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Survey Procedures Manual International Register of Shipping

MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY CHAPTER 3

SECTION 1
Introduction

1.1 The following procedures are intended for general guidance only and should not be interpreted as indicating
the full and exact extent of any survey.

1.2 The requirements are framed to cover only those items used for propulsion of the ship and other essential
services. Except for some non-essential pressure vessels, these requirements therefore exclude equipment such as
cargo handling gear, pumps used solely for sanitary or other domestic purposes, refrigerating machinery (if not
classed) etc.

1.3 Surveyors must ensure that the person responsible for opening up machinery items are made aware as early
as possible of the extent of opening up required. The precise amount of opening for each item depends to some extent
on details of construction, reported faults or obvious signs of defects. Surveyors must therefore use their experience,
judgment and any knowledge of the past history of the installation or similar installations when deciding how
extensive the opening up should be.

SECTION 2
Periodicity Of Surveys

S. No. Survey Periodicity


1 Annual Every year within +/-3months from the anniversary date, which is the
expiry date of the certificate without year.
2 Intermediate Along with the second or third annual survey
3 Docking Twice in any five-year period and the period between subsequent surveys
not exceeding 3years. One of the docking surveys shall coincide with the
special survey.
4 Special Once in five years.
5 Continuous May be carried out in lieu of special survey. To be carried out over a
period of 5 years

SECTION 3
Annual Survey

3.1 General

3.1.1 The purpose of the annual survey is to ensure that the entire machinery installation including main and
auxiliary engines, boilers, vessels and equipment under pressure, valves and fittings, safety devices plus the electrical
installation are maintained in a satisfactory condition during a period of class. The survey for the hull and machinery
must always be carried out in the same time.

3.1.2 The survey is to be performed at intervals of 12 months starting from the beginning of the period of class. The
due date is the day in which the period of class begins. There is a “ window period “ of plus/minus three months for
the surveys.

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3.1.3 For ships carrying more than twelve passengers the annual surveys are to be carried out at least on the due
date recorded. Permission to go beyond the time limit is to be sought directly from IRS Head Office.
3.1.4 It should be noted that opening up of machinery and boilers is not normally required at annual surveys and it
is sufficient that items are generally examined under working conditions. If, however, defects, repairs or alterations
are found, or brought to the Surveyors attention, they should be dealt with as required.

3.2 Scope Of Survey

3.2.1 The following items are to be checked:

(a) Whether any components have been rendered inoperative or removed and if any new/replacement equipment
has been placed on board, whether they are of correct/approved type, size, capacity etc.
(b) Whether any leaks show up on pipelines, above or below the floor plates or on machines or valves and fittings.
(c) The tightness of the inner stern tube seal.
(d) The condition of the insulation on pipelines, heaters, boilers, exhaust ducts, etc.
(e) The general state of maintenance of indicating and monitoring devices (pressure gauges, volt & ampere meters,
thermometers, governors etc) and safety valves.
(f) Whether beside the bilge alarm test other monitoring devices need testing.
(g) Whether there is free access to, and lighting in emergency exits.
(h) Completeness and state of maintenance of spare parts.
(i) Operation of various remote shutdown & closing arrangements (oil fuel pumps, oil fuel tank valves, ventilation
fans etc) and testing various alarms & controls
(j) Examination of bilge pumping arrangements from various compartments including holds and operation of
emergency bilge suction from machinery space

Thorough examinations and/or tests may be demanded in cases of doubt where this seems necessary, or if obvious
deficiencies call for it. All essential machinery (pumps, compressors, auxiliary engines, ventilation fans, must be
operated to the extent possible and confirmed operating satisfactorily. Logbook entries (engine room & Chief
Engineer’s) should be examined to ensure that machinery has been operating satisfactorily (recorded parameters of
main & auxiliary engines etc) in the period since the last surveys and defects / deficiencies noted have been rectified.
All remote cont

32.2 Main and emergency steering gear - The state of maintenance of the entire installation including controls and
fittings is checked by external examination. A special lookout is to be kept for leaks in the hydraulic system (pipelines,
packing, cover seals), mechanical damage to piston rods of hydraulic cylinders and high-pressure hoses, grease
lubrication of ball and socket joints of hydraulic cylinders and rudder stocks, rudder stock seals and the condition of
limit switches. Each annual class survey is to include a trial of the main and emergency steering gear as follows:
- Switching-on and operating the main gear from the bridge.
- Change over to, and operation of, the emergency gear from the bridge (2 nd set of pumps, manual hydraulics, etc.)
- Change over to manual operation and local operation of both sets of gear.
- Run hydraulic cylinder to their limits of travel to check relief valves and/or limit switches (check hydraulic oil
pressure).
- Check rudder angle indicators, marking for port/starboard and
- Test of means of communication.
Any defects and deficiencies found which impair the safety of operation of the gear are to be remedied completely
before the ship sails and a follow-up survey is to be carried out.

