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A HANDBOOK

OF

GENERAL BIOLOGY

VOLUME 4

MAJEBI O.E.

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, without the permission of the
author.

© MAJEBI O. E
2009

Published by
AKOL PRESS, IBADAN.
0803 396 0822

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER PAGE

One - Respiration - - - - - - - - - - 4

Two - Homoestasis - - - - - - - - - - 10

Three - Sense Organs - - - - - - - - - - 13

Four - Reproduction - - - - - - - - - - 20

Five - Ecology - - - - - - - - - - - 31

Six - Food production and storage - - - - - - 41

Seven - Variation & Genetics - - - - - - - - 44

Assignments - - - - - - - - - - - - - 48

Assignment 1

Assignment 2

Assignment 3

Assignment 4

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CHAPTER 1

RESPIRATION
The process that leads to the release of energy when food substances
are broken down is called respiration. The food substances have to be
oxidized before energy can be released. The two end-result of respiration
are carbon (iv) oxide and water.

C6H12O6 + 602 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy


Glucose Oxygen Carbon (iv) oxide Water

Inside a cell, respiration takes place in the mitochondria. Energy


released in respiration is stored in ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). The
energy produced in respiration is used as

(1) Light energy – as in phosphorescent organism (e.g. fire flies).

(2) Chemical energy – for cell processes.

(3) Sound energy – for voice production in humans or chirping in


grasshoppers.

(4) Mechanical energy – for animal locomotion.

(5) Electrical energy – as in fish.

(6) Heat energy – as to maintain the body temperature.

We have two aspect of respiration. They are (a) External respiration


(Breathing) (b) Internal (Tissue) respirations.

External respiration: Is further divided into


(a) Inspiration or inhalation.
(b) Expiration or exhalation.

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Internal respiration: It is also divided into
(a) Aerobic respiration:- respiration in the presence of oxygen.
(b) Anaerobic respiration:- Break down of food in the absence of
oxygen to release energy.

Respiratory medium: This is the source of oxygen for respiration.


Respiratory medium is either air or water. Air has 21% of oxygen, 79% of
nitrogen and less than 1% of carbon (iv) oxide. Water contains dissolved
gasses.

The composition of inspired and expired air

Inspired Air Expired Air


(1) 0.03% of CO2 3.5% of CO2
(2) 21% of O2 16.89% of O2
(3) Cold Warm
(4) Dry Moist

Respiratory quotient

CO2 evolved in a known time


RQ =
O2 consumed in the same known time

When glucose is used in respiration, RQ = 1,

for fats, RQ = 0.7 for amino acid, RQ = 0.9

Respiratory structures

Respiratory or breathing structures are parts of the organism where


gaseous exchange takes place between the organism and its surrounding.

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Types of respiratory surfaces, example of organism and the habitat
where each functions

Respiratory surface Organisms Functioning


Habitat
1 Stomata and lenticels Plants Terrestrial
2 Body surface Amoeba & Paramecium Aquatic
3 Cell membrane Hydra and Flatworms Aquatic
4 Skin Earthworm Moist burrow
5 Spiracles and Trachea Insect Terrestrial
6 Book lungs Spider Terrestrial
7 Gills Fishes
8 Gills at tadpole stage, Amphibians Aquatic or
skin, mouth and lungs at terrestrial
adult stage
9 Lungs Reptiles, birds and Terrestrial
mammals

Three properties of respiratory surfaces are


(1) Thin surfaces
(2) Moist surfaces
(3) Large surface areas

Mechanism of external respiration


Inspiration:
As to breathing in, the intercostals muscles contracts, while the ribs
are raised. The curved shaped diaphragm flattens as the muscles contract.
The sternum moves forward. The volume of the chest cavity increases
and the pressure in the lungs is lowered. Air rushes in from the outside
through the nose and fills the alveoli of the lungs.
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Expiration
As to breathing out, the intercostals muscles relax and the sternum
moves backwards. The ribs are lowered and the diaphragm assumes it
normal shape. High pressure then develops in the thorax, thereby forcing
air out of the lungs through the nose.

The lungs of man


Epiglottis
Larynx Deoxygenated blood
Tracheo from pulmonary artery

Right
lung
Alveolus
Blood Oxygen Air
capillary
Carbon
dioxide
Oxygenatea
Water blood to
pulmonary
Bronchiole Bronchus vein

Alveoli

Red blood cell

Diaphragm

Internal (tissue) respiration


The series of chemical reactions in which respiratory enzymes break
down glucose to release energy is called tissue or internal respiration.

Tissue respiration occurs in the mitochondria of cells in plants and


animals.

Aerobes are organisms that use oxygen during tissue respiration.


Aerobes carry out aerobic respiration, while anaerobic respiration is
carried out by Anaerobes. Anaerobes do not use oxygen for respiration.
Anaerobes are fungi, some bacteria and endoparasites.

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Fermentation: Is the breakdown of carbohydrate into alcohol and
carbon (iv) oxide by certain bacteria and yeast in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation is important in breweries and food processing industries.

