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Nobel - Physics AS Unit 2 ‐ Mechanics,

Materials and Waves ‐ Revision Notes


Mechanics
Scalar and Vector Quantities
 A Vector Quantity has magnitude and direction e.g. Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration
 A Scalar Quantity only has magnitude and no direction e.g. Distance, Speed, Mass

Resultant
 If forces are parallel and in the same direction, add:

 If parallel but going in opposite direction, Subtract:

a b
a+b
Pythagoras: a  b2 c2 Parallelogram Method


Note: when you know the resultant and drawing the horizontal and vertical component draw both of the components from
the same point that the resultant starts from (resultant should be in‐between 2 components)
Always join vectors from tip to tail
If there are no right angles, create some

Resolution of Vectors
 Resolving = breaking down vectors into perpendicular components
 Always resolves vectors into horizontal and vertical/perpendicular components.

a  x a cos


y
 y a sin

Balanced Forces
 If an object is in equilibrium the resultant force and resultant moment is 0 (the sum of the anticlockwise moments = the sum of
the clockwise moments) so no acceleration
 Equilibrium - draw a closed triangle.
To calculate an unknown force or forces resolve each horizontally and vertically and solve
If object is in equilibrium there is no resultant force
T1 T2
NL2↑ Fres = 0
T1sinϴ1 T2sinϴ2 T2sinϴ2 + T1sinϴ1 – W = 0
NL2→ Fres = 0
ϴ1 ϴ2
T2cosϴ2 - T1cosϴ1 = 0
T1cosϴ1 T2cosϴ2

W
Moments
 Moment of a force about a point = force x perpendicular distance between line of action of force and pivot
= perpendicular force x distance between line of action of force and pivot
A moment is a turning force
 The principle of moments - when in equilibrium the sum of anticlockwise moments = sum of the clockwise moments

Couples
 Couple = pair of equal and opposite forces acting on opposite sides of a pivot
 Moment of a couple = force x perpendicular distance between the two forces
 Uniform = Centre of mass of object is exactly in middle of object
Moments at angles
e.g. ladder rested against wall – angles, not perpendicular
R
R
Rsinϴ
Pivot is where ladder touches ground – P
ϴ L Equilibrium
L ϴ Sum clockwise = Sum anticlockwise
Wcosϴ ϴ Rsinϴ x L = Wcosϴ x L/2
W
Rsinϴ = Wcosϴ/2
W P
R= Wcosϴ/2sinϴ
ϴ

Stability
 Depends on where the line of action of the centre of mass acts

If line acts inside base,


Stable/ won’t topple

If line acts through pivot point, If line acts outside base,


ϴ ϴ Critical – on verge of toppling ϴ Unstable - Topples

Motion along a Straight Line


 Velocity (m/s) = Displacement (m)/Time(s)  v=s/t
2
 Acceleration (m/s ) = Velocity (m/s)/Time(s)  a=v/t

Displacement Time Graphs


 Gradient = Velocity

Velocity Time Graphs


 Gradient = Acceleration
 Area Underneath = Displacement (if velocity is always +)

Acceleration Time Graphs


 Gradient = Change in Acceleration
 Area Underneath = Change in Velocity

Constant Acceleration Formulas


 S – 𝑣 = 𝑢 + 𝑎𝑡
 U – 𝑠 = 𝑢𝑡 + ½ 𝑎𝑡 2
 V - 𝑠 = 𝑣𝑡 − ½ 𝑎𝑡 2
𝑣+𝑢
A-𝑠 =( )𝑡
2
T–𝑣 2
= 𝑢 + 2𝑎𝑠2

Where S=displacement, U=initial velocity, V=final velocity, A= acceleration, T=time


 When calculating distance covered when something is accelerating and starting velocity is not 0 use formulas!!
Projectile Motion
 Resolve horizontally and vertically
-2
 Acceleration due to gravity = 9.81ms
 Gravity only affects the vertical component of motion
 No horizontal acceleration unless a resultant force is applied horizontally
 In practice, particles don’t travel as expected because of work done against drag, causing horizontal/vertical deceleration
Negative constant No Acceleration Positive constant
Acceleration (Deceleration (so no FRes) Acceleration

Acceleration-Time

Acc. Acc. Acc.