3.2.3 Steam Boilers - Steam boilers are to be subject to external inspection to ensure no water or stem leakages,
correct operation of pressure gauges/water level indicators etc.

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3.2.4 Electrical Installation – Carry out external examination of generators for main and emergency power supply,
electric motors, main and emergency switchboard, switch cabinets, the run of cables, explosion-proof equipment. The
state of maintenance is checked by external inspection and if necessary by following trials:
- Trial of emergency generator with connection to mains.
- Check of parallel running of generators.
- Check of main switches with protective and safety devices, such as:
# Switching off unimportant consumers when the rated current is reached.
# Reverse power protection
# Under voltage/under frequency protection
- Check of alarms by random sampling.

3.2.5 Fire – Protection And Safety Equipment - The check of the equipment is effected by external survey and trials.
Should any of the defects discovered impair the safe operation of the equipment, these are to be remedied before the
ship sails.

3.2.6 Carry out an examination and trials of all emergency equipment (steering gear, fire pump, compressor,
generator/battery etc). All emergency equipment must be in satisfactory condition and vessel should not be allowed
to sail with any emergency equipment not working satisfactorily.

SECTION 4
Intermediate Survey

4.1 General

4.1.1 Intermediate surveys are extended annual surveys of ships of any age.

4.1.2 The survey is to be performed at intervals of 30 months starting from the beginning of the period of class. The
due date is the day in which the period of class begins. There is a “ window period “ of plus/minus six months for the
surveys. The survey is normally carried out at the second or third annual class survey.

4.2 Scope Of Survey

4.2.1 For intermediate survey, the complete requirements of annual survey are to be completed. In addition the
following measurements are to be carried out or confirmed from up-to-date reports:
- crank web deflection of main engine(s)
- crank shaft deflection of auxiliary engines (where relevant)
- Axial thrust bearing clearance of shafting
- Insulation resistance of the generators and operationally important electric motors including cabling and
switchgear.

The following operational tests are to be carried out:


- Emergency generator set including emergency switchboard (if applicable).
- Emergency bilge suction valve.
- Bilge pumping, ventilation and monitoring arrangements for the transport of dangerous goods.
- Drainage arrangements of starting – air and control air bottles.
- Extended functional check of machinery and electrical installation to prove the unrestricted operability at the
discretion of the surveyor.

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SECTION 5
Dry-dock Survey

5.1 The object of the survey in the course of a periodic dry-docking is to check the underwater hull (bottom
survey), the submerged valves, fittings and devices associated with the operation of the machinery and the outboard
portion of the propulsion plant.

5.2 Scope Of Survey

5.2.1 The propeller should be examined for erosion, pitting, cracking of blades or possible contact damage. Any
leakage of oil from controllable pitch propellers should be investigated, the cause established and the defect rectified.
For water lubricated stern bearings, the clearance in the bush should be measured and if considered excessive,
recommendations of relining made. For oil lubricated stern bearings, the requirements to measure clearance may be
waived if an approved type of gland is fitted, in which case it need not be disturbed provided the sealing
arrangements are satisfactory. Oil glands should be tested by applying the normal oil pressure. Stern bush wear
down is to be measured by poker gauge or other device and compared with any previous readings. The condition of
the oil gland is to be reported along with the poker gauge readings.

5.2.2 The fastenings of all suction and discharge valves below the loadline and of the stern tube and where
practicable the stern bush, should be examined. During the dry-docking associated with class renewal surveys, all
suction and discharge valves (including those associated with non -class machinery also) must be opened out and
examined, when care should be taken to see the threads on spindles and nuts are in good condition. Some discharges
are so arranged so that the flow of water tends to return the valve stopper to their seats. With these, it is important to
ensure that the connections between the valve stopper and the spindles are secure. All fabricated ship’s side valve
chests should be specially examined in view of their tendency to internal corrosion. The inability to fully close sea
connections has resulted in serious flooding of engine spaces. Surveyors must therefore ensure that these valves are
fully reconditioned at this time and correctly assembled. In ships having ICE CLASS notations, the de-icing and
circulating arrangements should be checked.

5.2.3 Where exposed lengths of shafting are protected by wrapping, the Surveyor must ensure that the condition
remains good.

SECTION 6
Engine Special Survey / Continuous Machinery Survey

6.1 General

6.1.1 When a ship is first surveyed for entry into class, the Surveyors should enquire from the owners whether they
wish to carry out the machinery surveys on a continuous basis and inform Head Office accordingly. A complete list of
surveyable machinery items must be prepared (Form ML-M) and forwarded to Head Office along with the class entry
report (Form CL-1). A copy of the previous survey cycle dates issue by the previous Classification society should also
be forwarded, if available.

6.1.2 When machinery is to be examined on the Continuous survey basis, the intention is that, so far as practicable,
approximately 20% of the surveyable items should be examined each year and that any individual item is surveyed
once in any five year period.

