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Formulario Química Analítica Cualitativa

Nombre: Andrea Pilataxi

Reacciones ácido-base

Kw = [H3 O+ ][OH − ] [H3 O+ ] = [OH − ] = √𝐾𝑤

pH = − log[ H3 O+ ] → [H3 O+ ] = 10−pH [H3 O+ ] = 1 x 10−14 = pH = 7

pOH = − log[ OH − ] → [OH − ] = 10−pH [OH− ] = 1 x 10−14 = pH = 7

𝐾𝑤
pH + pOH = 14 w= 𝐾𝑤 = 𝐾𝑎. 𝐾𝑏𝑝𝑜𝑟 á𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑜−𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑗𝑢𝑔𝑎𝑑𝑜 = 1x10-14
x

𝐾𝑤 𝐾𝑤
[H3 O+ ] = [OH] =
[𝑂𝐻] [H3 O+ ]

[H− ][H3 O+] [B+][OH+ ]


𝐾𝑎 = → electrolito débil 𝐾𝑏 = → electrolito débil
[AH] [BOH]

𝑋2 𝑋2
𝐾𝑎 = 𝐾𝑏 =
𝐶𝑜−𝑥 𝐶𝑜−𝑥

−𝐾𝑎±√𝐾𝑎2 +4𝐶𝑜.𝐾𝑎 −𝐾𝑏±√𝐾𝑏 2 +4𝐶𝑜.𝐾𝑏


𝑥 = [H3 O+ ] = 𝑥 = [OH − ] =
2 2

𝐶𝑜+√𝐾𝑎2 +4 𝐾𝑤 𝐾𝑤
[H3 O+ ] = 𝑤=
2 𝑥

𝑋2 𝑋2
𝐾𝑎 = → 𝑥 = √𝐶𝑜𝐾𝑎 𝐾𝑏 = → 𝑥 = √𝐶𝑜𝐾𝑏
𝐶𝑜 𝐶𝑜−𝑥

𝑝𝐾𝑎 = − log 𝐾𝑎 → 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 𝑑𝑒 𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑝𝐾𝑏 = − log 𝐾𝑏 → 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 𝑑𝑒 𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑐𝑖ó𝑛

PH anfótero

[H3O]= √𝐾𝑎1 𝐾𝑎2

Ácidos Poliproticos

𝑋2
𝐾𝑎1 = →𝑥 𝑥𝑤 = 𝐾𝑤
𝐶𝑜−𝑥

𝐾𝑎2 = 𝑦 → 𝑦 𝑝𝐻 = −log[𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧 + 𝑤]
𝑧𝑥 𝐾𝑎3 − 𝐾𝑎2
𝐾𝑎3 = →𝑧=
𝐾𝑎2 𝑥

Soluciones Amortiguadoras

[𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑗𝑢𝑔𝑎𝑑𝑎]𝑒𝑞 [𝐵 + ]
pH = pKa + log 𝑝𝐻 = 14 − 𝑝𝐾𝑏 + log
[á𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑜]𝑒𝑞 [𝑆𝑎𝑙]

[á𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑗𝑢𝑔𝑎𝑑𝑎]𝑒𝑞
pOH = pKa + log [á𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑜] + [𝑠𝑎𝑙] = [𝐵𝑢𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟]
[𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒]𝑒𝑞

Grado de Ionización

x −Ka+√Ka2 +4Ka.Co
α= → x = αCo α=
Co 2

x αh2 .Co
%α = x100 Kh = Kb =
Co (1−αh)

α2 Co
Ka =
(1 − α)