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Inglés Técnico - TME 26

G
GUUÍÍ A
A 33

Objetivos:
 Terminación –ing: funciones nominal, adjetiva y verbal
 Terminación –ed: función adjetiva
 Referencia textual
 Conectores que indican causa, consecuencia, aclaración y contraste
 Verbos modales

I. Lea el título del texto de esta guía. Teniendo en cuenta sus conocimientos previos sobre el tema,
responda las preguntas a continuación seleccionado las opciones correctas.

THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

a. ¿De cuál de los siguientes capítulos pudo haberse extraído el texto? Tilde  la opción correcta.

M AC H I NE D Y NAM I C S

T H E RM OD Y NAM I C S

M AT E RI AL S AND P R OC E S S I NG

S OL I D M E C H ANI C S

b. ¿Cuál/es de los temas a continuación pertenecen al mismo capítulo?

Si  No 
1. Beam bending.
2. Classification of materials.
3. Work and energy.
4. Properties of materials.
5. Thermal expansion.
6. Cycles, power plant and engines.
7. Mass conservation and mass flow continuity.
8. Selection of materials in engineering design.
Inglés Técnico - TME 27

II. Observe el paratexto del siguiente texto (título, subtítulos, palabras destacadas) para activar sus
conocimientos sobre el tema. Luego, lea de manera global la sección introductoria (renglones 1 a
14) para realizar la actividad a continuación.

2.2 THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF


MATERIALS
1 Before we can select a material, or design with it, we need to understand the basic requirements
(or properties it must have) for it to fulfil its function (for example, it might need to have a high
melting point and absorb lots of energy on impact). With this understanding and a knowledge of
how these properties vary for different types (or classes) of material, we can make a broad choice
5 of material that would be suitable (a metal would be most suitable in this instance). With data for
the properties of different materials and the equations that govern the behaviour under the
appropriate conditions, we can select a specific material and define the geometry required.

This section gives a broad introduction to materials and their properties. First, the structure of
different classes of material (metals, ceramics and polymers) is described and this is then related
10 to their characteristic properties. A number of important materials properties are then defined and
their relevance to engineering is placed in context. Methods for measuring these properties are
given, along with the origin of these properties (understanding this can help us to create new and
improved materials). Finally, worked examples for designing with materials and how to select the
best engineering material for a particular application are presented.

Classification of materials
15 Broadly speaking, we can place the thousands of materials available into several categories. These
categories, or classes, contain materials with similar types of bond which hold together the basic
building blocks (atoms or molecules) of the material. Since the nature of the bonding defines the
physical and mechanical properties, materials in the same class share similar properties and are
suitable for similar applications. It should be noted that while some of the characteristic properties
20 of materials in a particular class might be broadly the same (i.e. they might all be brittle or they
might all be good electrical conductors), there can also be a wide variation in other basic
properties (for example, mercury and tungsten are both metals, but have very different melting
points). Materials are commonly classified into the following four groups: (i) metals, (ii) ceramics
and glasses, (iii) polymers and elastomers and (iv) composite materials.

Metals
25 Metals are usually used in the form of an alloy, a mixture of two or more elements in which the
major component is a metal. Most pure metals are either too soft, brittle or chemically reactive to
Inglés Técnico - TME 28

use on their own, and so alloying can be used to increase strength and hardness and improve
corrosion resistance. Examples of common engineering metals are:

Steels: Carbon steels are alloys of iron and carbon. Steels with additions of other elements (for
30 example, chromium, molybdenum and nickel) are called alloy steels and have higher strengths.
Stainless steels contain very high additions of chromium which gives them their excellent
corrosion resistance. Owing to the combination of an impressive set of properties and low cost,
steels are among the most commonly used metals and have a wide variety of applications, such
as in transport and construction. They are available as plate, sheet, tube, bar, wire, castings and
35 forgings.

Aluminium alloys: Aluminium is a light metal (i.e. one with relatively low density) with a high
strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. As a result it is often used for containers,
packaging, construction, transportation and sports equipment. Aluminium is available in a wide
variety of cast and wrought (mechanically worked) shapes. There are two main types of alloy:
40 those used for casting (mainly aluminium–silicon alloys) and those suitable for mechanical
working (mainly aluminium–copper and aluminium–magnesium alloys).

Copper alloys: Copper is ductile (it can be deformed to a significant degree before fracture) and
is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Therefore, copper is used for electrical and
electronic components and for plumbing. Copper alloys can achieve a wide range of properties by
45 the addition of different alloying elements. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc and has a much
higher strength than pure copper. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin and is commonly used for
bearings.