Mechanism of internal respiration


The first step in respiration is the splitting of glucose by oxidative
process into simpler compound, called pyruvic acid. This first process is
called glycolysis. An incomplete breakdown of glucose to release energy
is called glycolysis.

Glycolysis does not require energy, while enzymes for the reaction is
located in the cytoplasm. The amount of energy released in glycolysis is
2ATP
C6H12O6 2C2H3OCOOH + 2H2 + Energy
Glucose enzyme pyruvic acid hydrogen (2ATP)
In aerobic respiration, pyruvic acid is further broken down in a series
of enzyme catalyzed oxidation reaction to form carbon (iv) oxide and
water. Energy is further released. These reaction are called Kreb’s cycle
or Tricaboxylic acid cycle.
2C2H3OCOOH + 2H2 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (36ATP)

In anaerobic respiration, the pyruvic acid is further broken down to


alcohol without energy. That is fermentation.

C2H3OCOOH + H2 C2H5OH + CO2


Pyruvic acid ethanol

Exchange of gases
In mammals, exchange of gases takes place between the blood in the
capillaries of alveoli in the lungs and the air.

One human lung has about 350 million alveoli. The oxygen from the
inhaled air combines with the haemoglobin of the red blood cells as to
form a loose compound called oxy-haemoglobin. In this form, oxygen is
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carried to the cells. Oxy-haemoglobin later becomes haemoglobin and
joins the blood. Gases are transported in the blood of higher animals. In
simples and plants, respiratory gases are transported by simple diffusion.

Respiration in plants

In higher plants, oxygen diffuses through the stomata and lenticels


into the intercellular spaces. The oxygen is conducted in the numerous
tubes of the air spaces in the parenchyma cells. The oxygen dissolves in
the moisture around the cells and diffuses into the cytoplasm after
respiration; carbon (iv) oxide diffuses out in the reverse direction.

Respiration of fish (Tilapia)

Tilapia fish has gills. The gills are covered by the operculum (gill
cover). The gill is made up of the gill arch which bears the gills filaments.
The gill filaments are supplied with blood vessels that carry out gaseous
exchange. The fishes take in water and push it over the gill. The gill
filament absorbs the required oxygen for respiration. Energy is released
and carbon (iv) oxide is also introduced into the water. The gill rakers
protect the delicate gill against mechanical injury.

Respiration in insects

Insects have tiny holes in their bodies; these respiratory holes are
called spiracles. Spiracles open into the trachea. Trachea branches inside
the insect’s body. The tubes of trachea are filled with liquid. Oxygen from
the air is dissolved in this liquid and enters the cells. After respiration,
carbon (iv) oxide passes from the cells into the liquid and then into the air
in the trachea movement of gases along the tubes is aided by the
contraction and relaxation of the abdomen.

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CHAPTER 2

HOMEOSTASIS
Homeostasis is the ability of organism to maintain a constant internal
environment. Factors that must be kept constant include glucose, osmotic
pressure, temperature, ions etc.

The Kidney
Functions of the kidney
(1) Excretion of urine.
(2) Production of heart.
(3) Elimination of toxin, drugs and harmful substances.
(4) Regulation of water level in the blood.
(5) Maintenance of constant blood
(6) Maintenance of salt balance in the blood.

The human excretory system showing right and left kidney

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Kidney diseases.
(1) Nephritis: This disease is experienced when the blood vessels become
inflamed so that ultra – filteration is incomplete. This leads to the
passing out of much useful materials from the body fluid into the
urine.
(2) Kidney stone: This is noticed when the kidney tubules are blocked
due to some growth which narrows the lumen of the tubule. This
disease obstructs the normal passage of urine.
(3) Diuresis: This is experienced when the cells of the kidney tubule fail
to reabsorb water from the glomerular filterate into the blood. This
results in passing out large amount of water in the urine
(4) Oedema: This is noticed when the kidney tubules are unable to absorb
water from the blood into the tubules. In this case, much water is
retained within the blood. The disease could lead to the swelling of
some parts of the body.

Correction of kidney diseases


Diseased kidneys can be replaced by healthy ones through surgical
operations. The process involved is known as kidney transplant.

The liver
Functions of the liver
(1) It removes excess glucose from the blood
(2) It stores glucose as glycogen
(3) It converts glycogen to glucose when needed.
(4) It manufactures bile.
(5) It converts amino acids to carbohydrates
(6) It destroys toxins in the blood
(7) It destroys dead red blood cells.
(8) It produces heparin
(9) It produces heat
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Part of digestive system showing the position of liver

Median lobe Left lobe

Oesophagus

Liver

e
b
Right lobe

lo
e
at
ud
Stomach

ca
Gall bladder

Pancreatic duct
et
du
b ile

duodenum Pancrease

Liver diseases
(1) Hepatitis: This disease makes the liver cells unable to store or
reconvert already stored glycogen into glucose; hepatitis might be due
to viral infections or drugs.
(2) Cancer of the liver
This is an unorganized and confused productions of liver cells.

Correction of liver diseases

We simply avoid the causative organism and substances. We also


take drugs.

