works in our example. Here is the network definition:

192.64.12.0 11100000.01000000.00001100.00000000 (Network Definition)

1. Count the number of zeroes in the subnet mask. There are SEVEN zeroes.

2. Since there are seven zeroes, take two to the seventh power (2*2*2*2*2*2*2 =
128) to find the total number of addresses in the network. Since we know the
network definition is 192.64.12.0, and we know there are 128 addresses in the

Remember that the 0 in 192.64.12.0 counts as an address itself, so there are
127 other addresses (192.64.12.1 - 192.64.12.127) in the network, creating a total

In summary, to create the first 128 address network, we used a subnet mask of
255.255.255.128, and the address range for the new network is 192.64.12.1 -
192.64.12.127.

With this information, it is obvious that the network definition of the next network is
192.64.12.128 (it is simply the address immediately following the previous network’s
address is 192.64.12.128 + 63 = 192.64.12.191. What is the subnet mask? It is
255.255.255.192 because there are 64 (2*2*2*2*2*2 = 64) addresses:

## 255.255.255.192 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 (Subnet Mask)

We now know the network definition and broadcast address of the second network, as
well as the number of addresses in the network. The last network of 64 addresses begins
again 255.255.255.192, because there are 64 addresses in the network.

In this section, we took the class C network 192.64.12.0 and subnetted it into three
smaller networks. This is what we ended up with:

## 192.64.12.192 (Network Definition)

The Slash Method

The “slash method” is an easy shorthand way of writing a subnet mask. All you do is take
the number of ones in a subnet mask and notate it as “/number of ones.” Look at the
example below:

## 255.255.254.0 = 11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000 (Subnet Mask) = /23

Using the slash method, this subnet mask would be expressed as /23 because there are 23
ones in the subnet mask. Here’s another example:

## 255.255.255.192 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 (Subnet Mask) = /26

Using the slash method, this subnet mask would be expressed as /26 because there are 26
ones in the subnet mask. On the following page a chart is provided that may help in
gaining perspective on all of these numbers. IPv6 exclusively uses the slash method for

Class A
16,777,216 1 255.0.0.0 /8 16,777,214
8,388,608 2 255.128.0.0 /9 8,388,606
4,194,304 4 255.192.0.0 /10 4,194,302
2,097,152 8 255.224.0.0 /11 2,097,150
1,048,576 16 255.240.0.0 /12 1,048,574
524,288 32 255.248.0.0 /13 524,286
262,144 64 255.252.0.0 /14 262,142
131,072 128 255.254.0.0 /15 131,070
65,536 256 255.255.0.0 /16 65,534

Class B
65,536 1 255.255.0.0 /16 65,534
32,768 2 255.255.128.0 /17 32,766
16,384 4 255.255.192.0 /18 16,382
8,192 8 255.255.224.0 /19 8,190
4,096 16 255.255.240.0 /20 4,094
2,048 32 255.255.248.0 /21 2,046
1,024 64 255.255.252.0 /22 1,022
512 128 255.255.254.0 /23 510
256 256 255.255.255.0 /24 254

Class C
256 1 255.255.255.0 /24 254
128 2 255.255.255.128 /25 126
64 4 255.255.255.192 /26 62
32 8 255.255.255.224 /27 30
16 16 255.255.255.240 /28 14
8 32 255.255.255.248 /29 6
4 64 255.255.255.252 /30 2
2 128 255.255.255.254 /31 0
1 256 255.255.255.255 /32 0

Assignment#2
1. Provide the binary octet derived from ANDing 11010011 & 11100000.
____________

2. Provide the binary octet derived from ANDing 01110011 & 11000000.
____________

3. Provide the binary octet derived from ANDing 10010010 & 11111000.
____________

4. Provide the binary octet derived from ANDing 10111010 & 11110000.
____________

5. Provide the decimal number derived from ANDing 11110100 & 11100000.
____________

6. Provide the decimal number derived from ANDing 11000010 & 11111000.

7. Provide the decimal number derived from ANDing 00110100 & 11100000.
____________

8. How many total IP addresses are contained within a network with a subnet mask
of 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000?
____________

9. How many total IP addresses are contained within a network with a subnet mask
of 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000?
____________

10. How many total IP addresses are contained within a network with a subnet mask
of 255.255.255.192?
____________

Assignment#3
1. Given the IP address 132.241.67.25 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, provide
the network definition.
____________