Nickel superalloys: Superalloys are metals with excellent heat resistance and good high
temperature mechanical properties. These alloys were mostly developed for use as turbine blades
50 in jet engines and can operate at over 1000°C under high stresses. Current jet engine superalloys
contain mostly nickel with large additions of chromium and cobalt. They have trade names such
as Inconel™ and Hastelloy™.

From: Michael Clifford, Richard Brooks, Alan Howe, Andrew Kennedy, Stewart McWilliam, Stephen Pickering, Paul
Shayler & Philip Shipway. (2009). An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering, Part I. UK: Hachette Company.
Inglés Técnico - TME 29

a. Ordene las ideas según aparecen en el texto. Indique número de renglones donde las encuentra. HAY
UNA IDEA EXTRA QUE NO APARECE EN EL TEXTO.

# DE
RENGLONES
ORDEN
a. Propiedades del material en relación a su importancia en la ingeniería.

b. Selección del material adecuado para una aplicación particular.

c. Ejemplos de metales usados en procesos de ingeniería.

d. Requerimientos específicos de un material para funciones determinadas.

e. Métodos disponibles para la medición de propiedades.

f. Estructura del material y su relación con las propiedades del mismo.

Para resolver el ejercicio III usted utilizará la estrategia de lectura SCANNING.

Scanning o hacer una LECTURA ANALÍTICA consiste en tratar de encontrar información


específica en el texto. Al aplicar esta estrategia se lee minuciosa y detalladamente a fin de
poder responder preguntas que se formulen o se hayan formulado durante la LECTURA
GLOBAL.

III. Lea la sección restante del texto (renglones 15 a 52) de manera analítica para responder las
preguntas. Indique los renglones de dónde extrae la información.

1. ¿Cuáles son las categorías / clases de materiales mencionadas? Renglones: ................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................

2. ¿Cuáles son las formas más usadas en los metales? Renglones: ................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................

3. ¿Qué ejemplos de metales se citan en el texto? Renglones: ................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................

4. ¿Cuáles son los dos tipos principales de aleaciones del aluminio? Renglones: ................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
Inglés Técnico - TME 30

5. ¿Cómo se define a la propiedad ductilidad? ¿Qué metales la poseen?


Renglones: ................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................

6. ¿Qué son las superaleaciones o aleaciones de alto rendimiento? Renglones: ................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................

IV. Lea las siguientes frases sustantivas, recuerde lo estudiado en la Guía 1 y marque el núcleo en
cada frase. Luego, comente con la clase las respuestas a las preguntas.

i. ¿Qué FUNCIÓN GRAMATICAL cumplen las palabras terminadas en –ing en cada caso? Tilde el casillero
correspondiente.

ii. ¿Qué palabras le permiten identificar la función de dicha forma?

iii. Escriba el equivalente de las frases en español teniendo en cuenta la función de la terminación –ing
como SUSTANTIVO o como ADJETIVO.

SUSTANTIVO ADJETIVO
1. a high melting point (r. 2-3)

Español:

2. methods for measuring these properties (r. 11)

Español:

3. examples for designing with materials (r. 13)

Español:

4. the best engineering material for a particular application (r. 14)

Español:

5. the nature of the bonding (r. 17)

Español:

6. the addition of different alloying elements (r. 45)

Español:

FUNCIONES PRINCIPALES DE LA TERMINACIÓN -ING

Las frases sustantivas que se presentaron anteriormente incluyen la terminación –ing, la cual
puede presentar diferentes funciones. Su ubicación en la frase/oración nos ayudará a determinar
cuál es la función que está desempeñando en cada caso.
Inglés Técnico - TME 31

Como SUSTANTIVO:

a) como derivado de una base (verbo)

Ejemplo:
The lightbulb's invention used electricity to bring indoor lighting to our homes. (p. 13, r. 20-21)

b) como sujeto de una oración (posición inicial)

Ejemplo:
Welding is the process of permanently joining two or more metal parts, by melting both materials.
(p. 9, ejercicio XIII)

c) a continuación de una preposición

Ejemplo:
When the demand for electricity is low, a pumped storage facility stores energy
by pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. (p. 25, r. 33-34)

Como ADJETIVO:

a) precediendo a un sustantivo

Ejemplo:
When flowing water is captured and turned into electricity. It is called hydroelectric power
or hydropower. (p. 24, r. 13-14)

b) a continuación de un sustantivo. En este caso su equivalente será: sustantivo+que+verbo


conjugado.