6.1.3 The Continuous survey machinery date will be the same date as the Hull special survey date. Hence, there
should be no outstanding machinery item for survey when the hull special survey is completed.

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6.1.4 Whenever it is known to Surveyors that a ship will remain in port for some considerable time (during dry
docking or when extensive repairs or alterations are being effected to the hull or machinery), the opportunity should
be taken to progress the continuous surveys as much as possible.

6.1.5 Under certain circumstances, certain parts of machinery may be surveyed and overhauled by the ship’s Chief
Engineer while the ship is at sea or at a port where International Register of Shipping Surveyor is not available. This is
applicable only to ships being surveyed under the Continuous Machinery system. In all such cases, the Surveyor is
expected to carry out a confirmatory survey before accepting the item. The Owner’s should be requested to contact
Head Office for further details regarding this system.

6.2 Scope Of Survey: On the occasion of class renewal survey the machinery, electrical installation and safety
equipment plus classed special equipment are subject to detailed inspections and tests for a new period of class. In
addition to checking the ship safety certificates and class papers, the work records, measurements reports or logbooks
on board are inspected as far as possible. The ship‘s management must be questioned regarding defects or breakdown
known to them and inspect repair and maintenance work. The machinery is subject to a general inspection to
establish the state of maintenance. The surveys should include all classed components of the machinery and the
electrical installation. Due to wide variety of machinery used on board it is impossible to advise specific instruction
for each type of machinery. While general principles are enumerated here surveyors are advised to follow the
manufacturer's requirement/recommendations and their expertise in the field to evaluate condition of
machinery/equipment.

6.2.1 Main engines

6.2.1.1 For oil engines; pistons should be dismantled to facilitate complete examination in view of the rapid wear
usually experienced. Liners are to be inspected for incipient cracks in the area of the liner collar bearing surface; in the
case of two stroke engines also in the area of scavenge-air and exhaust ports. Liner wear is to be measured and
recorded. The permissible wear may vary with engine type, however as a broad guide, cylinder liners must be
recommended to be renewed when worn one percent of the bore (reference should also be made to engine builders
recommendations). Cooling water passages to be examined for fouling and corrosion.

6.2.1.2 Pistons of oil engines may be found cracked in the crowns or at the back of the ring grooves. Piston rods
should be carefully examined in way of crosshead attachments, and at the inlet and outlet holes for cooling water or
oil. Suitable crack detection methods should be used, if considered necessary. The ring groove clearance is to be
measured and recorded

6.2.1.3 The cylinder block is to be inspected in the area of the liner bearing surface to check the surfaces are in good
order and for incipient cracking. Cylinder heads are to be inspected for incipient cracking around the valve seats, on
the cooling – water side for fouling and corrosion. Inlet, exhaust, starting and safety valves are to be checked for wear
and regarding the state of maintenance.

6.2.1.4 The crank web deflection is to be checked before and after dry docking, a crankcase inspection is to be carried
out and the clearances of the main, crank and crosshead bearings, the slide ways, the axial clearance of the guide
bearing to be measured insofar as this is possible. If the results are satisfactory, dismantling of the bearings for
examination may be dispensed with. It can be assumed in practice that if the condition of the big end bearings is
satisfactory and the lubricating oil system intact, the condition of the main bearings also will be satisfactory.

6.2.1.5 Crankshafts should be examined for possible cracking, particular attention being paid to the surfaces close to
oil holes and where pins and webs are forged or cast in one piece, the undersides of the crankpin fillets. Pins and
journals, which have been subjected to overheating and scoring due to wiped bearings, should be carefully examined
for surface cracking. The surfaces should also be checked for surface hardening. The webs of built or semi built

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crankshafts should be examined for movement of the shrink fits and the reference marks should be checked. Webs
and bolted on balance weights should be examined at the same time as crankpins. Crankshaft alignment must be re-
checked after any major repairs, additions and/or alterations to adjacent parts of the ship’s structure.

6.2.1.6 Bed plates, framing and entablatures of fabricated construction should be examined for possible cracking in
way of welded joints, particularly at the girders under main bearings. Any repairs should be reported to Head Office.
Unless repairs are of a minor nature; the repaired areas must be examined at subsequent annual surveys.

6.2.1.7 The seatings of main engines and thrust blocks should be examined, together with holding down bolts, their
tightening torque and chocks. Chocking arrangement should be checked for broken bolts and loose chocks. Resin
chocks may be found crushed or distorted and should be renewed after the bedplate is realigned. Distortion of
bedplates will produce misalignment of crankshafts, and where such conditions are suspected, the condition of the
bedplates should be checked by straight edge, sights, taut wire or other available means.

6.2.1.8 Where torsional vibration dampers or detuners are fitted, they should be inspected, where applicable, for
broken springs or other defective parts.