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CHAPTER 3

SENSE ORGANS
The five principal sense organs in a mammal are:
(i) Eyes (ii) Ears (iii) Nose (iv) Tongue (v) Skin.
The nose.
The nose has tiny nerve endings that pick up odours and send
messages to the brain, where they are translated and interpreted.
The tongue
The tongue has sensory nerve cells. As to have a taste sensation, the
sensory cells will be stimulated by substances in a solution, while
impulses are sent to the brain.
The tongue has different taste buds. The sweet and salt flavours are
detected by the tip of the tongue. The side of the tongue detects a sour
taste, while bitter flavours are perceived by the back of the tongue.
The mammalian eye
Vertical section of the human eye

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The mammalian eyes are used for sight and has three outstanding
layers. The layers are (i) sclerotic layer (ii) choriod layer (iii) retina
(i) Sclerotic layer: It is the outer layer of the eye. It is tough and
white in colour. In front of the eye, the sclerotic layer forms the
cornea.
Functions: The sclerotic layer maintains the shape of the eye. It
also protects the eye and offers the required shape to the eye.
(ii) The choroid layer: This is the coloured and middle layer of the
eye. It is black in colour and has rich supply of blood capillaries.
In front of the eyes, the choroid layer forms the Iris. The opening
in the Iris is called the PUPIL.
Functions: The choroid layer transport materials in the eye.
Choroid supplies materials (food) to the eyes.
(iii) The retina: The retina is the sensitive part of the eye. It is where
the image is formed. The retina has the yellow spot and the blind
spot.
The yellow spot: It is also called the fovea. It is a spot where the
image falls on the retina.
The blind spot: This is the spot where the optic nerve leaves the
retina to the brain. The cones and the rods are also found on the retina.
The rods are sensitive to low light intensity. The cones are
sensitive to high light intensity and light of different colours.
The iris: It acts as a screen that regulates the amount of light that
enters the eye.
The pupil: This is the opening through which light rays enter the
interior of the eye.
The lens: It focuses image on the retina.
Ciliary muscles: They control the shape on the lens.

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Aqueous and vitreous humours: They give shape to the eye, provide
food and oxygen to eye cells and help in the refraction of light.
How we see:
Rays from the objects we want to see are refracted by the cornea, lens
and the humours. The image is then formed on the retina. The retina sends
impulses into the optic nerve for transmission to the brain. The brain
determines the nature, size, colour and distance of the objects.
The brain also corrects the inversion of the image on the retina.
Accommodation: It is the ability of the eye to adjust its lens as to
view close or distant objects.
Defects of the eye
This is the inability of the eye to form an image on the retina. Some
eye defects are:-
(1) Short-sightedness or myopia: An individual suffering from
shortsightedness cannot see distant clearly. It occurs when the eyeball
is longer than normal. The image is therefore formed in front of the
retina.
Correction: shortsightedness can be corrected by using a concave/
diverging lens.
(2) Long-sightedness or hypermetropia: An individual suffering from
longsightedness cannot see nearby objects clearly. It occurs when the
eyeball is shorter than normal. The image is therefore formed behind
the retina.
Correction: long-sightedness can be corrected by using a convex or
converging lens.
(3) Astigmatism: Here, the curvature of the lens becomes unequal.
Correction: Use of cylindrical lenses.
(4) Presmyopia: It is noticed in old people. Here, the lens loses its
elasticity.
Correction: By the use of weak convex lenses or bifocal lenses.

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Organ of hearing.
The mammalian ear has two functions. They are (i) Hearing and (ii)
Balancing.
Structure of the mammalian ear.

We can identify three parts, in the mammalian ear. They are (i) The
outer ear, (ii) The middle ear (iii) The inner ear or labyrinth.
(i) The outer ear has the pinna (external ear), the auditory canal or
meatus and the tympanic membrane or ear drum.
(ii) The middle ear has three bones or ossicles. They are (a) Malleus
(Hammer), (b) Incus (Anvil) and stapes (stirrup). The middle ear has
round and oval windows. It also has the Eustachian tube, through
which the pressure on both sides of the eardrum can be equalized.
(iii) The inner ear has the semi-circular canals, utriculus, sacculus and
cochlea. These mentioned structure, make up the labyrinth, The
labyrinth is surrounded by a fluid called the perilymph, the cavity of
labyrinth contains the endolymph.

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How we hear
The pinna collects waves and passes them through the external
auditory meatus (hearing canal). The waves strike the eardrum. The
eardrum vibrates. The vibrations are then transmitted across the middle
ear by the hammer, anvil and stirrup to the inner ear. through the round
and oval windows. In the inner ear, the cochlea vibrate and send impulses
to the auditory nerve. The auditory nerve sends impulses to the brain.
The brain then interprets the impulses as sound.

The mammalian ear and balancing.


In the ear, the semi-circular canals are concerned with balancing.
The canals contain nerve endings and chalky particles called otoliths.
When the head is moved, the endolymph within the canals displaces the
otoliths. Otoliths stimulate nerve endings and impulses are generated. The
auditory nerve takes the impulses to the brain and balance is achieved.

The mammalian skin.