## 2. Given the IP address 132.241.117.79 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224,

provide the network definition.
____________

## 3. Given the IP address 63.195.252.217 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.192,

provide the network definition.
____________

## 4. Given the IP address 201.11.75.28 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.248,

provide the network definition.
____________

5. Given the IP address 137.214.67.25 and a subnet mask of /28, provide the
network definition.
____________

6. Given the IP address 132.241.67.25 and a subnet mask of /24, provide the
network definition.
____________

7. Given the IP address 117.21.67.25 and a subnet mask of /24, provide the
____________

8. Given the IP address 221.73.67.71 and a subnet mask of /27, provide the
____________

____________

## 10. Given the IP address 121.211.216.245 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.248,

____________

Assignment #4 Subnets
(Online assignment 4 problems at https://elearning.cpp.edu/learning-objects/subnets/)

## 1. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for

the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 1. You have
the address space 198.116.48.0 /21. The networks are listed below:
Network A: 255 hosts
Network B: 3 hosts
Network C: 73 hosts
Network D: 148 hosts
Network E: 514 hosts

Table 1
A
B
C
D
E
Range of unused addresses ________________ - _______________

## 2. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for

the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 2. You have
the address space 172.16.80.0 /20. The networks are listed below:
Network A: 129 hosts
Network B: 1023 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 76 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 2
A
B
C
D
E
Range of unused addresses ______________ - _______________

3. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 3. You have
the address space 137.161.32.0 /19. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 252 hosts

Network B: 25 hosts
Network C: 2073 hosts
Network D: 148 hosts
Network E: 514 hosts

Table 3
A
B
C
D
E

## 4. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for

the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 4. You have
the address space 172.16.160.0 /23. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 23 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 76 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 4
A
B
C
D
E
Range of unused addresses ______________ - ______________

5. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 5. You have
the address space 192.168.240.0 /21. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 257 hosts

Network B: 3 hosts
Network C: 73 hosts
Network D: 148 hosts
Network E: 511 hosts

Table 5
A
B
C
D
E

## 6. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for

the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 6. You have
the address space 12.16.16.0 /20. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 1719 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 63 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 6
A
B
C
D
E

## Range of unused addresses ______________ - ______________

7. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 7. You have
the address space 17.169.224.0 /19. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 297 hosts

Network B: 25 hosts
Network C: 2047 hosts
Network D: 123 hosts
Network E: 514 hosts

Table 7
A
B
C
D
E

## 8. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for

the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 8. You have
the address space 192.16.14.0 /23. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 127 hosts

Network B: 16 hosts
Network C: 38 hosts
Network D: 76 hosts
Network E: 8 hosts

Table 8
A
B
C
D
E

## Range of unused addresses ________________ - _________________

9. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 9. You have
the address space 14.25.64.0 /18. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 735 hosts

Network B: 309 hosts
Network C: 119 hosts
Network D: 1048 hosts
Network E: 5104 hosts

Table 9
A
B
C
D
E
Range of unused addresses _______________ - _________________

10. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 10. You
have the address space 172.16.24.0 /21. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 13 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 760 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 10
A
B
C
D
E
Range of unused addresses _______________ - ________________

11. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 11. You
have the address space 137.161.224.0 /20. The networks are listed below:

Network A: 22 hosts
Network B: 235 hosts
Network C: 1073 hosts
Network D: 148 hosts
Network E: 501 hosts

Table 11
A
B
C
D
E

## Range of unused addresses _______________ - ______________

12. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 12. You
have the address space 172.16.160.0 /23. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 53 hosts
Network C: 15 hosts
Network D: 76 hosts
Network E: 14 hosts

Table 12
A
B
C
D
E
Range of unused addresses ______________ - ______________

13. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 13. You
have the address space 192.168.192.0 /21. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 221 hosts

Network B: 25 hosts
Network C: 59 hosts
Network D: 120 hosts
Network E: 511 hosts

Table 13
A
B
C
D
E

## Range of unused addresses ______________ - ______________

14. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 14. You
have the address space 142.16.160.0 /23. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 19 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 3 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 14
A
B
C
D
E

## Range of unused addresses ______________ - ________________

15. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 15. You
have the address space 17.45.240.0 /22. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 146 hosts