6.2.1.9 The camshaft including bearings and drive is to be inspected. In the case of reversing engines, the reversing
gear also is to be inspected. Governors and fuel pumps including their drives are to be checked.

6.2.1.10 Exhaust gas turbo-chargers are as a rule serviced and overhauled by specially trained personnel from the
makers or a specialist firm. The records on board should be checked to ensure that maintenance intervals have been
adhered to regularly.

6.2.1.11 Maneuvering devices (starting and reversing devices) plus engine monitoring and safety equipment is to be
checked.

6.2.2 Auxiliary engines: Auxiliary engines are generally examined in the same manner as main engines.
Surveyors need not rigidly adhere in all cases to the main engine survey requirements in deciding the amount of
opening up necessary, particularly with small engines, and provided they are quite satisfied that the auxiliary has
been well maintained. If regular maintenance is proved and the appearance is satisfactory, it may be considered
sufficient if a crankcase inspection is carried out, possibly in conjunction with measuring the crank web deflection.
Additionally, a trial under load and a check of safety and monitoring equipment should be carried out. If for any
reason, it is proposed that a ship should sail with one or more of the auxiliary electrical generating sets out of action,
Surveyors should ensure that there is adequate reserve electrical generating capacity. In these conditions, provided
there are at least two generators in good order, each of which can carry the essential sea load, repairs of any
additional generator may be deferred.

6.2.3 Gearing: Each pinion and wheel should be checked separately during one complete revolution and the teeth
carefully examined for cracks, pitting, scuffing or any signs which might indicate that pinions and wheels are out of
alignment. Any available lubricating oil analysis records should be examined; in particular the results from
spectrographic analysis of wear elements. Flexible couplings between pinions and rotors and between pinions and
wheels of double reduction gears should be carefully examined and any sign of unusual wear investigated since this
may indicate lack of correct alignment. Gear cases of fabricated construction should be examined for possible cracks
in way of welds. Thrust bearings are to be inspected as far as possible and the axial clearance measured. If the thrust
bearing embodies a lube oil cooler, its tightness is to be checked by a hydraulic pressure test.

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6.2.4 Pumping and piping arrangements

6.2.4.1 At the Surveyor’s discretion essential pumps should be opened out sufficiently to enable the Surveyor to
establish the condition of cylinders, plungers, casings, impellers, valves etc. All seawater pumps must be opened up
and surveyed. For other pumps, at least one pump of each type (fuel oil, lube oil, fresh water etc) should be opened
up for survey. Lubricating oil, gear oil and fuel pumps as a rule suffer little from wear. Coolers and pressure heaters
should be tested when considered necessary. Safety valves and other similar devices fitted on pumps, heaters etc., are
to be examined to ensure that they are in efficient condition. Bilge suction lines should be tested by pumping water
from the various holds and engine room bilges and it should be seen that strums or strainers are fitted in the holds
and that sounding pipes are in order. Where non return valves are fitted at or adjacent to the open ends of bilge
suction pipes in holds they should be opened out to see they are in good working order and of a design which does
not unduly obstruct the flow of water.

6.2.4.2 The survey of pumping arrangements should include a general examination of all essential piping, fittings,
valves and controls. It is important to see that emergency suction valves and connections are free and not choked.
Particular attention should be given to seawater piping systems. The extent of survey will depend on various factors
such as the age and service of the ship, the materials of the pipes and valves as well as the onboard maintenance.
Normal inspection methods involve hammer testing, visual examination and pressure testing, however where judged
necessary ultrasonic thickness measurements should also be taken. Any temporary repairs should be specially
examined. The Surveyors must be fully satisfied with replacement pipe sections or permanent repairs completed.
Flexible connections in seawater, lube oil and fuel systems must be of flame resistant material. This applies in
particular to pipe connections to diesel engines. It should be ensured that the non-return devices required for the
bilge and ballast systems are fitted and operative. Heating coils in oil tanks, cargo tanks and receivers are to be subject
to a hydraulic pressure test to 1.5 times the maximum allowable working pressure but at least to 4 bar. The safety of
operation of pressure reducing and safety valves in pipelines is to be checked. In the case of tankers the pipes of
loading and unloading arrangements including the safety devices are also to be inspected. The tank venting systems
(overpressure valves, vacuum valves, flame traps) are to be inspected in the opened-up condition and the set pressure
checked (in collaboration with an expert firm).

6.2.4.3 Emergency fire pumps should be tested under working conditions and provided they operate satisfactorily
and deliver the required supply of water at the required pressure, they need not be opened up. The operation of any
remote control gear for the sea inlet valve should be tested. Where emergency fire pumps are driven by diesel
engines, the engines need not be opened up provided they function satisfactorily and it is demonstrated that they can
started when cold.