The mammalian skin covers the mammalian body.
The mammalian skin has the outer layer the epidermis and an inner
layer, the dermis.

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Section through the mammalian skin.

(a) The epidermis: It is the upper part of the skin and has three
layers. The layers are the corneal layer, Granular layer and the
Malphigian layer.
(i) Corneal layer: This is made up of dead flattened cells,
constantly peeling off.
Function: The corneal layer protects the skin from microbial
invasion, mechanical injury and water loss.
(ii) Granular layer: It is made up of living cells.
Functions: It produces and replaces the cells of the corneal
layer.
(iii) Malpighian layer: It is made up of meristematic cells. It
contains melanin pigments.

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Function: The melanin in this layer protects the skin from ultra violets
rays. This layer also produces vitamin D.
The dermis
It is the inner layer of the skin. It has the blood vessels, nerves and
glands.
(i) The sweat gland: It is a coiled tubular gland opening on the
epidermis.
Functions: It secretes sweat that is made up of water, salt and small
quantity of urine.
(ii) Hair or fur: It is a solid rod made up of Keratinized cells, enclosed
in a follicle. The hair has papilla at the base. Papilla contains blood
vessels.
Function: The hair insulates the body heat. The papilla supplies
materials for hair construction.
(iii) Erector muscle: It is attached to the-hair follicle.
Function: It enhances heat insulation.
(iv) Sebaceous gland: It is a sac of glandular cells which opens into the
hair follicle.
Function: It lubricates the hair and makes the skin water proof.
(v) Blood capillaries: It carries out transportation processes in the skin.
It also carries out temperature regulation.
(vi) Nerves: They carry out irritability in the skin.
Functions of the mammalians skin
(1) The mammalian skin carries out protection
(2) It carries out irritability
(3) It carries out temperature regulation
(4) It carries out excretion
(5) It produces Vitamin D

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CHAPTER 4

REPRODUCTION

The production of new individuals from the older ones and of the
same species is termed reproduction.

REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOURS
(1) Pairing: Here the male and female species move together in
characteristic manner. Pairing is found in toads, birds and winged
termites.
(2) Display: These are special attractive features exhibited by some male
species as to lure their females into mating. Display found in birds
(3) Territoriality: A territory is an area, marked out and defended against
other members of the same species. It is found in birds, fishes and
lizards.
(4) Migration: This is a movement into and from a habitat. Migration is
noticed in fishes, birds and insects.

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REPPRODUCTION SYSTEM IN MAMMALS

Male reproductive system

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Female reproductive system

PARTS OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN MAN


Scrotum: This is the bag that contains the testes. It lowers the
temperature of the testes as to encourage sperm production. The scrotum
also protects the testes.
Testes: They produce the sperms.
Epididymis: It stores the sperms
Vasdeferens (sperm duct): It conducts the sperms
Seminal vesicle: It secrets the fluid that suspends the sperm cell.
Prostrate gland: It secretes the fluid that activates sperm production.

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Cowper's gland: It secretes a lubricant and acid neutralizer into the
urethra.
The penis: It introduces sperm cell into the vagina
Semen: The sperm cells and the secretion from the glands form the
semen. Semen has the nutritive materials for the cells.
A sperm cell is 0.05mm long. The sperm cell has a head and a tail or
flagellum. The sperm cell uses the flagellum to swim to the egg cell.

THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


Ovaries: they produce the eggs or ova
Oviducts or fallopian tubes: They collect the released eggs. Oviducts are
also sites for fertilization.
Uterus (womb): The fertilized eggs or zygotes develop in the uterus.
Cervix: It is a muscular ring, closing the lower end of the uterus.
Vagina or birth canal: This is where the sperm cells are disposed.
Vulva: This is the opening of the vagina to the surface of the body.

THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN SPERM AND EGG

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The egg cells (ovum)
The structure of the human egg
A human egg is 0.2mm in diameter
The cuter part of the egg is called vitelline membrane: The vitelline
membrane has the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
Note: In man, fertilization takes place in the oviduct

Stages in the birth of human body


(1) The first stage is the rhythmic contractions and relaxations of the
muscles of the uterus. The cervix dilates and the amnion breaks,
releasing the amniotic fluid.
(2) The second stage is the delivery of the baby through the vaginal
(3) The third stage is the delivery of the placenta (after birth)

Functions of the placenta


The placenta transports nutrients, oxygen and excretory materials
from the mother to the embryo and vice versa.
Comparison in the reproductive systems in vertebrates
NOS VERTEBRATES PARENTAL NO. OF FERTILIZATION
CARE EGGS
1 Fishes Present Thousands External
2 Amphibians Absent Thousands External
3 Reptiles Present Few Internal
4 Mammals Present Generally Internal
none
Adaptive features in a developing animal
The environmental requirements of a developing animal are water,
food, oxygen and a suitable temperature.
Animals that lay eggs are called Oviparous animals. e.g. amphibians,
reptiles, birds etc.