Ejemplo:
Hydropower plants range in size from small systems to large projects producing
electricity for utilities. (p. 24, r. 24-25)

Como VERBO: siempre estará precedido por el verbo BE

Ejemplo:
Hydropower is using water to power machinery or make electricity. (p. 23, r. 7)

V. Lea la siguiente oración prestando atención a la sección resaltada, para, luego elegir el
equivalente en español correcto.

Finally, worked examples for designing with materials and how to select the best engineering
material for a particular application are presented. (r. 13-14)

 Finalmente, se presentan ejemplos prácticos para el diseño con materiales y cómo seleccionar el mejor
material de ingeniería para una aplicación determinada.

 Finalmente, ejemplos de trabajos diseñados con materiales y cómo seleccionar el mejor material ingenieril
para una aplicación particular son presentados.
Inglés Técnico - TME 32

Terminación –ED: FUNCIÓN ADJETIVA

La sección destacada en el ejemplo anterior resalta la terminación –ed (participio


pasado) que puede funcionar como ADJETIVO. Se lo identifica por estar acompañando a un
sustantivo.

Ejemplos:

These include the number of components to be fabricated, capital equipment costs, joint
location, structural mass, and the desired performance of the product. (p. 10, r. 11-13)

When the demand for electricity is low, a pumped storage facility stores energy by
pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. (p. 25, r. 33-34)

a. Lea el fragmento y conteste las preguntas:

Methods for measuring these properties are given, along with the origin of these properties
(understanding this can help us to create new and improved materials). (r. 11-13)

i. ¿Qué se le ofrece al lector?

.........................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................

ii. ¿Qué podrá hacer con este nuevo conocimiento?

.........................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................

VI. Lea las siguientes oraciones y responda luego las preguntas.

Current jet engine superalloys contain mostly nickel with large additions of chromium and cobalt. They have
trade names such as Inconel™ and Hastelloy™. (p. 28, r. 50-52)

a. ¿Cuál es el sujeto de la primera oración? Enciérrelo con un círculo.

b. ¿Qué palabra usa el autor para reemplazar ese sujeto en la segunda oración? Subráyela en la
oración.

REFERENCIA TEXTUAL

Para evitar repeticiones innecesarias dentro un texto, cuando se vuelven a mencionar


conceptos ya presentados, o cuando se anticipan conceptos nuevos, se hace referencia a ellos por
medio de otras palabras. Observe los siguientes ejemplos:

The properties of cast iron, such as low cost, ease of machining, and high compressive strength have
made it an important metal in machine construction.

En este caso, el pronombre personal IT, el cual en muchos casos reemplaza a un objeto o
fenómeno, físico o abstracto, se refiere a cast iron (hierro fundido) mencionado previamente.
The specific choice of an insulation material is usually determined by its application.
Inglés Técnico - TME 33

El adjetivo posesivo ITS indica que el sustantivo al que modifica pertenece o concierne a un objeto
mencionado anteriormente, se refiere en este caso a insulation material ya mencionado en la oración.

c. Para las preguntas a y b su respuesta debe ser:

a
Current jet engine superalloys contain mostly nickel with large additions of chromium

and cobalt. bThey have trade names such as Inconel™ and Hastelloy™.

VII. Lea los fragmentos tomados del texto y marque con una flecha cuál es el referente de las palabras
destacadas. Luego, escriba el referente en español. El primero está resuelto a modo de ejemplo.

FRAGMENTO 1:

Before we can select a material, or design with it, we need to understand the basic requirements (or

properties it must have) for it to fulfil its function (for example, it might need to have a high melting

point and absorb lots of energy on impact). With this understanding and a knowledge of how these

properties vary for different types (or classes) of material, we can make a broad choice of material that

would be suitable (a metal would be most suitable in this instance). (r. 1-5)

FRAGMENTO 2:

This section gives a broad introduction to materials and their properties. First, the structure of

different classes of material (metals, ceramics and polymers) is described and this is then related to

their characteristic properties. (r. 8-10)

FRAGMENTO 1:

a. design with it material

b. its function ...................................................................................................................

c. this understanding ...................................................................................................................

FRAGMENTO 2:

a. their properties ...................................................................................................................

b. this is then related ...................................................................................................................

c. their characteristic ...................................................................................................................


properties
Inglés Técnico - TME 34

VIII.Busque en el texto (p. 27-28) las palabras destacadas a continuación para resaltarlas en el mismo.
Luego, para cada palabra resaltada, elija  el referente correcto.