(ms-2) (ms-2) (ms-2)

Time (s) Time (s) Time (s)

Acceleration is gradient of Acceleration is gradient of


velocity time. So Negative Acceleration is gradient of velocity time. So positive
constant Acceleration = Negative velocity time. So No Acceleration constant Acceleration = positive
gradient = Decreasing velocity =0 gradient = Constant velocity gradient=increasing velocity
Area underneath graph is Area underneath graph is Area underneath graph is
displacement displacement displacement

Velocity-Time

Veloc Veloc Veloc


ity ity ity
(ms-1) (ms-1) (ms-1)

Time (s) Time (s) Time (s)

Velocity is gradient of displacement


Velocity is gradient of displacement time. So constant velocity = Velocity is gradient of displacement
time. So decreasing velocity = constant gradient = time. So increasing velocity =
Decreasing gradient = peak/^ increasing/decreasing displacement increasing gradient = min/u

Displacement-Time

Displac Displac Displac


ement ement ement
(m) (m) (m)
(m) (m) (m)

Time (s) Time (s) Time (s)


Terminal Velocity
 At terminal velocity, there is 0 acceleration – weight is equal to air resistance so no resultant
 This is maximum velocity and is maintained until a new force acts on the object
Weight = mg

Newton’s First Law of Motion


 If a body is moving at a constant velocity/ not moving then it will continue to do so unless an external resultant force
acts on it
Newton’s Second Law of Motion
 The resultant force applied to an object is proportional to the mass and the acceleration of the object
Fres ma
Newton’s Third Law of Motion
 For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction (in every interaction)
Stopping Distances
 Thinking distance + Braking distance = Stopping distance
Work
 Work = Fd x cosϴ F
 Measured in joules
Kinetic Energy 
2
E=½ mv
Gravitational Potential Energy D
E=mgΔh
Elastic Energy
E=½FΔL=½ kx2
Pendulum
If a pendulum is released from a height, at its lowest point all its gravitational potential energy is converted into kinetic
energy - Kinetic energy at that point = loss in gravitational potential (ignoring all other external forces)
2 2
½ mv =mgΔh --> ½ v =gΔh
Terminal Velocity
Velocity increases then becomes constant – terminal velocity
Acceleration reduces to 0
Is maximum (9.81 at beginning
Forces becomes equal/balanced
Which are weight and drag/air resistance
Weight is initially greater than drag
Drag force increases with speed
Resultant force causes acceleration
Fres = W – drag

Power
 Power – Rate of transfer of energy measured in Watts
As E=Fd and v=d/t
E ΔWork done Fd P=Fv
Power = = = = Fv
t Δt t
 Power = force x velocity as its force multiplied by distance moved each second

Conservation of energy
 Energy Is always conserved – it can only to converted/transferred into other forms, not used or made
Efficiency
Useful energy Work Done
Efficiency = =
Total energy Energy Supplied
 So basically efficiency is output power over input power

Causes of lost energy- Work done against:


 Friction in e.g. gears/tires – transferred to thermal energy
 Air resistance/drag – transferred to thermal energy
Materials
 Density = Material’s mass per unit volume
m m
p= v=
v p
 Mass of an alloy = pava + pbvb and density of alloy =
m p v +p v
p = = a a b b
v v
 Volume of:
Cube/Cuboid = width x length x height
4 3
Sphere = /3πr
2 3
Hemisphere = /3πr
2
Cylinder = πr h