6.2.4.4 In ships carrying flammable liquids having a flashpoint below 600 C, the cargo pumping system must have no
direct communication with the machinery space, or with the oil fuel bunker lines and Surveyors should ensure that
any alterations to the piping system made at any time do not infringe on this requirement. Gas tight glands fitted to
pump shafts, which pass through pump -room bulkheads should be examined to ascertain that they remain efficient.
The bilge drainage system in pump rooms should be checked. Clean ballast pipes passing through cargo oil tanks
should be hydraulically tested and proved free from leakage.

6.2.4.5 Steam pipes are to be inspected externally. Random checks of internal condition particularly in the region of
bends, or more thorough examination may be required.

6.2.5 Compressed Air Systems

6.2.5.1 Compressors should be opened up and the working parts examined. It is important to ensure that the tubes
or coils of air coolers are in good condition and when considered necessary a hydraulic test to 1.25 times compressed

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air discharge pressure in the coils/tubes should be applied. Coils may be found locally thinned due to rubbing
against supports or casings or there may be internal erosion at bends, which may be detected by slight hammering.

6.2.5.2 Air receivers should be examined internally together with mountings. When size of the openings restrict
internal examination, a hydraulic test to 1.05 times the working pressure should be applied

6.2.5.3 It should be ensured that all filters, oil separators, safety devices, bursting discs, fusible plugs and relief
valves on compressors are in good condition and that drainage arrangements throughout the compressed air system
are satisfactory. Many explosions have taken place because relief valves or other safety devices have been rendered
inoperative by paint or dirt or by using bursting discs of incorrect material.

6.2.6 Where bridge remote controls are fitted to main propulsion and/or auxiliary machinery, they should be
tested to establish that they are in good working order. It should also be ascertained that normal hand/local controls
are available and in working order and that efficient means are provided to indicate which station is in control.

6.2.7 The means of communication between the bridge and the engine room and the bridge and the alternative
steering position must be tested under working conditions.

6.2.8 Steering Gear

6.2.8.1 The steering gear is to be subject to a functional test and the log of test drills required by SOLAS is to be
examined. System relief valves are to be checked for set pressure and operation. If auxiliary or emergency steering
systems are provided, they are also to be tested. A good assessment of the condition of the hydraulic pumps and the
steering gear is possible if the hydraulic pumps are made to operate against the blocked gear. If the pumps then reach
their full operating pressure, it can be assumed that they are in a satisfactory condition. Also the following are to be
checked: seating bolts, tightness of system, functional test with one hydraulic pump, with spare pump, with both
hydraulic pumps; emergency operation (hand rudder); overload protection (slipping clutch, safety valves); restriction
of the rudder angle to 35 degrees in normal operation (e.g. limit switches); operation of gear via the emergency
switchboard; rudder angle indicators; means of communication between steering gear compartment and bridge and
alarms.

6.2.8.2 Access to all mechanical parts of the system including handrails and anti-slip surfaces is to be verified.
Steering gear compartments may be located in areas subject to vibration. Therefore, the piping should be examined
for possible cracks, particularly at areas of stress concentration, e.g. flange attachments. Unsupported lengths of
piping should be secured effectively, and flexible hoses examined for signs of damage. Particular attention should be
paid to leaks, glands, connections, storage tanks and fittings, all mechanical linkages, pins and their securing
arrangements, of the main system and control system, together with an examination of holding down arrangements
of the gear to the ship’s structure.

6.2.9 Anchor windlass: The gearing is to be examined through inspection openings. The clutches, brakes, chain
sprockets and chain stoppers are to be checked. In the case of hydraulically driven windlasses the hydraulic pumps,
the pipelines and the functioning of the overflow valves are to be checked. Electrically driven windlasses are to have
the functioning of the slipping clutch and of the electrical overload protection checked.

6.2.10 Electrical installation: Examine all accessible cables and cable trays for damage, aging, damaged fastenings
and fouling especially by oily or greasy substances. Check bulkhead and deck lead-through for the condition of the
sealing compound and filler of the glands for single cables. Check the protective earthing of machinery and
appliances. Check effectiveness of explosion proof fittings in dangerous areas. Examine generators and main electrical
motors for proper maintenance and cleanliness of current-carrying internals. Heavy fouling can be detected when
measuring the insulating resistance. Heavily fouled machines should always be dismantled and cleaned and