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Viviparous animals: give birth to their young ones alive, e.g.
mammals.
Reproduction in flowering plants
A flower is an organ of sexual reproduction in a plant.
(a) The calyx: It is made up of sepals.
Functions: The sepals offer protection and carry out photosynthesis.
(b) The corolla: It is made up of the petals.
Function: (i) Attraction of insects for pollination (ii) production of
scent or perfume as to attract the insects, (iii) Production of nectary
(sweet juice) for the insects.
Note: The non-essential parts of the flower are the sepals and petals.
The stamens and carpels form the essential parts of the flower.
(c) The androecium: It is made up of stamens. The male part of a flower
is a stamen. A stamen has a stalk, or the filament bearing the anther.
The anther contains the pollen grain.
(d) The gynoecium: It is made up of the carpels or pistil. The female part
of the flower is called a pistil or carpel. The base of the carpel has,
the ovary, which contains ovules. On top of the ovary is a long style
with the stigma.

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Hibiscus Flower

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Pollination
The transfer of pollen grain from the anther to the stigma of flowers is
called pollination. We have two types of pollination. They are (a) Self
pollination (b) Cross pollination.
Self pollination: Is the transfer of pollen grain from the anther to the
stigma of a flower or of another flower, on the same
plant.
Cross pollination: Is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a
flower to the stigma of another flower on a different
plant, of the same species.
Agents of pollination
Agents of pollination are insects, wind, water, birds, snail and other
animals. Insects pollinate the Pride of Barbados, Flamboyant etc. Winds
pollinate maize, rice, millet, wheat etc.
Characteristics of insect pollinated flowers.
(1) The flowers are brightly coloured.
(2) The flowers produce scent.
(3) The flowers produce nectar.
(4) The flowers have pollen grains with spiky surfaces.
Characteristics of wind pollinated flowers.
(1) They produce small flowers
(2) The flowers are dull in colour
(3) They have no nectar
(4) They are not scented.
(5) They produce large quantity of pollen grains.
(6) Anthers are found on long filaments.

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The union of two sex cells or gamete s to form a zygote is called
fertilization.
In flowering plants, fertilization occurs in the ovule.

Fertilization process in flowering plants.


After pollination, the pollen grain absorbs water and germinates into
Pollen tube: The male nucleus in the pollen tube germinates into the male
nucleus unites with the egg nucleus to form the zygote, which grow into
the embryo or seed. The pollen tube nucleus fuses with the secondary egg
nucleus to form the endosperm, which is a food reserve for the seed.

Dispersal of seeds and fruits


The scattering of seeds and fruits as to avoid overcrowding and
competition is called dispersal. Agents of dispersal are water, animal,
wind and self-dispersal or explosive mechanism method.
Seeds dispersed by water are coconut and lotus fruits.
Seeds dispersed by animals are mango, guava etc.
Seeds dispersed by wind are seeds from grasses, cotton, tridax etc.
Seeds dispersed by explosive mechanism are oil been seeds, castor oil
seed etc.

Germination of seeds
Conditions necessary for germination are:
(a) External conditions like water, air (oxygen) and a suitable
temperature.
(b) Internal conditions like viability (viable seeds), enzymes and energy.
Types of germination
We have two types of germination. They are:
(a) Epigeal germination: Here, the cotyledon is raised above the
surface of the soil. e.g. mango.

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(b) Hypogeal germination: Here the cotyledon remains below the
surface of the soil. e.g. maize.
Hypogeal germination e.g. maize: Epigeal germination e.g. bean seed

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CHAPTER 5

ECOLOGY

Ecology is the inter-relationship between organisms and their external


environment.
Basic ecological concepts.
(1) Environment: Is everything that surrounds an organism.
(2) Biosphere: Is the part of the earth, occupied by living things.
(3) Lithosphere: It is the part of the earth, occupied land.
(4) Hydrosphere: It is the part of the earth, occupied by water.
(5) Atmosphere: It is the part of the earth, occupied by air.
(6) Habitat: Is a home or house, where an organism lives.
(7) Niche: This is a habitat of an organism lives plus the functional
roles of organism therein.
(8) Population: Is the number of individuals of the same type living
together in a habitat at a particular time.
(9) Community: Is the number of individual of different species.
Living together in habitat at a particular time.
(10) Ecosylem: This is a functioning unit of living and non living
things.
(11) Autecology: Is the ecology of one individual.
(12) Synecology: Is the ecology of many species.
(13) Different communities form the Biomes.

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Food relations in an ecosystem
(1) Producers: These are organisms that manufacture the foods.
(2) Consumers: These are organisms that depend on plants for food. We
have three types of Consumers. They are:-
(a) Primary consumers: They are animals (herbivores) that feed
directly on plant materials, e.g. sheep, goats etc.
(b) Secondary consumers: They are animals that feed on flesh
(carnivores) e.g. cats, dogs, lion, man etc.
(c) Tertiary consumers: These are animals that feed on secondary
consumers e.g. man.
(3) Decomposers: These are putrefying bacteria that feed on dead bodies
of producers and consumers.
Trophic levels
Food chain: The food relationship among .a set of members of a
community is referred to as food chain. It is also the transfer of energy
from producers to other organisms in a habitat.
Food chain starts with producers (green plants).
Food web: Is a complex form of a food chain.
Energy flow
Green plants use two percent (2%) of the sun's (radiant) energy. The
rest energy from the sun escapes as heat.
Pyramid of number: Is the progressive decrease in the number of
organism along a food chain in a community.
Pyramid of energy: Is the progressive decrease in the quantity of
energy along a food chain in a community.
Pyramid of biomass:

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Is a method of representing the total weight (biomass) of living
organisms present at a particular time. This is done by counting and
weighing the number of organisms in a given area of the habitat at a
particular time.