OPCIONES
 el enlace
a. which hold together (r. 16)
 tipos de enlaces
 materials

 los cuales
b. more elements in which (r. 25)
 componente principal
 mezcla de 2 o más elementos

 aceros
c. which gives them (r. 31)  aceros inoxidables
 cromo

 aceros inoxidables
d. They are available as plate (r. 34)  transporte y construcción
 aceros

 álabes de turbinas
e. They have trade names (r. 51)  superaleaciones de níquel
 aleaciones con cromo

IX. Lea los siguientes fragmentos para luego realizar las actividades propuestas para cada uno de
ellos.

FRAGMENTO 1:

These categories, or classes, contain materials with similar types of bond which hold together the basic
building blocks (atoms or molecules) of the material. Since the nature of the bonding defines the
physical and mechanical properties, materials in the same class share similar properties and are suitable
for similar applications. (r. 15-19)

a. ¿Qué factor debe tenerse en cuenta para agrupar a los materiales en diferentes categorías?

.........................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................

b. La palabra SINCE establece una relación entre dos ideas en este fragmento. Lea las opciones y
marque, con una cruz, las opciones correctas.

IDEA 1:
.......... Desde la naturaleza del enlace se definen las propiedades de los materiales
.......... Debido a que la naturaleza del enlace define las propiedades físicas y mecánicas
.......... Dado que la naturaleza del enlace es definida por las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de los
materiales

IDEA 2:
.......... los materiales de la misma clase comparten propiedades similares y son adecuados para
aplicaciones similares.
.......... los materiales que comparten propiedades y aplicaciones.
.......... los materiales de una categoría se usan para aplicaciones similares.

c. ¿Qué tipo de idea presenta entonces la palabra SINCE: consecuencia – causa – adición?
Inglés Técnico - TME 35

CONECTORES QUE INDICAN CAUSA

Los conectores de causa se usan para introducir la relación de causa entre dos ideas.

Ejemplo:
Hydropower uses a fuel—water—that is not reduced or used up in the process. Because
the water cycle is an endless, constantly recharging system, hydropower is considered a
renewable energy. (p. 24, r. 10-12)

Los conectores de causa son BECAUSE – BECAUSE OF – SINCE – AS – DUE TO – OWING TO.

FRAGMENTO 2:

Stainless steels contain very high additions of chromium which gives them their excellent corrosion
resistance. Owing to the combination of an impressive set of properties and low cost, steels are among
the most commonly used metals and have a wide variety of applications, such as in transport and
construction. (r. 31-34)

d. El conector resaltado en el fragmento 2 presenta una ................................................................

e. Escriba las dos ideas relacionadas por ese conector:

CAUSA: ...................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................

CONSECUENCIA: .....................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................

FRAGMENTO 3:

Copper is ductile (it can be deformed to a significant degree before fracture) and is an excellent
conductor of heat and electricity. Therefore, copper is used for electrical and electronic components and
for plumbing. (r. 42-44)

f. ¿Cuál es la palabra que establece una relación entre las ideas del fragmento 3?

 ............................................................................................................

g. La relación que introduce esa palabra es de:

 causa  consecuencia  contraste


h. Escriba las ideas relacionadas:

IDEA 1:

...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................

IDEA 2:

...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
Inglés Técnico - TME 36

CONECTORES QUE INDICAN CONSECUENCIA

Los conectores de consecuencia se usan para presentar el efecto o la consecuencia de una


acción.

Ejemplo:
Most pure metals are either too soft, brittle or chemically reactive to use on their own, and
so alloying can be used to increase strength and hardness and improve corrosion resistance .
(r. 26-28)

Los conectores de consecuencia son AS A RESULT – AS A CONSEQUENCE – THEREFORE – THUS –


CONSEQUENTLY – HENCE – SO - THEREBY.

FRAGMENTO 4:

Aluminium is a light metal (i.e. one with relatively low density) with a high strength-to-weight ratio and
good corrosion resistance. As a result it is often used for containers, packaging, construction,
transportation and sports equipment. (r. 36-38)

i. ¿Por qué el aluminio es frecuentemente usado para la construcción, fabricación de recipientes /


contenedores, embalajes, equipamiento para deportes entre otros usos?

.........................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................

j. ¿Qué palabra / frase le ayudó a ver la relación establecida en este fragmento?