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overhauled by specially trained personnel. Power unit couplings of shaft generators are to be examined.
Switchboards are to be inspected for the general state of maintenance and proper operation of the switches and
instruments (ampere, volt, frequency, power meters, synchroscopes, circuit breakers, fuses, press-buttons, indicator
lamps). In the case of older and open switchboards not erected in separate compartments a special lookout is to be
kept for fouling of the current carrying internals. For switchboard operating at 50V or above, insulating floor covering
is to be fitted in front of and behind the boards (wooden gratings or rubber mats) and the front & back of the
switchboards should have proper cover. Such switchboards should also have handrails in proper condition and
warning notices giving the voltage and drawing attention to the danger must be fitted. Storage batteries and their
charging arrangements must be examined for proper maintenance and operation. It is to be verified that no changes
have been made to the operationally safe installation, the site or the equipment. An examination of protective boxes
and lockers, supports against slippage, drip trays, ventilation and proper cable connections is to be carried out.
Surveyor should ensure that warning notices prohibiting use of open flames or smoking have been applied to boxes,
lockers or compartments. Insulation resistance (Megger test) measurements must be carried out comprising all parts
of the installation (electrical machinery, switchboards, lighting circuits, cable systems, etc.). Repairs must be carried
out when insulation resistance values are below the following: -
Electrical machinery : 0.5 Mega Ohms.
Power and lighting circuits : 1.0 Mega Ohms.
Switchboards : 1.0 Mega Ohms.

6.2.11 Trials

6.2.11.1 The trials are usually carried out in form of a dock trial and comprise the main propulsion plant and the
auxiliary machinery set for operation at sea. Independent of this, a sea trial may also be occasioned following major
repairs, conversions or if the results of the survey make necessary.

6.2.11.2 Main propelling machinery: The trails should cover the following:

- Trial of the maneuvering arrangements including the associated command and indicating devices and
interlocks.
- Starting, reversing, various speed adjustments, engine room and bridge telegraph.
- Random checks of the operating instrumentation, monitoring and safety devices (engine room and bridge).
- Pressure gauges, thermometers, level indicators, governors, emergency stops, over speed protection, power
reduction.
- Lube oil, fresh water, seawater, fuel, steam, compressed air and hydraulic system (pressure, temperature,
flow).
- Random checks of optical and acoustic alarm and indicating devices. Bilge alarm, alarms generally from the
engines and boilers.

6.2.11.3 For auxiliary diesel engines, check speed and governor behavior with load variation and parallel operation.
Carry out random checks of the operating, control and safety devices.

6.2.11.4 Surveyors should carry out functional tests of important pumps, separators, filters, pre-heaters, coolers,
ventilating fans etc. and verify operation of the their instrumentation and safety devices. The bilge pumping trials
should cover all relevant compartment such as cargo spaces, dry tank, cofferdams, cable lockers, forepeak and aft
peak spaces, steering gear compartments etc.

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SECTION 7
Tail Shaft Surveys

7.1 General

7.1.1 Any requests for postponement of tail shaft surveys should be referred to Head Office.

7.2 Scope

7.2.1 Before drawing the shaft, the bearing clearances are measured, the poker gauges read and the readings
compared with the previous ones. All parts of the shaft such as the taper, keyway, thread, flange fillets, contact
surfaces and liner are subject to a thorough visual check for damage, wear and corrosion. Shafts should be carefully
examined for cracks, particularly at keyways. Corrosion may be found at the forward and aft end of liners. Signs of
fretting on the cone may be evidence of unsatisfactory fit of the propeller on the cone or inadequate hardening of the
nut.

7.2.2 The forward part of the cone or the fillet in flanged propeller attachments must be examined by an efficient
crack detection method. Proven procedures are magnetic-particle tests using fluorescent suspensions and an Ultra
Violet lamp or ones with background colors e.g. black / white contrast. Dye penetrant procedures are less suitable
and should only be used in exceptional cases. Surface defects whether of mechanical nature or cracks can be removed
by local gouging out (grinding, milling); if larger in size by machining or a combination of the two. It is important
that the transitions at the edges are made gradual. The regions in which work has been carried out are subject to a
final surface crack test. Care is additionally to be taken, that the diameter of the shaft is not reduced below the
minimum permissible value.

7.2.3 Shaft liners should be sounded for tightness, more particularly at the ends. Liners should also be examined
for possible cracks, particularly in way of circumferential welds, where the liners are made in more than one length.

7.2.4 If for any reason, tail shaft is renewed, a copy of the certificate for the new shaft must be attached to the
survey reports.

7.2.5 Stern bush linings must be renewed when worn. The permissible clearances in the bush will vary depending
on the shaft diameter, but should not exceed 6 to 10 mm in the case of lignum vitae and Tufnol. For oil lubricated
shaft bearings, maximum wear permissible is 2 mm. After renewing any bush, the Surveyor should subsequently
check the alignment between the tail shaft and the intermediate shafting. The actual clearance before and after
relining should be included in the survey report.

7.2.6 Propellers are to be removed and examined at each tail shaft survey. Particular attention should be paid to
the roots of propeller blades for signs of cracking. Repairs to propellers (especially stainless steel and bronze) should
be carried out by propeller manufactures or repairers with special knowledge of this work. If a new propeller is
installed, copy of the certificate must be included with the reports. The accuracy of the fit on the shaft cone should be
tested with and without the key in place. Sealing rings between propeller bosses and aft ends of liners should be of
correct size and fitted so that the shaft is protected from seawater. Filling the recess between the aft end of the liner
and the forward part of the propeller boss with grease, red lead or similar substances is not acceptable as a method of
obtaining water-tightness.