Pyramid of numbers Pyramid of energy Pyramid of biomass

Snake Tertiary consumers

Lizards Secondary consumers

Grasshoppers Primary consumers

Grass Primary consumers

Hawk 3 kilocalories

Snakes 7 kilocalories

Grasshoppers 70 kilocalories

Green Plants 150 kilocalories

Second level-carnivores

First level-carnivores

Herbivores

Plankton – 809/gm2

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Laws of thermodynamics
First law: states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
Second law: states that in all energy conversion, the amount of useful
energy is reduced, while that of useless energy increases.
Types of associations.
Parasitism: Is an association between two or more organisms, here,
the parasite benefits, while the host is harmed, e.g. lice (ectoparasite) and
tapeworm (endoparasite).
Symbiosis: Is an association where two organisms live together for
mutual benefit, e.g. symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in the root nodules
of leguminous plants.
Commensalism: This is an association where one organism, the
commensal gains, while the host neither loses nor gains, e.g. bacteria and
protozoans in the alimentary canal of man.
Saprophytism: This is a type of nutrition which relies on dead
organisms.
Epiphytes: These are organisms that uses tree trunks or wall for
support e.g. mosses and lichens.
Predation: This is a situation where an organism (the predator) feeds
on another one, the prey. e.g. Grasshopper and the grasses.
Competition: Is the relationship between members of the same
species that require an insufficient factor (food), e.g. Two domestic fowls
in a cage.
Conditions in an ecosystem
Factors of a habitat
(i) Biotic and (ii) Abiotic factors.
Abiotic factors: These are group into (1) Climatic factors (2) Edaphic
factors.
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The climatic factors are rainfall (water), humidity, temperature, light
and wind.
Rainfall: Determines the type of population we have in a habitat.
Rainfall is measured by the rainguage.
Humidity: It measures the degree of dampness of the atmosphere or
the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere. It is measured by the
Hygrometer.
Temperature: It measures the quantity of heat in a body. Temperature
is measured by a Thermometer.
Wind: Is the degree of air movement.
Wind vane: Measures wind direction.
Anemometer: Measure wind speed.
Light: Determines plants and animals distribution. Light is important
for plant photosynthesis, the quantity of light is measured by light meter
or photometer.
2. Edaphic factors: These include:-
(a) Topographic factors, namely (i) altitude and (ii) gradient
(b) Soil conditions
The altitude is the height of a place above the sea level.
Gradient: Is the degree of steepness of an area.
Soil condition or factors:
These factors are soil texture, water content, air content, humus
content and types of micro-organisms.
Biotic factors
These are divided into plants and animals factors. The plants are
further divided into green and non green plants, while the animals are sub
divided into Man and Animals.
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Green plants carry out photosynthesis.
Now green plants: These are bacteria and fungi. They carry out
decomposition and introduce manure into the habitat.
Animal (other than man): Animals use plants as food. Other effects of
animals on plants are
(a) Destruction of vegetation, e.g. Elephants.
(b) Feeding on the vegetation, e.g. Locust.
(c) Overgrazing of the vegetation e.g. Cattle.
(d) Transmission of diseases by insects.
(e) Pollination of plants by insect and birds.
(f) Dispersal of seeds and fruits.
(g) Enrichment of the soil through animal droppings.
Man: Is the most powerful destroyer of the ecosystem. His activities
are:-
(1) Felling of trees (2) Farming (3) Bush burning
(4) Civilization and Urbanization.
List of some ecological instruments and their uses
Instruments Uses
(1) Thermometer For the measurement of temperature
(2) Rain guage For the measurement of the amount of rainfall
(3) Anenometer For the measuring wind speed.
(4) Wind vane For measuring wind direction.
(5) Quadrat For measuring the population of plants and
animals.
(6) Footer For collecting small insects from leaf litter or
rocks or walls.

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(7) Sweep net or insect net For collecting flying insects.
(8) Light meter or photometer For measuring light intensity.
(9) PH indicator For measuring the acidity – or alkalinity of soil
or water.
(10) Hygrometer For measuring relative humidity.
(11) Barometer For measuring atmospheric pressure.
(12) Soil Auger For measuring soil profile.
Ecology instrument and usages
Instruments How they are used.
(1) Thermometer It is hung in the atmosphere and the temperature
is read.
(2) Rainguage It is left in a suitable place on the ground. After
rainfall, the level of water in the cylinder is read.
(3) Anenometer It is set up in a convenient place and the speed of
rotation is observed.
(4) Quadrat It is thrown randomly for several times in a
chosen habitat. The organisms are identified and
counted.
The average number of organism within the
quadrat is noted.
(5) Footer The collecting tube is pointed towards the tree or
trunk. It is then sucked through the mouth piece.
(6) Float The passage of the float is timed over a measure
distance.
(7) PH indicator Some soil or water is placed in a crucible or
watch glass containing some indicator and left
for 1 to 2 minutes. The colour obtained is then
compared with the charts supplied with indicator.