Springs
Hooke’s Law
 Hooke’s Law – The extension of a material is directly proportional to the force applied up to the limit of proportionality
F∝e  F= KΔL  Straight line through the origin on a graph
(where k is the spring constant)
After elastic limit, material is permanently stretched – won’t go back to original length
Limit of proportionality = Hooke’s law limit/Point beyond which graph not linear/proportional
 Experiment to determine spring constant:
Hang weights from the spring
Independent variable:
Masses - Vary the masses, at least 8 masses, 0-1400g, intervals of 200g
Measured by using pre weighed masses
Dependant variable:
Extension of spring - Measure original length and take away from final length (final – original)
Accuracy:
Use Ruler to measure
Repeat measurements of length 3 times and calculate an average extension
To reduce parallax error, use a set square – so that ruler and spring are level
Calculations:
F=ke  e=final length-original length or F = k ΔL
Plot a graph of force versus extension
Gradient = spring constant (k)
 Springs obey Hooke’s law
For springs, k is stiffness constant/ spring constant
 Equivalent stiffness constant:
In series – 1 1 1 1
= + + + …
Keq K1 K2 K3
In parallel - Keq = K1+K2+K3+…
 Graph of force against extension:
Stiffness constant = gradient = dy/dx = F/ΔL = k
Elastic limit = normally limit of proportionality on force extension graph

Limit of
Proportionality
– elastic limit
 Elastic deformation = when material returns to original shape after being extended – maintains structure

 Plastic deformation = When material remains permanently deformed after being extended, change in structure – fracture occurs

Fracture has occurred


Changed shape

Fracture occurs when some bonds between atoms/molecules are broken


 Energy stored in force extension graph:
Energy stored = area under line/curve/graph
For stress v strain graph, energy = ½ stress x strain

Energy stored = work done=


area under graph
Work done = fd
F = ke, d = e
Energy stored = ½ work done
2
=½Ke

Stress and strain


 A stress causes a strain
 Elastic Limit = extension at which material becomes permanently deformed
Ultimate Tensile
 Tensile(-) = Force acting to cause an object to increase in length stress Breaking
stress
 Compressive(+) = Force acting to cause an object to decrease in length
 Stress = Force applied divided by perpendicular Area
F Force (F) -2 
Stress (ρ) = = Nm or Pa
A Area (A)
 Strain = Change in length divided by original length
e Extension (e or ΔL)
Strain (ϵ) = =
l0 Original Length (lo)
 Yield Point – A point is reached at which material is near fracturing
 Ultimate Tensile Stress – most stress a material can withhold without breaking
 Breaking Stress- stress at which material breaks – bonds between atoms break fully

Young’s Modulus
 Young’s Modulus – Stiffness constant of material – a property
 Gradient of stress v strain graph – ratio between stress and strain in a material
 Young’s experiment showed that light was a wave rather than a particle
Stress (ρ) FL0 -2
Young’s Modulus (E) = = Nm or Pa
Strain (ϵ) AΔL

Ultimate
Tensile Stress
Breaking
Stress
Elastic
Limit
Young’s Modulus =
ΔStress
ΔStrain
Stress v strain for different material properties:
 Experiment to determine Young’s Modulus:
Hang weights from the wire
Independent variable:
Masses - Vary the masses, at least 8 masses, 0-1400g, intervals of 200g
Measured by using pre weighed masses
Measurements:
 Extension of wire - Measure original length and take away from final length (final – original)
Use Ruler or travelling microscope to measure
For Searle’s apparatus, use Vernier scale
 Cross sectional area of wire – Measure diameter of wire, area = πd /4
2

Measure using micrometre gauge


Accuracy:
Repeat measurements of length 3 times and calculate an average extension
Measure diameter in several places
Use Searle’s control wire to negate effect of temperature change
Monitor how diameter changes with extension
Calculations:
Stress=Force/Area Strain=Extension/original length
Plot a graph of stress versus strain
Gradient = Young’s Modulus (E)

Brittle materials don’t undergo plastic deformation – they fracture permanently straight away
Ductile materials have a very long region of plastic deformation before they fracture

Strong

Weak

Loading unloading curves:


Area below loading line = Energy needed to stretch material
Area below unloading line = Energy returned when force is removed
If elastic limit has been reached, material will not go back to original length
The fact the unloading line is below the loading line shows energy is lost
Area between lines represents energy loss