 ............................................................................................................

k. ¿Qué tipo de relación establece esa palabra: de CAUSA o de CONSECUENCIA?

 ............................................................................................................

l. ¿Qué función tiene i.e. en este fragmento?

 ejemplo  resumen  aclaración

m. ¿Por qué se considera al aluminio como un metal liviano?

.........................................................................................................................................................................

CONECTORES QUE INDICAN ACLARACIÓN

Los conectores de aclaración se usan para aclarar o explicar un concepto expresado


previamente.

Ejemplo:
… some of the characteristic properties of materials in a particular class might be broadly the
same (i.e. they might all be brittle or they might all be good electrical conductors) … (r. 19-21)

Los conectores de aclaración son THAT IS (TO SAY) – IN OTHER WORDS – I.E.
Inglés Técnico - TME 37

FRAGMENTO 5:

It should be noted that while some of the characteristic properties of materials in a particular class might be
broadly the same (i.e. they might all be brittle or they might all be good electrical conductors), there can also
be a wide variation in other basic properties (for example, mercury and tungsten are both metals, but have
very different melting points). (r. 19-23)

n. El conector destacado CONTRASTA 2 ideas. ¿Qué OTROS CONECTORES advierte en el fragmento?

 ............................................................................................................
 ............................................................................................................
 ............................................................................................................

o. Complete las ideas contrastadas en este fragmento:

IDEA 1:

Algunas de las propiedades ................................................................................................................................


.............................................................................................................................................................................

IDEA 2:

puede existir una amplia variación .......................................................................................................................


..............................................................................................................................................................................

CONECTORES QUE INDICAN CONTRASTE

Los conectores de contraste se usan para establecer una relación de contraste entre dos
ideas.

Ejemplo:
… mercury and tungsten are both metals, but have very different melting points. (p. 27, r. 22-23)

Los conectores de contraste son BUT – HOWEVER – YET – NEVERTHELESS – INSTEAD – IN CONTRAST
– ON THE OTHER HAND – (AL)THOUGH – EVEN THOUGH – WHEREAS – WHILE - IN SPITE OF – DESPITE –
CONVERSELY – ON THE CONTRARY .

X. Lea los fragmentos a continuación para comparar las secciones resaltadas en cada uno. Luego,
realice las actividades propuestas.
1
Before we can select a material, or design with it, we need to understand the basic requirements (or
2 3
properties it must have) for it to fulfil its function (for example, it might need to have a high melting
point and absorb lots of energy on impact). With this understanding and a knowledge of how these properties
4
vary for different types (or classes) of material, we can make a broad choice of material that would be
suitable (a metal would be most suitable in this instance). (r. 1-5)

5
It should be noted that while some of the characteristic properties of materials in a particular class
6 7
might be broadly the same …., there can also be a wide variation in other basic properties (for
example, mercury and tungsten are both metals, but have very different melting points). (r. 19-23)
Inglés Técnico - TME 38

a. ¿Qué nuevos elementos gramaticales advierte en estos fragmentos? ¿Los conocía? ¿Qué valor le
agregan a la palabra que acompañan?

VERBOS MODALES

Los VERBOS MODALES en inglés preceden a un verbo principal al cual le confieren una
determinada ‘modalidad’ o connotación. Pueden cumplir algunas de las siguientes funciones:

 Indicar distintos grados de posibilidad / probabilidad


 Indicar capacidad
 Indicar obligación o certeza
 Sugerir, dar consejos

El verbo modal CAN nos indica CAPACIDAD del sujeto para realizar la acción o POSIBILIDAD en
tiempo presente. Su forma negativa es cannot o su forma contraída can’t.

El verbo modal MAY nos indica una acción que PUEDE ocurrir en el presente o en el futuro (más
remota que la posibilidad expresada por CAN). Su forma negativa es may not.

Los verbos modales COULD – MIGHT indican una POSIBILIDAD MÁS REMOTA en el presente o en el
futuro. Sus formas negativas son could not – might not.

El verbo modal MUST nos indica obligación o certeza y se lo interpreta como el verbo "deber".
Su forma negativa es must not o mustn't.

El verbo modal SHOULD se usa cuando el autor del texto hace una SUGERENCIA, dando un
CONSEJO o una RECOMENDACIÓN. Su forma negativa es should not.