Network B: 55 hosts
Network C: 20 hosts
Network D: 123 hosts
Network E: 509 hosts

Table 15
A
B
C
D
E

## Range of unused addresses _______________ - ________________

16. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 16. You
have the address space 192.16.16.0 /20. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 127 hosts

Network B: 16 hosts
Network C: 38 hosts
Network D: 760 hosts
Network E: 4 hosts

Table 16
A
B
C
D
E

## Range of unused addresses _______________ - ________________

1. What is the decimal equivalent of 11001001?
a. 209
b. 200
c. 201
d. 129

a. 224
b. 240
c. 253
d. 250

a. 11001010
b. 11000011
c. 10001000
d. 10001001

01000010

a. D2
b. D7
c. E1
d. DA

3B

00110111

C3

210

## 10. What is the decimal equivalent of hex FF?

255

1. Provide the binary octet derived from ANDing 11010011 & 11100000.
11000000

2. Provide the binary octet derived from ANDing 01110011 & 11000000.
01000000

3. Provide the binary octet derived from ANDing 10010010 & 11111000.
10010000

4. Provide the binary octet derived from ANDing 10111010 & 11110000.
10110000

5. Provide the decimal number derived from ANDing 11110100 & 11100000.
224

6. Provide the decimal number derived from ANDing 11000010 & 11111000.
192

7. Provide the decimal number derived from ANDing 00110100 & 11100000.
32

8. How many total IP addresses are contained within a network with a subnet mask
of 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000?
256

9. How many total IP addresses are contained within a network with a subnet mask
of 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000?
16

10. How many total IP addresses are contained within a network with a subnet mask
of 255.255.255.192?
64

1. Given the IP address 132.241.67.25 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, provide
the network definition.
132.241.67.0

## 2. Given the IP address 132.241.117.79 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224,

provide the network definition.
132.241.117.64

## 3. Given the IP address 63.195.252.217 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.192,

provide the network definition.
63.195.252.192

## 4. Given the IP address 201.11.75.28 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.248,

provide the network definition.
201.11.75.24

5. Given the IP address 137.214.67.25 and a subnet mask of /28, provide the
network definition.
137.214.67.16

6. Given the IP address 132.241.67.25 and a subnet mask of /24, provide the
network definition.
132.214.67.0

7. Given the IP address 117.21.67.25 and a subnet mask of /24, provide the
117.21.67.255

8. Given the IP address 221.73.67.71 and a subnet mask of /27, provide the
221.73.67.95

10.211.26.255

## 10. Given the IP address 121.211.216.245 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.248,

121.211.216.247

1. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 1. You have
the address space 198.116.48.0 /21. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 255 hosts

Network B: 3 hosts
Network C: 73 hosts
Network D: 148 hosts
Network E: 514 hosts

Table 1
A 198.116.52.0 198.116.53.255 198.116.52.1 510 /23
B 198.116.55.128 198.116.55.135 198.116.55.129 6 /29
C 198.116.55.0 198.116.55.127 198.116.55.1 126 /25
D 198.116.54.0 198.116.54.255 198.116.54.1 254 /24
E 198.116.48.0 198.116.51.255 198.116.48.1 1022 /22
Range of unused addresses _198.116.55.136_ - _198.116.55.255_

## 2. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for

the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 2. You have
the address space 172.16.80.0 /20. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 1023 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 76 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 2
A 172.16.88.0 172.16.88.255 172.16.88.1 254 /24
B 172.16.80.0 172.16.87.255 172.16.80.1 2046 /21
C 172.16.89.128 172.16.89.191 172.16.89.129 62 /26
D 172.16.89.0 172.16.89.127 172.16.89.1 126 /25
E 172.16.89.192 172.16.89.207 172.16.89.193 14 /28
Range of unused addresses _172.16.89.208_ - _172.16.95.255_

3. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 3. You have
the address space 137.161.32.0 /19. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 252 hosts

Network B: 25 hosts
Network C: 2073 hosts
Network D: 148 hosts
Network E: 514 hosts

Table 3
A 137.161.52.0 137.161.52.255 137.161.52.1 254 /24
B 137.161.54.0 137.161.54.31 137.161.54.1 30 /27
C 137.161.32.0 137.161.47.255 137.161.32.1 4094 /20
D 137.161.53.0 137.161.53.255 137.161.53.1 254 /24
E 137.161.48.0 137.161.51.255 137.161.48.1 1022 /22