7.2.7 If an oil gland is fitted, the various parts should be examined at each survey. Particular attention should be
paid to the arrangements for preventing ingress of water to the shaft cone. All oil glands, on reassembly, should be
examined under pressure and verified tight.

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7.2.8 If a ship has controllable pitch propeller, the working parts and control gear should be opened up sufficiently
to enable the Surveyor to satisfy himself of their condition. At least one blade is to be dismantled to allow
examination of the internal mechanism and the sealing arrangements. The root and flange of the propeller blades and
the blade to boss securing arrangements should be crack detected.

7.2.9 Directional propellers: Voith Schneider, Schottel etc.: At each docking, propeller and fastenings should be
examined as far as practicable and the maneuvering of the propeller blades should be tested. At intervals of five
years, the control gear and working parts of the propeller and associated gearing should be opened up for
examination. Special attention should be given to the reduction gearing and, in Voith Schneider propellers, to the
attachment of the pinion to its shaft.

7.2.10 Transverse propulsion units: The connection of the units to the hull and condition of the propeller should be
examined, the control gear and arrangements should be examined and tested working so far as is practicable and any
electrical equipment must be Megger tested. It should be noted that defects in these units cannot be made conditions
of class (since they are not essential machinery) unless they constitute a potential hazard to the ship.

SECTION 8
Boiler Surveys

8.1 A boiler, which can supply steam to the main propulsion machinery, is recorded as a main boiler. A boiler,
which can supply steam to auxiliary machinery, which is essential to the safe operation of the ship at sea but cannot
supply steam to the main propulsion machinery, is recorded as an auxiliary boiler. A boiler, which can supply steam
only for purposes not essential to the safe operation of the ship, is recorded as a domestic boiler.

8.2 The Surveyor should make a thorough examination of each boiler, together with its super heater; superheat
control, air heater and economizer, if fitted. If a boiler has not been sufficiently cleaned to allow a proper examination
of pressure parts, the survey cannot be considered as complete.

8.3 All necessary safety precautions must be taken when carrying out boiler surveys, especially the means to
prevent admission of water or steam from another boiler during the time the Surveyor is inside.

8.4 The mountings are to be opened up for internal examination and rectification as necessary. Shell plating in
way of nozzles penetrating the shell and pads attached to the shell should be carefully examined for cracks emanating
from the welds.
8.5 All water gauges and pressure gauge connections must be free from obstructions and their shut-off fittings
clearly marked to indicate when they are in open position. High and low water level alarm fittings and also feed
water regulators should be examined.

8.6 A thorough external examination of boilers should be carried out. It should be verified that boiler supports,
chocks, rolling stays, uptakes and the funnel base are in satisfactory condition. Supports of both cylindrical and water
tube boilers should receive special attention with lagging removed where necessary. Rolling stays should be specially
examined in way of attachments to shell or casings and freedom of pins should be verified.

8.7 It should be verified that the jointing faces of manholes, mud holes and hand hole doors are in good
condition and the clearance at the spigot does not exceed 1.5 mm at any place.

8.8 An important part of a boiler survey is examination under operating conditions. This should include
verification of the calibration of the pressure gauges, test of all safety and alarm equipment and verification of the
proper operation of the water level indicators. A general examination of the associated fuel oil system including tank
valves, pipes and deck control gear should be carried out. Safety valves should be adjusted under steam and the set

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pressure should be included in the survey report. It should be verified that the safety valve re-seats when pressure
drops back (normally between 5 to 15 percent below the set pressure). For exhaust gas heated units, the Surveyor
should take a statement from the Vessel’s Chief Engineer stating that the safety valves will be adjusted under steam at
the first opportunity.

8.9 All boiler repairs must be carried out only by firms experienced in carrying out repairs to pressure vessels. A
hydraulic test must be carried out on completion of any welded repair necessary to restore a boiler to a safe and
satisfactory operating condition. The test pressure should be at least 1.4 times the intended set pressure of the safety
valves.

SECTION 9
Survey Of Inert Gas Systems

9.1 There are two types of inert gas systems in use. In the flue gas system, boiler flue gas is cleaned in a
conditioning unit and fed onwards to the spaces to be inerted. With inert gas generator system, the inert gas is
generated in a separate unit (inert gas generator) using a burner, conditioned and may be stored in pressure vessels
for subsequent use. The two systems may be used separately or in combination.

9.2 The system is to be examined annually as part of the annual classification surveys. The annual survey should
include a function test of the system along with verification that all components are in working order and that all
recording and indicating instrumentation and all necessary safety features (alarms, shut downs, interlocks etc) are
operational. Items to be checked are included in the survey checklist. At annual surveys the records of operation of
the inert gas system should be checked to ensure that the plant was working satisfactorily and that any defect or
malfunction has been rectified.

