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Mechanics

Scalar and Vector Quantities

A Vector Quantity has magnitude and direction e.g. Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration

A Scalar Quantity only has magnitude and no direction e.g. Distance, Speed, Mass

Resultant

If forces are parallel and in the same direction, add:

a b

a+b

Pythagoras: a b2 c2 Parallelogram Method

Note: when you know the resultant and drawing the horizontal and vertical component draw both of the components from

the same point that the resultant starts from (resultant should be in‐between 2 components)

Always join vectors from tip to tail

If there are no right angles, create some

Resolution of Vectors

Resolving = breaking down vectors into perpendicular components

Always resolves vectors into horizontal and vertical/perpendicular components.

y

y a sin

Balanced Forces

If an object is in equilibrium the resultant force and resultant moment is 0 (the sum of the anticlockwise moments = the sum of

the clockwise moments) so no acceleration

Equilibrium - draw a closed triangle.

To calculate an unknown force or forces resolve each horizontally and vertically and solve

If object is in equilibrium there is no resultant force

T1 T2

NL2↑ Fres = 0

T1sinϴ1 T2sinϴ2 T2sinϴ2 + T1sinϴ1 – W = 0

NL2→ Fres = 0

ϴ1 ϴ2

T2cosϴ2 - T1cosϴ1 = 0

T1cosϴ1 T2cosϴ2

W

Moments

Moment of a force about a point = force x perpendicular distance between line of action of force and pivot

= perpendicular force x distance between line of action of force and pivot

A moment is a turning force

The principle of moments - when in equilibrium the sum of anticlockwise moments = sum of the clockwise moments

Couples

Couple = pair of equal and opposite forces acting on opposite sides of a pivot

Moment of a couple = force x perpendicular distance between the two forces

Uniform = Centre of mass of object is exactly in middle of object

Moments at angles

e.g. ladder rested against wall – angles, not perpendicular

R

R

Rsinϴ

Pivot is where ladder touches ground – P

ϴ L Equilibrium

L ϴ Sum clockwise = Sum anticlockwise

Wcosϴ ϴ Rsinϴ x L = Wcosϴ x L/2

W

Rsinϴ = Wcosϴ/2

W P

R= Wcosϴ/2sinϴ

ϴ

Stability

Depends on where the line of action of the centre of mass acts

Stable/ won’t topple

ϴ ϴ Critical – on verge of toppling ϴ Unstable - Topples

Velocity (m/s) = Displacement (m)/Time(s) v=s/t

2

Acceleration (m/s ) = Velocity (m/s)/Time(s) a=v/t

Gradient = Velocity

Gradient = Acceleration

Area Underneath = Displacement (if velocity is always +)

Gradient = Change in Acceleration

Area Underneath = Change in Velocity

S – 𝑣 = 𝑢 + 𝑎𝑡

U – 𝑠 = 𝑢𝑡 + ½ 𝑎𝑡 2

V - 𝑠 = 𝑣𝑡 − ½ 𝑎𝑡 2

𝑣+𝑢

A-𝑠 =( )𝑡

2

T–𝑣 2

= 𝑢 + 2𝑎𝑠2

When calculating distance covered when something is accelerating and starting velocity is not 0 use formulas!!

Projectile Motion

Resolve horizontally and vertically

-2

Acceleration due to gravity = 9.81ms

Gravity only affects the vertical component of motion

No horizontal acceleration unless a resultant force is applied horizontally

In practice, particles don’t travel as expected because of work done against drag, causing horizontal/vertical deceleration

Negative constant No Acceleration Positive constant

Acceleration (Deceleration (so no FRes) Acceleration

Acceleration-Time

(ms-2) (ms-2) (ms-2)

velocity time. So Negative Acceleration is gradient of velocity time. So positive

constant Acceleration = Negative velocity time. So No Acceleration constant Acceleration = positive

gradient = Decreasing velocity =0 gradient = Constant velocity gradient=increasing velocity

Area underneath graph is Area underneath graph is Area underneath graph is

displacement displacement displacement

Velocity-Time

ity ity ity

(ms-1) (ms-1) (ms-1)

Velocity is gradient of displacement time. So constant velocity = Velocity is gradient of displacement

time. So decreasing velocity = constant gradient = time. So increasing velocity =