## 4. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for

the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 4. You have
the address space 172.16.160.0 /23. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 23 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 76 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 4
A 172.16.160.0 172.16.160.255 172.16.160.1 254 /24
B 172.16.161.192 172.16.161.223 172.16.161.193 30 /27
C 172.16.161.128 172.16.161.191 172.16.161.129 62 /26
D 172.16.161.0 172.16.161.127 172.16.161.1 126 /25
E 172.16.161.224 172.16.161.239 172.16.161.225 14 /28
Range of unused addresses _172.16.161.240_ - _172.16.161.255_

5. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 5. You have
the address space 192.168.240.0 /21. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 257 hosts

Network B: 3 hosts
Network C: 73 hosts
Network D: 148 hosts
Network E: 511 hosts

Table 5
A 192.168.244.0 192.168.245.255 192.168.244.1 510 /23
B 192.168.247.128 192.168.247.135 192.168.247.129 6 /29
C 192.168.247.0 192.168.247.127 192.168.247.1 126 /25
D 192.168.246.0 192.168.246.255 192.168.246.1 254 /24
E 192.168.240.0 192.168.243.255 192.168.240.1 1022 /22

## 6. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for

the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 6. You have
the address space 12.16.16.0 /20. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 1719 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 63 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 6
A 12.16.24.0 12.16.24.255 12.16.24.1 254 /24
B 12.16.16.0 12.16.23.255 12.16.16.1 2046 /21
C 12.16.25.128 12.16.25.191 12.16.25.129 62 /26
D 12.16.25.0 12.16.25.127 12.16.25.1 126 /25
E 12.16.25.192 12.16.25.207 12.16.25.193 14 /28

## Range of unused addresses _12.16.25.208_ - _12.16.31.255_

7. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 7. You have
the address space 17.169.224.0 /19. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 297 hosts

Network B: 25 hosts
Network C: 2047 hosts
Network D: 123 hosts
Network E: 514 hosts

Table 7
A 17.169.244.0 17.169.245.255 17.169.244.1 510 /23
B 17.169.246.128 17.169.246.159 17.169.246.129 30 /27
C 17.169.224.0 17.169.239.255 17.169.224.1 4094 /20
D 17.169.246.0 17.169.246.127 17.169.246.1 126 /25
E 17.169.240.0 17.169.243.255 17.169.240.1 1022 /22

## 8. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for

the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 8. You have
the address space 192.16.14.0 /23. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 127 hosts

Network B: 16 hosts
Network C: 38 hosts
Network D: 76 hosts
Network E: 8 hosts

Table 8
A 192.16.14.0 192.16.14.255 192.16.14.1 254 /24
B 192.16.15.192 192.16.15.223 192.16.15.193 30 /27
C 192.16.15.128 192.116.15.191 192.16.15.129 62 /26
D 192.16.15.0 192.16.15.127 192.16.15.1 126 /25
E 192.16.15.224 192.16.15.239 192.16.15.225 14 /28

## Range of unused addresses _192.16.15.240_ - _192.16.15.255_

9. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 9. You have
the address space 14.25.64.0 /18. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 735 hosts

Network B: 309 hosts
Network C: 119 hosts
Network D: 1048 hosts
Network E: 5104 hosts

Table 9
A 14.25.104.0 14.25.107.255 14.25.104.1 1022 /22
B 14.25.108.0 14.25.109.255 14.25.108.1 510 /23
C 14.25.110.0 14.25.110.127 14.25.110.1 126 /25
D 14.25.96.0 14.25.103.255 14.25.96.1 2046 /21
E 14.25.64.0 14.25.95.255 14.25.64.1 8190 /19
Range of unused addresses _14.25.110.128_ - _14.25.127.255_

10. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 10. You
have the address space 172.16.24.0 /21. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 13 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 760 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 10
A 172.16.28.0 172.16.28.255 172.16.28.1 254 /24
B 172.16.29.64 172.16.29.79 172.16.29.65 14 /28
C 172.16.29.0 172.16.29.63 172.16.29.1 62 /26
D 172.16.24.0 172.16.27.255 172.16.24.1 1022 /22
E 172.16.29.80 172.16.29.95 172.16.29.81 14 /28
Range of unused addresses _172.16.29.96_ - _172.16.31.255_

11. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 11. You
have the address space 137.161.224.0 /20. The networks are listed below:

Network A: 22 hosts
Network B: 235 hosts
Network C: 1073 hosts
Network D: 148 hosts
Network E: 501 hosts

Table 11
A 137.161.236.0 137.161.236.31 137.161.236.1 30 /27
B 137.161.234.0 137.161.234.255 137.161.232.1 254 /24
C 137.161.224.0 137.161.231.255 137.161.224.1 2046 /21
D 137.161.235.0 137.161.235.255 137.161.235.1 254 /24
E 137.161.232.0 137.161.233.255 137.161.232.1 510 /23

## Range of unused addresses _137.161.236.32_ - _137.161.239.255_

12. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 12. You
have the address space 172.16.160.0 /23. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 53 hosts
Network C: 15 hosts
Network D: 76 hosts
Network E: 14 hosts

Table 12
A 172.16.160.0 172.16.160.255 172.16.160.1 254 /24
B 172.16.161.128 172.16.161.191 172.16.161.129 62 /26
C 172.16.161.192 172.16.161.223 172.16.161.193 30 /27
D 172.16.161.0 172.16.161.127 172.16.161.1 126 /25
E 172.16.161.224 172.16.161.239 172.16.161.225 14 /28
Range of unused addresses _172.16.161.240_ - _172.16.161.255_

13. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 13. You
have the address space 192.168.192.0 /21. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 221 hosts

Network B: 25 hosts
Network C: 59 hosts
Network D: 120 hosts
Network E: 511 hosts

Table 13
A 192.168.196.0 192.168.196.255 192.168.196.1 254 /24
B 192.168.197.192 192.168.197.223 192.168.197.193 30 /27
C 192.168.197.128 192.168.197.191 192.168.197.129 62 /26
D 192.168.197.0 192.168.197.127 192.168.197.1 126 /25
E 192.168.192.0 192.168.195.255 192.168.192.1 1022 /22

## Range of unused addresses _192.168.197.224_ - _192.168.199.255_

14. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 14. You
have the address space 142.16.160.0 /23. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 129 hosts

Network B: 19 hosts
Network C: 47 hosts
Network D: 3 hosts
Network E: 9 hosts

Table 14
A 142.16.160.0 142.16.160.255 142.16.160.1 254 /24
B 142.16.161.64 142.16.161.95 142.16.161.65 30 /27
C 142.16.161.0 142.16.161.63 142.16.161.1 62 /26
D 142.16.161.112 142.16.161.119 142.16.161.113 6 /29
E 142.16.161.96 142.16.161.111 142.16.161.97 14 /28

## Range of unused addresses _142.16.161.120_ - _142.16.161.255_

15. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 15. You
have the address space 17.45.240.0 /22. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 146 hosts

Network B: 55 hosts
Network C: 20 hosts
Network D: 123 hosts
Network E: 509 hosts

Table 15
A 17.45.242.0 17.45.242.255 17.45.242.1 254 /24
B 17.45.243.128 17.45.243.191 17.45.243.129 62 /26
C 17.45.243.192 17.45.243.223 17.45.243.193 30 /27
D 17.45.243.0 17.45.243.127 17.45.243.1 126 /25
E 17.45.240.0 17.45.241.255 17.45.240.1 510 /23

## Range of unused addresses _17.45.243.224_ - _17.45.243.255_

16. You are a network planner tasked with developing an IP structure for
the following networks. The IP space is to be assigned sequentially from
the lowest to the highest address. The largest subnet is to be assigned first
then followed in turn by the next largest subnet until they are all assigned.
The answers are to be put into the appropriate boxes in Table 16. You
have the address space 192.16.16.0 /20. The networks are listed below:

## Network A: 127 hosts

Network B: 16 hosts
Network C: 38 hosts
Network D: 760 hosts
Network E: 4 hosts

Table 16
A 192.16.20.0 192.16.20.255 192.16.20.1 254 /24
B 192.16.21.64 192.16.21.95 192.16.21.65 30 /27
C 192.16.21.0 192.16.21.63 192.16.21.1 62 /26
D 192.16.16.0 192.16.19.255 192.16.16.1 1022 /22
E 192.16.21.96 192.16.21.103 192.16.21.97 6 /29