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(8) Barometer It is exposed to the habitat and the reading is
taken.
(9) Hydrometer It is swirled several times and the reading is
taken.
(10) White disc or sechi-disc. It is sunk, and the depth at which it
disappears is noted.
Environmental pollution
Pollution is the release of unwanted materials into the environment by
man as to cause danger to either man's health or other natural resources.
Different types of pollution are (a) Air pollution (b) Water pollution
(c) Soil/vegetation/land pollution.
Air pollution
Causes of air pollution or pollutants are:-
(1) Dust particles (2) Smoke (3) Sulphur – dioxide (4) Carbon
monoxide (5) Lead (6) Oxides of nitrogen (7) Hydrogen sulphide.
Effects of air pollution
(1) Dust particles, when inhaled, cause diseases.
(2) Dust particles cause asthmatic attack.
(3) Dust particles cause injury to the eye or skin.
(4) Smoke causes discomfort to man.
(5) Smoke causes injury to the lining of respiratory tracts.
(6) Carbon monoxide causes death.
(7) Sulphur dioxide leads to slow growth rate in plants.
(8) Lead in the air, interferes with the development of children's brains.
(9) Oxides of nitrogen irritates the lungs.

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Control of air pollution
This is achieved through the following methods.
(1) Burning smokeless fuels.
(2) Use of chimney filters in factories.
(3) Use of less dangerous chemical in fuel manufacturing instead of lead.
(4) Avoidance of air pollution generally.
Water pollution
Causes of fresh water pollution or pollutants are:-
(1) Untreated sewage (2) Domestic wastes (3) Detergents (4) Gamalin-20
(5) Agricultural wastes.
Causes of sea or marine pollution are:-
(1) Oil and petroleum products
(2) Industrial wastes.
(3) Agricultural wastes.
Effects of water pollution
(1) It renders water unsafe for drinking.
(2) It kills aquatic life
(3) It poisons fishes
(4) It makes pools, rivers and streams unsafe for swimming
(5) Odours from polluted water cause discomfort to man.
Control of water pollution
This can be achieved through:-
(1) Development of a programme for monitoring water pollution.
(2) Development of sewage, industrial and municipal waste disposal
system.

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(3) Preparation of guidelines for resources management.
(4) Use of biological control methods in place of chemical pesticides.
Land pollution
Land pollutants are:-
(1) Agricultural chemicals like pesticides, herbicides, insecticides and
fungicides
(2) Refuse
(3) Industrial Wastes.
(4) Oil and Petroleum products.
Effects of land pollution
(1) Refuse dumps are unsightly, odours emanating from them causes
discomfort to man.
(2) Refuse dumps encourage animal pests which may be a nuisance to
man.
(3) The decaying organic matter in refuse dumps attracts insect pests
which pick up disease carrying bacteria.
(4) Agricultural chemicals, oil and petroleum products discourage the
growth of plants on the land.
Control of land pollution
(1) A policy on land protection should be encouraged.
(2) The disposal of untreated waste onto land should be discouraged.
(3) Studies should be carried out for new uses of industrial waste
products.

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CHAPTER 6

FOOD PRODUCTION & STORAGE

Ways of improving crop yield

(1) By improving the fertility of the soil through the use of natural
manures or fertilizers, shifting cultivation, crop rotation and nitrogen
cycle.
(2) By planting improved seeds and grains
(3) By keeping crops free of pests
(4) By sowing pest - resistant varieties of seeds.
(5) By raising good variety of livestock for greater production of milk,
meat and eggs.
(6) By the use of improved tools and equipment for farming and fishing.
(7) By providing a balanced and enriched diet for animals and plants
under cultivation.

Causes of food wastage


(1) Microbiological actions by bacteria, yeast and fungi.
(2) Contact with human beings
(3) Attack of pests
(4) Pollution from the equipment used in processing and storing the food.
(5) Through contamination from parasites, saprophytes, carnivores and
herbivores.

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Effects of food storage
(1) It avoids food wastage.
(2) It makes food available when they are scarce.
(3) It enables man to make well use of perishable crops.
(4) It enriches man through the economics of crop sales.
(5) Unfortunately, bad food storage system, leads to starvation and
poverty.
Methods of preserving and storing food:
(1) Through the salting of meat and fish.
Principle involved: It introduces a high osmotic pressure within the
food. It kills or prevents the growth of micro-organisms.
(2) Drying of fish or meat or vegetables.
Principle involved: It removes water from the food and makes the
environment unfavorable for the growth of micro-organisms.
(3) Smoking of fish or meat:
Principle involved: It removes water from the food and makes the
food unfavorable for the growth of micro-organisms.
(4) Pasteurization:
Principle involved: Food is subjected to a high temperature which
kills the micro-organisms.
(5) Canning:
Principle involved: This is done with the exclusion of air. Lack of air
prevents the growth of new micro-organisms, which will spoil the
food.
(6) Refrigeration or freezing:
Principle involved: Food is kept at a very low temperature, at which
bacteria cannot grow.
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(7) Addition of chemicals
Principle involved: It stops the growth of micro-organisms.