Metal:
When all force is removed, material remains permanently extended
Unloading line always parallel to proportional section of loading line
Area between the two lines = Energy used to deform the material (alter structure)
Rubber:
Returns to original length/ where loading section begins – hasn’t gone past yield
point
The material has stayed within the elastic limit so has not deformed
Area between the two lines = Energy used to deform the material (alter structure)

Polymer:
Small region of elastic deformation
Long region of plastic deformation
When all force is removed, material remains permanently extended – plastically
deformed
Large permanent extension
Unloading line always parallel to proportional section of loading line
Area between the two lines = Energy used to deform the material (alter structure)
In this case, lots of energy lost
Waves
Progressive Waves – Waves that travel through a substance, transferring energy
Frequency – Number of waves passing a point per second (measured in Hz)
Amplitude‐ Maximum displacement from equilibrium/mean position
Wavelength – Distance between 2 adjacent points/particles in phase in a wave
Period – time for one complete wave to pass a fixed point in space
1
f =
T T
Mechanical waves require a medium EM waves don’t
Transverse Waves – vibrations/oscillations are perpendicular to direction of travel (light, rope, ripples in water, s waves etc.)
Can be polarised

Transverse Longitudinal
Oscillations parallel Oscillations perpendicular
Can be polarised Can’t
Don’t need medium Need a medium
Longitudinal Waves – vibration are parallel to direction of travel (sound)
All longitudinal require a medium

Motion of particles as wave passes through:


Transverse: oscillations perpendicular to direction of wave
-Up to maximum/crest (1/4 cycle to maximum positive displacement)
-Down to equilibrium position (1/4 cycle to equilibrium position)
-Down to minimum position/ trough (1/4 cycle to maximum negative displacement)
-Up to equilibrium position (1/4 cycle to equilibrium position)

Longitudinal:
Particle moves back and forth
Wave Speed = d/t
f = 1/T v= f 
So, v= /T
Distance moved (m) Speed (V) Distance moved ()
Speed =   V = f
Time taken (t) = Time taken (1/ f ) 
Polarization

Only transverse waves can be polarized – not longitudinal


Polarisation – All wave vibrations are in 1 plane
Unpolarised – All wave vibrations are in multiple planes
Application:
 Polaroid glasses/sunglasses/windscreens to reduce glare
 Cameras to reduce glare/ enhance image
 In microscope to identify minerals/rocks
 Polarimetry to analyse chemicals/concentrations or type of sugar
 LCD display for low power
 3D glasses to enhance viewing experience
Communication waves are polarised
So aerial rods may need to be aligned in same plane of polarisation

How intensity changes as slit is rotated:

Line must reach same min and same max each time

Stationary waves:
Stationary wave = Waves that cause particles to vibrate about their position e.g. guitar string
2 Progressive waves
Travelling in opposite directions
Superimposed/ interfere
Similar amplitude
Same wavelength/ frequency
Same speed
No energy transmitted
Fixed phase difference between 2 progressive waves

Superposition:
When two waves meet, total displacement at a point = sum of displacements at that point
If crest meets crest, super crest/anti-node made
If crest meets trough, cancel each other out forming a node
Node = Point where amplitude is 0/ there is no vibration
At nodes, waves cancel
Anti-node = Point where there is max displacement/amplitude
At anti-nodes, waves constructively interfere/displacements are in phase

Constructive interference:
2 waves in phase
Resultant = sum of 2 waves
Forms super crests and super troughs

Destructive interference:

2 waves 180 / π radians out of phase
Resultant = Sum of 2 waves
Cancel each other out

Changing frequency of vibration of stationary wave:


Increase:
Decrease length
Increase tension/ Decrease mass per unit length of spring
Decrease:
Increase length
Decrease tension/ Increase mass per unit length of spring

Path/Phase Difference
 The amount by which one wave lags behind another wave
 2 points are in phase if they are a whole wavelength apart (max displacement at same time)‐ their oscillations are in
time with each other
 2 Points are in Antiphase if they are half a wavelength apart (one max displacement when
other experiences min displacement)
 Stationary waves, phase difference = mπ where m is number of nodes between the points
ϴ= 2πd
 Progressive waves, phase difference λ where d=distance between points and λ is wavelength