Las FORMAS PASIVAS de estos verbos se forman de la siguiente manera:

VERBO MODAL (CAN, MAY, MUST) + BE + PARTICIPIO PASADO DEL VERBO PRINCIPAL

Ejemplo:
alloying can be used to increase strength and hardness and improve corrosion resistance.
(r. 27-28)

b. Teniendo en cuenta la información del cuadro, elija 5 SECCIONES resaltadas y escriba sus
equivalentes en español.

 ..................................................................................................................................

 ..................................................................................................................................

 ..................................................................................................................................

 ..................................................................................................................................

 ..................................................................................................................................

XI. Actividad de VOCABULARIO T ÉCNICO.

Lea el texto de esta guía nuevamente para seleccionar palabras o frases relacionadas
con el tema presentado. Luego, escriba el equivalente en español de los términos
seleccionados y compártalos con sus compañeros.
Inglés Técnico - TME 39

PALABRA / FRASE EQUIVALENTE EN ESPAÑOL


Ej.: a high melting point (r. 2-3) un elevado punto de fusión

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

XII. Lectura Adicional

A continuación encontrará un texto extra como práctica complementaria de lectura.

CERAMICS AND GLASSES

1 Ceramic materials are held together by ionic or covalent bonds. With these bonding types, the valence
electrons are either shared between neighbouring atoms (covalent) or donated from one atom to its
neighbour (ionic). As such, the electrons are not free to move throughout the structure in the way that they
are for materials with metallic bonding, and this means that ceramics are poor conductors of electricity and
5 heat. The bonds are very strong and stiff, resulting in ceramics that generally exhibit very high stiffness and
very high melting points. The nature of their bonding means that it is very difficult for atoms to slide past
each other in the way that they do in metals under stress. Their inability to do this means that when
ceramics are put under mechanical stress, rather than deforming, they are susceptible to failure in a
catastrophic way (fracture).
10 Engineering ceramics are usually used in compression to avoid problems with fracture in tension. Ceramics
resist oxidation and corrosion and are frequently used for their ability to withstand high temperature and for
their high hardness. They are the least widely used group of engineering materials. Examples of engineering
ceramics are:

ALUMINA : Alumina (aluminium oxide) is hard and brittle with poor electrical and thermal conductivity. It
15 is used for thermal insulation, as an oxidation barrier, in spark plugs, in cutting tools and as an abrasive.
SILICON NITRIDE : Silicon nitride has a high thermal conductivity and toughness (compared to other
ceramics). It is used in cutting tools, grit-blasting nozzles, turbocharger rotors, turbine blades and shroud
rings (for small jet engines).
CARBON FIBRE : Carbon fibre has a high strength-to-weight ratio and a low coefficient of thermal
20 expansion. It is most commonly used to reinforce composite materials and is also used in filters,
electrodes and antistatic devices.
Inglés Técnico - TME 40

Glasses are amorphous materials without a regular crystal structure, usually produced when a viscous
molten material cools very rapidly. Its atoms are arranged in a somewhat random fashion, as they are in a
liquid. Metals can be formed into a glassy state, but when we think of glasses, we are normally referring to
25 inorganic materials. The non-crystalline nature of inorganic glasses along with their low electrical
conductivity, allows light to be transmitted through them. The bonding in glass is covalent, resulting in a
brittle material which is very susceptible to failure in the presence of defects. Glasses contain mainly silicon
dioxide (also called silica), with other oxides added to impart specialist properties, for example to improve
durability, colour or lustre, light absorption or transmission. The main uses for glass are based on its optical
30 transparency and it being nonreactive. It is also used in the form of fibres for optical cables, insulation and
reinforcement for polymers. Examples of common glasses are:

SODA–LIME GLASSES: Sodium oxide (soda) and calcium oxide (lime) are added to silica to produce low-
melting-point glasses that are easily formed and very widely used for windows, bottles and light bulbs.
BOROSILICATE GLASSES : Boron oxide is added to make heat-resistant and low-expansion borosilicate
35 glasses (Pyrex™) used for cookware and laboratory equipment.
E-GLASS: E-glass contains aluminium oxide, calcium oxide and magnesium oxide additions to the
silica base. It has excellent fibre-forming capabilities and is used almost exclusively as the reinforcing
phase in glass-fibre-reinforced polymer composites (fibreglass).

From: Michael Clifford, Richard Brooks, Alan Howe, Andrew Kennedy, Stewart McWilliam, Stephen Pickering, Paul Shayler &
Philip Shipway. (2009). An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering, Part I. UK: Hachette Company.

Elija uno de los dos materiales que ha leído (CERÁMICOS-VIDRIOS) y complete la tabla.

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