Population growth and food supply


It is expected that food supply should be more than the individual
population. When the population grows faster than the rate at which food
is being produced, people may be miserable and fight one another. Lack
of food could lead to malnutrition, death, starvation, famine and diseases.
Factors that affect population growth are:
(1) Birth rate (2) Death rate (3) Fertility (4) Migration (immigration
and emigration (5) Health Care (6) Epidemic (7) Wars (8) Natural disaster
(9) Good standard of living.

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CHAPTER 7

GENETICS AND VARIATION

Variations are the differences that exist among individual of the same
species.
Some of the morphological variations are:
(1) Height (2) Colour of skin (3) Colour of hair (4) Finger print (5)
Body print (6) Facial appearance (7) Body weight (8) Baldness (9)
Hairness of body.
The following are some of physiological variations:
(1) Tongue rolling (2) Blood groups (3) Tasting (4) Smelling (5)
Voice (6) Movement of pinna
GENETICS
Heredity is study of how characteristics are passed on from one
generation to the next.
Genetics-the study of heredity and mechanism of inheritance.
Chromosome – thread like structures, located in the nucleus of a cell.
They are constant for each species man = 46 (i.e. 23 pairs)
Gene – Hereditary unit on the chromosomes.
F2 Generation – Offspring cross between F1 Generation
Alleles – alternatives forms of a gene, occupying the same place on a
chromosome and affecting the same character.
Mutation – A sudden structural change in a chromosome, which is
inheritable.

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Carrier – Normal heterozygous organism which carries a recessive
abnormal gene.
(3) Zygote: Is a fertilized egg cell (2N), formed as a result of the
union of male and female sex cells.
(4) Gamete: It is a mature sex cell that can take part in sexual
reproduction. e.g. the sperm ceil and the egg cell.
(5) Homozygous individual: This is an individual with only a
dominant (AA) or recessive genes (aa)
(6) Heterozygous individual or hybrid: This is an individual with
both dominant and recessive genes (Aa)
(7) Phenotype: This is the external appearance of a character.
(8) Genotype: This is the genetic constitution of a character
expressed by a hybrid.
(9) Dominant character: This is the character expressed by a hybrid.
(10) Recessive character: This is the character suppressed or hidden in
a hybrid.
Hereditary variations: Are differences among individuals, which are
genetically, determined e.g. blood groups, height, complexion, I.Q
Mendel’s experiment
Gregor Mendel, a Roman Catholic Monk is the father of genetics.
Gregor Mendel is from Austria. He carried out his experiment in the year
1856. His work led to the formulation of the laws of inheritance.
Gregor Mendel performed his unique experiment with garden pea that has
outstanding contrasting character. E.g. tall vs dwarf, round seed vs
wrinkled seed, green vs yellow pod
His Observation –
(i) There are definite hereditary units called genes - responsible for
transfer of characters.
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(ii) They are present in pairs - one from each parent. Factors in each
pair are responsible for same character - One may be Dominant,
the other recessive,
(iii) The genes segnagate during gamete (sex cell) formation.
(iv) Random union of gametes results in a predictable ratio.
Mendelian Laws
1. Law of Dominance – When two organisms, which are pure with
opposite characters, are crossed only one (Dominants character)
appears in the Fl generation.
2. Law of Segregation or Independent Assortment – the recessive
character, which was masked the Fl generation, reappears in the F2
generation in ratio of 3:1
Parents: tall plant dwarf plant
TT tt
Gametes: T T t t

F1 generation: Tt Tt Tt Tt

Since T is dominant, all appear tall


Crossing the F1 seeds:
Parents: Tt Tt
Gametes: T t T t

F1 genotype:
Phenotype: Tt Tt Tt tt
tall tall tall short
Ratio:

3 tall: 1 short

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Applications of genetics and variation
They are used in
(1) Crime detection
(2) Blood transfusion
(3) Determination of paternity
(4) Sex determination
(5) Blood group
(6) Sickle cell anemia
(7) Mutation
(8) Rhesus factor
(9) Colour blindness
(10) Hemophilia (inability of the blood to clot)
Application of genetics to agriculture
It leads to
(1) Higher yield
(2) Early maturity
(3) Resistance to diseases
(4) Adaptation to unfavorable conditions
Applications of genetics to medicine
Genetics helps us in the followings areas
(1) Blood group
(2) Sickle cell disease
(3) Polydactyly (Extra fingers or toes)
(4) Brachdactyly (short fingers)

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ASSIGNMENT 1

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ASSIGNMENT 2

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ASSIGNMENT 3

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ASSIGNMENT 4

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ASSIGNMENT 5

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