Differences between stationary and progressive waves


Amplitude:
In stationary, particles have different amplitudes
In progressive, all particles have same amplitude
Frequency:
In stationary, all particles except nodes have same frequency
In progressive, all particles have same frequency
Energy Transfer:
Stationary waves don’t transfer energy
Progressive waves do transfer energy
Phase Difference:
In stationary wave calculated using ϴ=mπ
In progressive wave calculated using ϴ= 2πd ϴ= 2π
λ T
Both waves can be formed by superimposing

Harmonics/ Overtones
Frequency of nth harmonic
(Hn)=nf1

Wavelength of fundamental
harmonic: λ0=2L

Fundamental Harmonic:
Nodes at ends, anti-nodes in middle
nd
2 Harmonic/First overtone = Double fundamental harmonic frequency
rd nd
3 Harmonic/2 overtone = Triple fundamental harmonic frequency
Refraction
Refraction = Change of direction of a wave when it goes through a different medium
As light changes medium, its frequency stays the same as its energy stays the same
8
Speed of light in air is 3.00x10 m/s
If it goes through more optically dense material its speed decreases
As c f , and f is constant and its speed decreases, it’s wavelength decreases
And it bends towards the normal
If it goes through less optically dense material its speed increases
As c f , and f is constant and its speed increases, it’s wavelength increases
And it bends away from the normal
Less  More optically dense e.g. Air  Glass More  Less optically dense e.g. Glass  Air
Speed (c) Decreases Increases
Frequency (f) Same Same
Wavelength (λ) Decreases Increases
Towards or away from normal Towards Away
TAGAGA
Towards normal: Air  Glass
Away from normal: Glass  Air

Absolute Refractive index (n)


c speed of light in vacuum
n= =
v speed of light in medium
To give absolute refractive index Yellow light from a sodium bulb is used as a standard
Refractometer used to calculate refractive index of a material
Shines beam of light at a fixed, known angle of incidence in a known optical density: Air
Looks for where refractive beam goes
Measures angle of refraction
And works out refractive index

Some typical R.Is


Diamond – 2.4
Perspex – 1.5
Air – 1

Refractive Index between 2 materials


Absolute of n2 V1
1n2= =
Absolute of n1 V2
If light from one medium 1 to medium 2 is N then light from 2 to 1 is 1/N

Snell’s Law
n1sinϴ(i) = n2sinϴ(r)

Total Internal Reflection


When angle of incidence is greater than critical angle, light is totally internally reflected(must draw some reflection)
At critical angle, rangle of refraction is 90 (must draw some reflection)
Above critical angle, angle of refraction is above 90 total internal reflection
When light goes from optically dense material to less dense material n1>n2
When reflected, angle of refraction = angle of incidence

Critical angle denoted as i:

Remember – n2 is LESS THAN n1


Structure of optical fibre:
 Outer cladding, glass core
 High refractive to low refractive
 Outer cladding has much lower optical density than glass centre
 Core must be thin to ensure angle of incidence is greater than critical angle
 Glass tube very thin so that light enters boundary at wider angle which is above critical angle, reduces multipath/ multimode
dispersion (smearing/overlap of pulses) which would cause lower transmission rate/ lower bandwidth/ poor resolution
 So constant internal reflection

The optical fibre is made as narrow as possible to:


 Reduce multipath dispersion
Which would cause Merging of adjacent pulses/pulse broadening/poor resolution
 Prevent data/signal/light loss from the core/fibre
Which would cause signal to crossover/get weaker/data to be less secure/attenuation
 Increase probability of TIR
 Better signal quality/less distortion
 Less refraction out of core

Benefits and Limitations:


 Cladding protects core from scratches which would affect signal
 Also improves strength of fibre and protects, since glass centre is very thin and fragile
 And prevents light from travelling between fibres – signal crossover
 More information carried so higher frequency than other transmission
 Fibres don’t get hot so little energy lost as heat
 No electrical interference so signal clearer, easier to decode

Why pulse has lower amplitude and longer wavelength:


Reduced amplitude due to absorption/energy loss/attenuation/scattering
Pulse broadening due to multi-path dispersion/different rays propagating at different angles

Uses of optical fibres:


Endoscope – Improve medical diagnosis
Communication – High speed internet/improve data transmission
Interference:
 Interference patterns are produced when either single source of waves is diffracted or when multiple sources are coherent
 To get coherent source, either pass light through single slit (which diffracts light across multiple slits) or use a highly monochromatic
source e.g. laser
 Coherent = Constant phase difference, same wavelength/frequency between 2 or more sources of light
 Monochromatic = single wavelength and frequency
 f = 1/T v= f 
 So, v= /T
Path difference in Progressive wave = Distance travelled by one wave – distance travelled by another (difference in distance
travelled between 2 different waves
Superposition:
 For maxima, crest + crest/ in phase to constructively interfere
 Minima, Crest + Trough/ 180 out of phase to destructively interfere
 For steady interference pattern, wave sources must be coherent
 Pattern we see depends upon phase difference of the 2 sources when they hit that point
 Bright fringe – When the waves constructively interfere, occurs when path difference
nλ
1

0.5

sin x
0
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 sin x - 2π

-0.5

-1
 Dark fringe – When the waves destructively interfere, occurs when path difference
(n  /2 )λ  as the waves have to be 180 degrees out of phase
1

0.5

sin x
0
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 sin x - π

-0.5

-1

Diffraction

 Diffraction=The way waves spread out as they pass through a narrow gap or around an
obstacle
 Occurs when a wave encounters an object of similar size to its wavelength
 When slit is larger than wavelength less diffraction occurs
 Most diffraction when slit width is the same as the wavelength – perfect diffraction
 If gap is smaller than wavelength, waves mostly reflected back

 When wave meets obstacle, diffraction around edges


 Behind obstacle is shadow where wave is blocked
 The wider the obstacle compared to wavelength the lesser the diffraction so the longer the shadow
 Fringe spacing (for double slit only):

W=
S
W = Fringe spacing (m)
D = Distance between slits and screen (m)
λ = Wavelength (m)
S = Distance between slits (m)

Single Slit Diffraction Pattern


 Central maximum is twice as wide as the other maxima, and much higher intensity
 Rest of the fringes decrease slightly in intensity as you get further from the middle ( all
same width) – intensity reduces with every peak
 Maxima occurs with constructive interference and zero intensity with destructive
interference
 If gap gets smaller or distance between screen and slit increases so does width of maxima
 Central maxima gets larger if wavelength is longer or the gap is smaller

 Narrower slit = wider/increased separation and lower intensity


 Shorter wavelength = Smaller angle of diffraction = maxima closer together and thinner, central maxima thinner
 Longer wavelength = Bigger angle of diffraction = maxima further apart and wider, central maxima wider
 ↑Wavelength = Greater diffraction effect For maximum diffraction, slit size
 ↓Slit size = Greater diffraction effect should be equal to wavelength
 ↑Screen distance = Greater fringe spacing

 Using white light:


White bright central fringe
Other fringes:
Red outside
Violet inside
Full spectrum in between
Compared to laser, maxima wider/fringe spacing less/dark fringes smaller
 Central Fringe/maxima width:
λ
W= x 2D
a
W = Central Fringe width (m)
λ = Wavelength (m)
a = Slit width (m)
D = Distance between slits and screen (m)

To produce interference patterns


 Interference patterns are produced when either single source of waves is diffracted or when multiple sources are coherent
 When sources are coherent they produce maxima and minima at fixed locations – hence the interference pattern of fringes on a
screen
 To get coherent source, either pass light through a single slit or use a highly monochromatic source e.g. laser
 Coherent = Constant phase difference, same wavelength/frequency
 Monochromatic = Single wavelength and frequency

Two‐Slit interference patterns (Young’s Slits)