Decreasing gradient = peak/^ increasing/decreasing displacement increasing gradient = min/u

Displacement-Time

ement ement ement

(m) (m) (m)

(m) (m) (m)

Terminal Velocity

At terminal velocity, there is 0 acceleration – weight is equal to air resistance so no resultant

This is maximum velocity and is maintained until a new force acts on the object

Weight = mg

If a body is moving at a constant velocity/ not moving then it will continue to do so unless an external resultant force

acts on it

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

The resultant force applied to an object is proportional to the mass and the acceleration of the object

Fres ma

Newton’s Third Law of Motion

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction (in every interaction)

Stopping Distances

Thinking distance + Braking distance = Stopping distance

Work

Work = Fd x cosϴ F

Measured in joules

Kinetic Energy

2

E=½ mv

Gravitational Potential Energy D

E=mgΔh

Elastic Energy

E=½FΔL=½ kx2

Pendulum

If a pendulum is released from a height, at its lowest point all its gravitational potential energy is converted into kinetic

energy - Kinetic energy at that point = loss in gravitational potential (ignoring all other external forces)

2 2

½ mv =mgΔh --> ½ v =gΔh

Terminal Velocity

Velocity increases then becomes constant – terminal velocity

Acceleration reduces to 0

Is maximum (9.81 at beginning

Forces becomes equal/balanced

Which are weight and drag/air resistance

Weight is initially greater than drag

Drag force increases with speed

Resultant force causes acceleration

Fres = W – drag

Power

Power – Rate of transfer of energy measured in Watts

As E=Fd and v=d/t

E ΔWork done Fd P=Fv

Power = = = = Fv

t Δt t

Power = force x velocity as its force multiplied by distance moved each second

Conservation of energy

Energy Is always conserved – it can only to converted/transferred into other forms, not used or made

Efficiency

Useful energy Work Done

Efficiency = =

Total energy Energy Supplied

So basically efficiency is output power over input power

Friction in e.g. gears/tires – transferred to thermal energy

Air resistance/drag – transferred to thermal energy

Materials

Density = Material’s mass per unit volume

m m

p= v=

v p

Mass of an alloy = pava + pbvb and density of alloy =

m p v +p v

p = = a a b b

v v

Volume of:

Cube/Cuboid = width x length x height

4 3

Sphere = /3πr

2 3

Hemisphere = /3πr

2

Cylinder = πr h

Springs

Hooke’s Law

Hooke’s Law – The extension of a material is directly proportional to the force applied up to the limit of proportionality

F∝e F= KΔL Straight line through the origin on a graph

(where k is the spring constant)

After elastic limit, material is permanently stretched – won’t go back to original length

Limit of proportionality = Hooke’s law limit/Point beyond which graph not linear/proportional

Experiment to determine spring constant:

Hang weights from the spring

Independent variable:

Masses - Vary the masses, at least 8 masses, 0-1400g, intervals of 200g

Measured by using pre weighed masses

Dependant variable:

Extension of spring - Measure original length and take away from final length (final – original)

Accuracy:

Use Ruler to measure

Repeat measurements of length 3 times and calculate an average extension

To reduce parallax error, use a set square – so that ruler and spring are level

Calculations:

F=ke e=final length-original length or F = k ΔL

Plot a graph of force versus extension

Gradient = spring constant (k)

Springs obey Hooke’s law

For springs, k is stiffness constant/ spring constant

Equivalent stiffness constant:

In series – 1 1 1 1

= + + + …

Keq K1 K2 K3

In parallel - Keq = K1+K2+K3+…

Graph of force against extension:

Stiffness constant = gradient = dy/dx = F/ΔL = k

Elastic limit = normally limit of proportionality on force extension graph

Limit of

Proportionality

– elastic limit

Elastic deformation = when material returns to original shape after being extended – maintains structure

Plastic deformation = When material remains permanently deformed after being extended, change in structure – fracture occurs

Changed shape

Energy stored in force extension graph:

Energy stored = area under line/curve/graph

For stress v strain graph, energy = ½ stress x strain

area under graph

Work done = fd

F = ke, d = e

Energy stored = ½ work done

2

=½Ke

A stress causes a strain

Elastic Limit = extension at which material becomes permanently deformed

Ultimate Tensile

Tensile(-) = Force acting to cause an object to increase in length stress Breaking

stress

Compressive(+) = Force acting to cause an object to decrease in length

Stress = Force applied divided by perpendicular Area

F Force (F) -2

Stress (ρ) = = Nm or Pa

A Area (A)

Strain = Change in length divided by original length

e Extension (e or ΔL)

Strain (ϵ) = =

l0 Original Length (lo)

Yield Point – A point is reached at which material is near fracturing

Ultimate Tensile Stress – most stress a material can withhold without breaking

Breaking Stress- stress at which material breaks – bonds between atoms break fully

Young’s Modulus

Young’s Modulus – Stiffness constant of material – a property

Gradient of stress v strain graph – ratio between stress and strain in a material

Young’s experiment showed that light was a wave rather than a particle

Stress (ρ) FL0 -2

Young’s Modulus (E) = = Nm or Pa

Strain (ϵ) AΔL

Ultimate

Tensile Stress

Breaking

Stress

Elastic

Limit

Young’s Modulus =

ΔStress

ΔStrain

Stress v strain for different material properties:

Experiment to determine Young’s Modulus:

Hang weights from the wire

Independent variable:

Masses - Vary the masses, at least 8 masses, 0-1400g, intervals of 200g

Measured by using pre weighed masses

Measurements:

Extension of wire - Measure original length and take away from final length (final – original)

Use Ruler or travelling microscope to measure

For Searle’s apparatus, use Vernier scale

Cross sectional area of wire – Measure diameter of wire, area = πd /4

2

Accuracy:

Repeat measurements of length 3 times and calculate an average extension

Measure diameter in several places

Use Searle’s control wire to negate effect of temperature change

Monitor how diameter changes with extension

Calculations:

Stress=Force/Area Strain=Extension/original length

Plot a graph of stress versus strain

Gradient = Young’s Modulus (E)

Brittle materials don’t undergo plastic deformation – they fracture permanently straight away

Ductile materials have a very long region of plastic deformation before they fracture

Strong

Weak

Area below loading line = Energy needed to stretch material

Area below unloading line = Energy returned when force is removed

If elastic limit has been reached, material will not go back to original length

The fact the unloading line is below the loading line shows energy is lost

Area between lines represents energy loss

Metal:

When all force is removed, material remains permanently extended

Unloading line always parallel to proportional section of loading line

Area between the two lines = Energy used to deform the material (alter structure)

Rubber:

Returns to original length/ where loading section begins – hasn’t gone past yield

point

The material has stayed within the elastic limit so has not deformed

Area between the two lines = Energy used to deform the material (alter structure)

Polymer:

Small region of elastic deformation

Long region of plastic deformation

When all force is removed, material remains permanently extended – plastically

deformed

Large permanent extension

Unloading line always parallel to proportional section of loading line

Area between the two lines = Energy used to deform the material (alter structure)

In this case, lots of energy lost

Waves

Progressive Waves – Waves that travel through a substance, transferring energy

Frequency – Number of waves passing a point per second (measured in Hz)

Amplitude‐ Maximum displacement from equilibrium/mean position

Wavelength – Distance between 2 adjacent points/particles in phase in a wave

Period – time for one complete wave to pass a fixed point in space

1

f =

T T

Mechanical waves require a medium EM waves don’t

Transverse Waves – vibrations/oscillations are perpendicular to direction of travel (light, rope, ripples in water, s waves etc.)

Can be polarised

Transverse Longitudinal

Oscillations parallel Oscillations perpendicular

Can be polarised Can’t

Don’t need medium Need a medium

Longitudinal Waves – vibration are parallel to direction of travel (sound)

All longitudinal require a medium

Transverse: oscillations perpendicular to direction of wave

-Up to maximum/crest (1/4 cycle to maximum positive displacement)

-Down to equilibrium position (1/4 cycle to equilibrium position)

-Down to minimum position/ trough (1/4 cycle to maximum negative displacement)

-Up to equilibrium position (1/4 cycle to equilibrium position)

Longitudinal:

Particle moves back and forth

Wave Speed = d/t

f = 1/T v= f

So, v= /T

Distance moved (m) Speed (V) Distance moved ()