9.3 At special surveys the inert gas generator, scrubber, and blower are to be opened out as considered necessary
and examined for wear and corrosion. Gas distribution lines and shut off valves, including soot blower interlocking
devices are to be examined as considered necessary. The deck seal and non-return valve is to be examined. Cooling
water systems including the effluent piping and overboard discharge from the scrubbers are to be examined. All
automatic shut down devices and alarms are to be tested. The complete installation is to be tested under working
conditions on completion of survey.

SECTION 10
Repairs

10.1 Recommendations: When it is considered that machinery parts should be rectified, repaired or renewed, the
Owner’s representative must be advised without delay. If it is found impracticable to deal with any such item before
the ship sails and the Surveyor agrees that deferment is possible, he must decide the maximum period it may remain
in service without impairing the safety of the ship. Normally the maximum period should not exceed two months,
but a shorter or longer period may be necessary. In any case the period should not be greater than one year. All such
recommendations must be included as a Condition of Class on the reverse of the classification certificate or if full term
classification certificate is not available on the ship, separately entered on the reverse of the INTERIM certificate of
Class (which should be marked CONDITIONAL).

10.2 The Surveyor should see that all essential repairs are efficiently carried out and, whenever advisable, witness
a working test on completion. When important machinery items or components are being replaced/renewed, copies
of the relevant certificates should be forwarded along with the survey reports. If certificates are not available, Head
Office should be contacted for advise. When special repair procedures are being proposed/used (metal stitching,
clad welding of shafts, metal spraying, welding of cracked cylinder liners and piston crowns, electroplating etc),
Head Office should be contacted for advise.
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10.3 A satisfactory measure of control is to be exercised for all repairs to boilers, pressure vessels and important
machinery items, which affect classification. When equipment is renewed, it should be confirmed that the
replacement equipment is at least of the same power or capacity as the one replaced and adequate for the purpose
intended.

10.4 When second hand parts or equipment are proposed for essential services, the item should be examined
throughout, the scantlings checked and any necessary hydraulic, electrical or running test applied. For small pumps
and similar items a test under working conditions will usually be sufficient but the Surveyor should have the item
opened out if he considers this necessary.

SECTION 11
Reporting

11.1 The relevant survey checklist should be used when carrying out surveys and a copy submitted to Head Office
along with survey reports. The checklists to be used are AS/IS -CL for annual/intermediate surveys, BS/TS-CL for
dry-docking/in-water/tail shaft surveys, BOILER-CL for boiler surveys and SS-CL for engine special surveys. Items
credited for machinery special/continuous surveys must be submitted in M-LIST. For special types of ships, where
additional requirements apply, such as Tankers, Bulk Carriers, Chemical tankers, Gas carriers etc, the checklist Addl-
CL should be completed as applicable and submitted. For ships with UNMANNED MACHINERY SPACE notation,
the checklist UMS-SCL should be filled up and submitted.

11.2 At first surveys by IS, in addition to the relevant survey checklists as applicable, the Class entry report (CL-1)
and Master list of Machinery Surveyable Items (ML-M) should be completed and copy submitted. Copies of the
previous society’s certificates and survey status (quarterly listing of surveys) covering any outstanding deficiencies,
recommendations etc should also be submitted, where available.

11.3 Interim Certificate CERT-CL-I should be issued, valid for five months on satisfactory completion of Special
Surveys or First Survey by International Register of Shipping. When survey is incomplete or deficiencies are noted,
the Interim Certificate should be marked CONDITIONAL and the outstanding survey items/deficiencies must be
noted on the reverse of the Interim Certificate. The certificate validity must be restricted to maximum two months.

11.4 On completion of other surveys (annual, intermediate and inspection of the ships bottom), the existing full
term certificate on board is to be endorsed in the relevant column indicating the date, place and surveyors name and
endorsed using the IS seal. A copy of the endorsed certificate must be submitted to Head Office. At annual /
intermediate / docking surveys, if surveys cannot be completed or deficiencies are noted, the outstanding
items/deficiencies must be entered on the Outstanding recommendations form (OSR-FRM). Deficiencies, except those
of minor nature, must be made CONDITIONS OF CLASS and should also be endorsed on the back of the Full Term
Classification Certificate.

11.5 When previous recommendations and Conditions of Class are examined and completed satisfactorily, the
items must be deleted on the forms OSR-FRM and the Classification Certificate (reverse side – Conditions of Class).

11.6 A narrative survey report should be submitted whenever a survey is incomplete (indicating the reason why
the survey could not be completed), deficiencies are noted (details of deficiency noted and the owners proposal to
deal with the deficiency), repairs are carried out (details of the temporary/permanent repairs carried out) and when
existing outstanding recommendations / Conditions of Class are deleted or postponed.

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