 Showed evidence for wave theory of light – that light was a wave/ wave nature of light
 Single slit diffraction spreads out one wave and causes it to act as 2 coherent sources for 2
further slits.
 Pattern – Maxima Similar intensity and same width as central fringe. Intensity reduces slowly the
further out the peaks are
 Whether maxima or minimum produced is based on path difference
 If path difference is a multiple of wavelength e.g. 1λ 2λ points of maximum intensity produced
If path difference is an odd multiple of half the wavelength e.g. 1/2λ 3/2λ, etc. (n  /2 )λ points of minimum intensity produced
1

 If path difference is in-between these two, intensity is between 0 and maximum
 Maxima/Fringe spacing:

W=
S
W = Fringe spacing (m)
D = Distance between slits and screen (m)
λ = Wavelength (m)
S = Distance between slits (m)
 The distance between two successive maxima/fringes depends upon:
o S = distance between the 2 slits; increasing S makes fringes closer together (or w smaller)
 Shorter wavelength = Smaller angle of diffraction = maxima closer together and thinner, central maxima thinner
 Longer wavelength = Bigger angle of diffraction = maxima further apart and wider, central maxima wider
 ↑Wavelength = Greater diffraction effect For maximum diffraction, slit size
 ↓Slit size = Greater diffraction effect should be equal to wavelength
= Wider/increased separation, lower intensity
 ↑Screen distance = Greater fringe spacing

Single slit/ laser used because:


 Laser is monochromatic – constant wavelength and frequency
 Coherent source so good contrast with nice fringes
 Without, fringes are fuzzy with low contrast
 However, using a laser damages the skin and eye/retina – so point away from eyes/others/ wear laser safety goggles
 Laser is more intense than white light
 Obtain dots using laser, not bands like white light
 For laser, maxima are narrower and minima wider than that obtained from white light

 Experiment to determine wavelength of light using double slit:


Shine a laser at a double slit, projected onto a screen
Measurements:
Measure W (fringe spacing) using Vernier calliper
Measure D (distance between slits and screen) using tape measure/ruler
Measure s using a ruler/ Vernier calliper
Accuracy:
Repeat measurements 3 times to get average
Measure several fringe spaces – 5 or more – and find average
Measure from centre to centre of fringes
Ensure D is large - ≥ 2m
Use a dark room
Safety:
Use laser safety goggles
Avoid shining laser at/near a person
Calculations:
W=λD/s  λ=Ws/D
λ
Plot a graph of W against D  W= /S D
Gradient=λ/s
So multiply gradient by s to get λ

Diffraction Grating
 Series of uniform narrow slits in parallel

dsin

dsinn
 ϴ= angle of diffraction
 d= distance between slits (centre to centre) if grating has N slits per metre, d=1/N
 N= order of diffraction
 λ = wavelength
 ↑Wavelength = Greater angle of diffraction
 Because max angle of diffraction is 90, putting this into equation gives max number of orders produced by a grating
dsin90 d
n= =
λ λ

If a shorter wavelength of light is used:


 Maxima will be closer together
As w=dλ/s ---> fringe spacing is proportional to wavelength
 Smaller wavelength=smaller path difference
 Angle ϴ gets smaller – d constant so sin ϴ smaller

Application: Spectra
o Light spectra from stars used to identify which elements they contain
o Dark bands reveal composition of stars atmosphere
o Every element absorbs different wavelengths of light
o Spectra that match the absorption patterns of elements mean the star contains those elements
o Peak of intensity related to temperature
o Doppler effect/blue/red shift related to speed of star relative to earth
o Absorption patterns can also be used to identify an element
o If the substance absorbs the same wavelengths of light as an element, then the substance is that element

 Experiment to use diffraction grating to measure wavelength of light:


Shine light through diffraction grating
Measurements:
Measure angle of first order beam using spectrometer/protractor/tan x
Measure Number of orders
3
Calculate d – d=1/lines per mm x 10
Accuracy:
Repeat measurements 3 times to get average
Measure between more than one order
Measure ϴ for different orders (for average λ)
Repeat for different distances
Use large distance to screen - D ≥ 2m
Protractor with ≤ 0.5⁰ intervals
Calculations:
d sin ϴ= n λ  λ= d sin ϴ
λ
Plot a graph of sin against ϴ  sin ϴ= /d n
Gradient=λ/d
So multiply gradient by d to get λ
All Unit 2 Experiments:

 Experiment to determine spring constant:


Hang weights from the spring
Independent variable:
Masses - Vary the masses, at least 8 masses, 0-1400g, intervals of 200g
Measured by using pre weighed masses
Dependant variable:
Extension of spring - Measure original length and take away from final length (final – original)
Use Ruler to measure
Accuracy:
Repeat measurements of length 3 times and calculate an average extension
To reduce parallax error, use a set square – so that ruler and spring are level
Calculations:
F=ke  e=final length-original length
Plot a graph of force versus extension
Gradient = spring constant (k)

 Experiment to determine Young’s Modulus:


Hang weights from the wire
Independent variable:
Masses - Vary the masses, at least 8 masses, 0-1400g, intervals of 200g
Measured by using pre weighed masses
Measurements:
 Extension of wire - Measure original length and take away from final length (final – original)
Use Ruler or travelling microscope to measure
For Searle’s apparatus, use Vernier scale
 Cross sectional area of wire – Measure diameter of wire, area = πd 2/4
Measure using micrometre gauge
Accuracy:
Repeat measurements of length 3 times and calculate an average extension
Measure diameter in several places
Use Searle’s control wire to negate effect of temperature change
Monitor how diameter changes with extension
Calculations:
Stress=Force/Area Strain=Extension/original length
Plot a graph of stress versus strain
Gradient = Young’s Modulus (E)

 Experiment to determine wavelength of light using double slit:


Shine a laser at a double slit, projected onto a screen
Measurements:
Measure W (fringe spacing) using Vernier calliper
Measure D (distance between slits and screen) using tape
measure/ruler
Measure s using a ruler/ Vernier calliper
Accuracy:
Repeat measurements 3 times to get average
Measure several fringe spaces – 5 or more – and find average
Measure from centre to centre of fringes
Ensure D is large - ≥ 2m
Use a dark room
Safety:
Use laser safety goggles
Avoid shining laser at/near a person
Calculations:
W=λD/s  λ=Ws/D
λ
Plot a graph of W against D  W= /S D
Gradient=λ/s
So multiply gradient by s to get λ
 Experiment to use diffraction grating to measure wavelength of
light:
Shine light through diffraction grating
Measurements:
Measure angle of first order beam using
spectrometer/protractor/tan x
Measure Number of orders
Calculate d – d=1/lines per mm x 103
Accuracy:
Repeat measurements 3 times to get average
Measure between more than one order
Measure ϴ for different orders (for average λ)
Repeat for different distances
Use large distance to screen - D ≥ 2m
Protractor with ≤ 0.5⁰ intervals
Calculations:
d sin ϴ= n λ  λ= d sin ϴ
λ
Plot a graph of sin against ϴ  sin ϴ= /d n
Gradient=λ/d
So multiply gradient by d to get λ
Negative constant No Acceleration Positive constant
Acceleration (Deceleration (so no FRes) Acceleration

Acceleration-Time

Acc. Acc. Acc.


(ms-2) (ms-2) (ms-2)

Time (s) Time (s) Time (s)

Acceleration is gradient of Acceleration is gradient of


velocity time. So Negative Acceleration is gradient of velocity time. So positive
constant Acceleration = Negative velocity time. So No Acceleration constant Acceleration = positive
gradient = Decreasing velocity =0 gradient = Constant velocity gradient=increasing velocity
Area underneath graph is Area underneath graph is Area underneath graph is
displacement displacement displacement

Velocity-Time

Veloc Veloc Veloc


ity ity ity
(ms-1) (ms-1) (ms-1)

Time (s) Time (s) Time (s)

Velocity is gradient of displacement


Velocity is gradient of displacement time. So constant velocity = Velocity is gradient of displacement
time. So decreasing velocity = constant gradient = time. So increasing velocity =
Decreasing gradient = peak/^ increasing/decreasing displacement increasing gradient = min/u

Displacement-Time

Displac Displac Displac


ement ement ement
(m) (m) (m)
(m) (m) (m)

Time (s) Time (s) Time (s)