Speed = V = f

Time taken (t) = Time taken (1/ f )

Polarization

Polarisation – All wave vibrations are in 1 plane

Unpolarised – All wave vibrations are in multiple planes

Application:

Polaroid glasses/sunglasses/windscreens to reduce glare

Cameras to reduce glare/ enhance image

In microscope to identify minerals/rocks

Polarimetry to analyse chemicals/concentrations or type of sugar

LCD display for low power

3D glasses to enhance viewing experience

Communication waves are polarised

So aerial rods may need to be aligned in same plane of polarisation

Line must reach same min and same max each time

Stationary waves:

Stationary wave = Waves that cause particles to vibrate about their position e.g. guitar string

2 Progressive waves

Travelling in opposite directions

Superimposed/ interfere

Similar amplitude

Same wavelength/ frequency

Same speed

No energy transmitted

Fixed phase difference between 2 progressive waves

Superposition:

When two waves meet, total displacement at a point = sum of displacements at that point

If crest meets crest, super crest/anti-node made

If crest meets trough, cancel each other out forming a node

Node = Point where amplitude is 0/ there is no vibration

At nodes, waves cancel

Anti-node = Point where there is max displacement/amplitude

At anti-nodes, waves constructively interfere/displacements are in phase

Constructive interference:

2 waves in phase

Resultant = sum of 2 waves

Forms super crests and super troughs

Destructive interference:

◦

2 waves 180 / π radians out of phase

Resultant = Sum of 2 waves

Cancel each other out

Increase:

Decrease length

Increase tension/ Decrease mass per unit length of spring

Decrease:

Increase length

Decrease tension/ Increase mass per unit length of spring

Path/Phase Difference

The amount by which one wave lags behind another wave

2 points are in phase if they are a whole wavelength apart (max displacement at same time)‐ their oscillations are in

time with each other

2 Points are in Antiphase if they are half a wavelength apart (one max displacement when

other experiences min displacement)

Stationary waves, phase difference = mπ where m is number of nodes between the points

ϴ= 2πd

Progressive waves, phase difference λ where d=distance between points and λ is wavelength

Amplitude:

In stationary, particles have different amplitudes

In progressive, all particles have same amplitude

Frequency:

In stationary, all particles except nodes have same frequency

In progressive, all particles have same frequency

Energy Transfer:

Stationary waves don’t transfer energy

Progressive waves do transfer energy

Phase Difference:

In stationary wave calculated using ϴ=mπ

In progressive wave calculated using ϴ= 2πd ϴ= 2π

λ T

Both waves can be formed by superimposing

Harmonics/ Overtones

Frequency of nth harmonic

(Hn)=nf1

Wavelength of fundamental

harmonic: λ0=2L

Fundamental Harmonic:

Nodes at ends, anti-nodes in middle

nd

2 Harmonic/First overtone = Double fundamental harmonic frequency

rd nd

3 Harmonic/2 overtone = Triple fundamental harmonic frequency

Refraction

Refraction = Change of direction of a wave when it goes through a different medium

As light changes medium, its frequency stays the same as its energy stays the same

8

Speed of light in air is 3.00x10 m/s

If it goes through more optically dense material its speed decreases

As c f , and f is constant and its speed decreases, it’s wavelength decreases

And it bends towards the normal

If it goes through less optically dense material its speed increases

As c f , and f is constant and its speed increases, it’s wavelength increases

And it bends away from the normal

Less More optically dense e.g. Air Glass More Less optically dense e.g. Glass Air

Speed (c) Decreases Increases

Frequency (f) Same Same

Wavelength (λ) Decreases Increases

Towards or away from normal Towards Away

TAGAGA

Towards normal: Air Glass

Away from normal: Glass Air

c speed of light in vacuum

n= =

v speed of light in medium

To give absolute refractive index Yellow light from a sodium bulb is used as a standard

Refractometer used to calculate refractive index of a material

Shines beam of light at a fixed, known angle of incidence in a known optical density: Air

Looks for where refractive beam goes

Measures angle of refraction

And works out refractive index

Diamond – 2.4

Perspex – 1.5

Air – 1

Absolute of n2 V1

1n2= =

Absolute of n1 V2

If light from one medium 1 to medium 2 is N then light from 2 to 1 is 1/N

Snell’s Law

n1sinϴ(i) = n2sinϴ(r)

When angle of incidence is greater than critical angle, light is totally internally reflected(must draw some reflection)

At critical angle, rangle of refraction is 90 (must draw some reflection)

Above critical angle, angle of refraction is above 90 total internal reflection

When light goes from optically dense material to less dense material n1>n2

When reflected, angle of refraction = angle of incidence

Structure of optical fibre:

Outer cladding, glass core

High refractive to low refractive

Outer cladding has much lower optical density than glass centre

Core must be thin to ensure angle of incidence is greater than critical angle

Glass tube very thin so that light enters boundary at wider angle which is above critical angle, reduces multipath/ multimode

dispersion (smearing/overlap of pulses) which would cause lower transmission rate/ lower bandwidth/ poor resolution

So constant internal reflection

Reduce multipath dispersion

Which would cause Merging of adjacent pulses/pulse broadening/poor resolution

Prevent data/signal/light loss from the core/fibre

Which would cause signal to crossover/get weaker/data to be less secure/attenuation

Increase probability of TIR

Better signal quality/less distortion

Less refraction out of core

Cladding protects core from scratches which would affect signal

Also improves strength of fibre and protects, since glass centre is very thin and fragile

And prevents light from travelling between fibres – signal crossover

More information carried so higher frequency than other transmission

Fibres don’t get hot so little energy lost as heat

No electrical interference so signal clearer, easier to decode

Reduced amplitude due to absorption/energy loss/attenuation/scattering

Pulse broadening due to multi-path dispersion/different rays propagating at different angles

Endoscope – Improve medical diagnosis

Communication – High speed internet/improve data transmission

Interference:

Interference patterns are produced when either single source of waves is diffracted or when multiple sources are coherent

To get coherent source, either pass light through single slit (which diffracts light across multiple slits) or use a highly monochromatic

source e.g. laser

Coherent = Constant phase difference, same wavelength/frequency between 2 or more sources of light

Monochromatic = single wavelength and frequency

f = 1/T v= f

So, v= /T

Path difference in Progressive wave = Distance travelled by one wave – distance travelled by another (difference in distance

travelled between 2 different waves

Superposition:

For maxima, crest + crest/ in phase to constructively interfere

Minima, Crest + Trough/ 180 out of phase to destructively interfere

For steady interference pattern, wave sources must be coherent

Pattern we see depends upon phase difference of the 2 sources when they hit that point

Bright fringe – When the waves constructively interfere, occurs when path difference

nλ

1

0.5

sin x

0

0 90 180 270 360 450 540 sin x - 2π

-0.5

-1

Dark fringe – When the waves destructively interfere, occurs when path difference

(n /2 )λ as the waves have to be 180 degrees out of phase

1

0.5

sin x

0

0 90 180 270 360 450 540 sin x - π

-0.5

-1

Diffraction

Diffraction=The way waves spread out as they pass through a narrow gap or around an

obstacle

Occurs when a wave encounters an object of similar size to its wavelength

When slit is larger than wavelength less diffraction occurs

Most diffraction when slit width is the same as the wavelength – perfect diffraction

If gap is smaller than wavelength, waves mostly reflected back

Behind obstacle is shadow where wave is blocked

The wider the obstacle compared to wavelength the lesser the diffraction so the longer the shadow

Fringe spacing (for double slit only):

Dλ

W=

S

W = Fringe spacing (m)

D = Distance between slits and screen (m)

λ = Wavelength (m)

S = Distance between slits (m)

Central maximum is twice as wide as the other maxima, and much higher intensity

Rest of the fringes decrease slightly in intensity as you get further from the middle ( all

same width) – intensity reduces with every peak

Maxima occurs with constructive interference and zero intensity with destructive

interference

If gap gets smaller or distance between screen and slit increases so does width of maxima

Central maxima gets larger if wavelength is longer or the gap is smaller

Shorter wavelength = Smaller angle of diffraction = maxima closer together and thinner, central maxima thinner

Longer wavelength = Bigger angle of diffraction = maxima further apart and wider, central maxima wider

↑Wavelength = Greater diffraction effect For maximum diffraction, slit size

↓Slit size = Greater diffraction effect should be equal to wavelength

↑Screen distance = Greater fringe spacing

White bright central fringe

Other fringes:

Red outside

Violet inside

Full spectrum in between

Compared to laser, maxima wider/fringe spacing less/dark fringes smaller

Central Fringe/maxima width:

λ

W= x 2D

a

W = Central Fringe width (m)

λ = Wavelength (m)

a = Slit width (m)

D = Distance between slits and screen (m)

Interference patterns are produced when either single source of waves is diffracted or when multiple sources are coherent

When sources are coherent they produce maxima and minima at fixed locations – hence the interference pattern of fringes on a

screen

To get coherent source, either pass light through a single slit or use a highly monochromatic source e.g. laser

Coherent = Constant phase difference, same wavelength/frequency

Monochromatic = Single wavelength and frequency

Showed evidence for wave theory of light – that light was a wave/ wave nature of light

Single slit diffraction spreads out one wave and causes it to act as 2 coherent sources for 2

further slits.

Pattern – Maxima Similar intensity and same width as central fringe. Intensity reduces slowly the

further out the peaks are

Whether maxima or minimum produced is based on path difference

If path difference is a multiple of wavelength e.g. 1λ 2λ points of maximum intensity produced

If path difference is an odd multiple of half the wavelength e.g. 1/2λ 3/2λ, etc. (n /2 )λ points of minimum intensity produced

1

If path difference is in-between these two, intensity is between 0 and maximum

Maxima/Fringe spacing:

Dλ

W=

S

W = Fringe spacing (m)

D = Distance between slits and screen (m)

λ = Wavelength (m)

S = Distance between slits (m)

The distance between two successive maxima/fringes depends upon:

o S = distance between the 2 slits; increasing S makes fringes closer together (or w smaller)

Shorter wavelength = Smaller angle of diffraction = maxima closer together and thinner, central maxima thinner

Longer wavelength = Bigger angle of diffraction = maxima further apart and wider, central maxima wider

↑Wavelength = Greater diffraction effect For maximum diffraction, slit size

↓Slit size = Greater diffraction effect should be equal to wavelength

= Wider/increased separation, lower intensity

↑Screen distance = Greater fringe spacing

Laser is monochromatic – constant wavelength and frequency

Coherent source so good contrast with nice fringes

Without, fringes are fuzzy with low contrast

However, using a laser damages the skin and eye/retina – so point away from eyes/others/ wear laser safety goggles

Laser is more intense than white light

Obtain dots using laser, not bands like white light

For laser, maxima are narrower and minima wider than that obtained from white light

Shine a laser at a double slit, projected onto a screen

Measurements:

Measure W (fringe spacing) using Vernier calliper

Measure D (distance between slits and screen) using tape measure/ruler

Measure s using a ruler/ Vernier calliper

Accuracy:

Repeat measurements 3 times to get average

Measure several fringe spaces – 5 or more – and find average

Measure from centre to centre of fringes

Ensure D is large - ≥ 2m

Use a dark room

Safety:

Use laser safety goggles

Avoid shining laser at/near a person

Calculations:

W=λD/s λ=Ws/D

λ

Plot a graph of W against D W= /S D

Gradient=λ/s

So multiply gradient by s to get λ

Diffraction Grating

Series of uniform narrow slits in parallel

dsin

dsinn

ϴ= angle of diffraction

d= distance between slits (centre to centre) if grating has N slits per metre, d=1/N

N= order of diffraction

λ = wavelength

↑Wavelength = Greater angle of diffraction

Because max angle of diffraction is 90, putting this into equation gives max number of orders produced by a grating

dsin90 d

n= =

λ λ

Maxima will be closer together

As w=dλ/s ---> fringe spacing is proportional to wavelength

Smaller wavelength=smaller path difference

Angle ϴ gets smaller – d constant so sin ϴ smaller

Application: Spectra

o Light spectra from stars used to identify which elements they contain

o Dark bands reveal composition of stars atmosphere

o Every element absorbs different wavelengths of light

o Spectra that match the absorption patterns of elements mean the star contains those elements

o Peak of intensity related to temperature

o Doppler effect/blue/red shift related to speed of star relative to earth

o Absorption patterns can also be used to identify an element

o If the substance absorbs the same wavelengths of light as an element, then the substance is that element

Shine light through diffraction grating

Measurements:

Measure angle of first order beam using spectrometer/protractor/tan x

Measure Number of orders

3

Calculate d – d=1/lines per mm x 10

Accuracy:

Repeat measurements 3 times to get average

Measure between more than one order

Measure ϴ for different orders (for average λ)

Repeat for different distances

Use large distance to screen - D ≥ 2m

Protractor with ≤ 0.5⁰ intervals

Calculations:

d sin ϴ= n λ λ= d sin ϴ

λ

Plot a graph of sin against ϴ sin ϴ= /d n

Gradient=λ/d

So multiply gradient by d to get λ

All Unit 2 Experiments:

Hang weights from the spring

Independent variable:

Masses - Vary the masses, at least 8 masses, 0-1400g, intervals of 200g

Measured by using pre weighed masses

Dependant variable:

Extension of spring - Measure original length and take away from final length (final – original)

Use Ruler to measure

Accuracy:

Repeat measurements of length 3 times and calculate an average extension

To reduce parallax error, use a set square – so that ruler and spring are level

Calculations:

F=ke e=final length-original length

Plot a graph of force versus extension

Gradient = spring constant (k)

Hang weights from the wire

Independent variable:

Masses - Vary the masses, at least 8 masses, 0-1400g, intervals of 200g

Measured by using pre weighed masses

Measurements:

Extension of wire - Measure original length and take away from final length (final – original)

Use Ruler or travelling microscope to measure

For Searle’s apparatus, use Vernier scale

Cross sectional area of wire – Measure diameter of wire, area = πd 2/4

Measure using micrometre gauge

Accuracy:

Repeat measurements of length 3 times and calculate an average extension

Measure diameter in several places

Use Searle’s control wire to negate effect of temperature change

Monitor how diameter changes with extension

Calculations:

Stress=Force/Area Strain=Extension/original length

Plot a graph of stress versus strain

Gradient = Young’s Modulus (E)

Shine a laser at a double slit, projected onto a screen

Measurements:

Measure W (fringe spacing) using Vernier calliper

Measure D (distance between slits and screen) using tape

measure/ruler

Measure s using a ruler/ Vernier calliper

Accuracy:

Repeat measurements 3 times to get average

Measure several fringe spaces – 5 or more – and find average

Measure from centre to centre of fringes

Ensure D is large - ≥ 2m

Use a dark room

Safety:

Use laser safety goggles

Avoid shining laser at/near a person

Calculations:

W=λD/s λ=Ws/D

λ

Plot a graph of W against D W= /S D

Gradient=λ/s

So multiply gradient by s to get λ

Experiment to use diffraction grating to measure wavelength of

light:

Shine light through diffraction grating

Measurements:

Measure angle of first order beam using

spectrometer/protractor/tan x

Measure Number of orders

Calculate d – d=1/lines per mm x 103

Accuracy:

Repeat measurements 3 times to get average

Measure between more than one order

Measure ϴ for different orders (for average λ)

Repeat for different distances

Use large distance to screen - D ≥ 2m

Protractor with ≤ 0.5⁰ intervals

Calculations:

d sin ϴ= n λ λ= d sin ϴ

λ

Plot a graph of sin against ϴ sin ϴ= /d n

Gradient=λ/d

So multiply gradient by d to get λ

Negative constant No Acceleration Positive constant

Acceleration (Deceleration (so no FRes) Acceleration

Acceleration-Time

(ms-2) (ms-2) (ms-2)

velocity time. So Negative Acceleration is gradient of velocity time. So positive

constant Acceleration = Negative velocity time. So No Acceleration constant Acceleration = positive

gradient = Decreasing velocity =0 gradient = Constant velocity gradient=increasing velocity

Area underneath graph is Area underneath graph is Area underneath graph is

displacement displacement displacement

Velocity-Time

ity ity ity

(ms-1) (ms-1) (ms-1)

Velocity is gradient of displacement time. So constant velocity = Velocity is gradient of displacement

time. So decreasing velocity = constant gradient = time. So increasing velocity =

Decreasing gradient = peak/^ increasing/decreasing displacement increasing gradient = min/u

Displacement-Time

ement ement ement

(m) (m) (m)

(m) (m) (m)

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