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!Nouns cu··e used lo no me people. o nimols, p laces, E. Masculine nouns tha.t end in the consonants.d•. I, n , ~ s.

onants.d•. I, n , ~ s. or g,rafia], la molo lla motoddetoJ.


lhlngs. end ideo·s In Spanish. e·verv noun has a gender 2 add -a to become feminine: eJ pro·.fesor"' ta profesora. 3. s,ome nouns ending in - a are masculine: et map.a,
ond number. f. Some nouns keep the same form for masculiine and el dicJ'.
feminine, in whi,ch case the gender 1 is identif,iedi by the
GENDER article; el/ lo adista, et/la esJudla.nt.e. SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS
A. Mascul1ine nouns referring to people, an~ma1ls, or things G. Some nouns are always mascu ~ine or always femtntine, A. Plural nouns are formed by adding - s. to singular nouns
usuallty end in - o: et ltbro. Feminine nouns referring to reg·ardless of the gender of the person they designate: that end in vowels and - es. to singul:ar nouns that end
people, animals, or things usually end, in ...a : la si~IO'. la persona~ el bebe; ei personaje, k1 vfcrima. in consonants: la casa, las cosas~ el tfe'n, Ios lrenes.
B. Nouns that imply a gender, whether biological or social, H. Nouns that refer to objects are always a given gender: e~' 1. Nouns endirng in . . .s preceded by an unstressed vowel
usualfy respect that gender: ei ,he.rmano (brother), piso, 1a venfana. do not change for the plural: ef h..t.nes. Ios lunes.
la moza (waitress), eJ camarre·ro (waiter). I. Nouns ending In - r6n. ~ dad, ~tad, - 'ud, and - umbra 2.. If the -s is preceded by a stress~ed vowel, it does
C. Most nouns simply change - o to - Q to switch from are usually feminine. change:· eJ au.r obOs~ Ios ou1obuses.
masculine to feminine: el chico (boy), la chicc1 (girl). J. Irregular :nouns 3.. Nouns ending in - z change to a ~c and adrd - es:
D. some nouns change completely when referring to 1. some nouns ending in -o are fe~min~ne: fo mano, ei ~apiz, .Ios 'apU:es; la Juz, Ios luces.
different genders: el hombre (man), fa muier (woman); la ra-dio, B. Mixed-gender groups always adopt the masculine plural
el padre (father), lo madre (mother). 2. Some nouns ending in - o are femrinine because they form: Ios padres (pare!)ts), Ios nitias (children).
are abbreviations of feminine words: la fofo ll~o tolo -

Articres ore words. such os fhe, a.. and some.. used lo 'but not after hoblar; sober, aprender. or the preposition INDEFINITE ARTICLES
q ualify nouns ond Iheir meanings. Articles m us1 ogree en: M~ gusto la motemalko. (I nrke math.)
1n ·gender ond number w llh the nouns they accompany. t. With days of the week and seasons: La fiesta es el mrer- [ MascuUne Feminine
coles; but not with days expressed as dates: Hoy es tunes.
!DEFINITE ARTICLES 5ingufor un uno
.--- - J. Wlith time expressions and before numerals: fs lo una.
(lt i:s one o'clock.) Plurai unos unos
K. With some common phrases that express prace: Estoy
la fo
en et ~rabojo.; Wm at work.) lndeflnlte articles correspond to the English words "a,"
f.os Ios L. The neuter article lo is used with adjectives. An adjec- "an," and "some." They also are used in Spanish to mean
tive preoeded by ~o becomes an abstract noun, equi~va­ "approximately" or ·"a few": Compre· unas manzanas~
Th·e definite article corresponds to tlhe English word "the" (I bought a few apples.) The indefinite article:
lent to "what" in EngHsh: No comprendo lo que djces.
and is used: (I don't understand what you'r·e saying.) A. Precedes the noun.
A. Before the noun: ~~ protesor 11e.g6 a ~·a r.mi'versidod ay.er. B. Is used before nouns indicating profession and social
iB. With abstract and generic nouns: ,ra naJuralezo. Note·: The word .rosa means /lhouse/1 when used with an status when the nouns are followed by an adjective or
C. With infinitives used as nouns: EJ nabJar otro 'dioma es article and "home// without it. qualifying phrase. Otherwise, the indefinite article is
importon~e. (To speak another language 'is important.) Note: The masculine singular form of the definite artic1le is. omitted before such nouns:
0·. With rnouns listed 1 i n a series:: Compre la led1e, eJ p.an, used before feminine nouns that .begin with a stressed a: e.l - Ana es uno a,rumrHl mo~a. but Ana es olumna.
y .ef cafe. (I bought mHk, bread, and coffee.) aguo; but not in plural : Ios oguas. C. Is om:itted in exclamations after words like ,rque .. . ~
E. Before btles such as senor (Mii.L senora {Mrs.), do·ctor (what a... !) and tal (such).
(!Dr.), except in dire·c t address. PREPOSITION AND DEFINITE ARTICLE D. Is omitted with the numbers cien (one hundred), mlf
F. Be.fore names of famHy members: el abuelo (grandfa- (one thousand), or other expressions expressing quan-
When the article eJ Is pre.ceded by the preposition a, the result
ther), fa tia (aunt), but not with papa or mom6. tity, such as media docena (a half-dozen).
is the contraction aJ. If it is pre.ceded by de:, the result is de-1.
G. Wlith clothing and parts of the body instead of the pos- E. :Is omitted after expressions with como (as), sin (with-
Thes·e are the only two cases of word contraction in Spanish.
sessive ad;jective: Me duele lo cabeza. (My head hurts.) out), derto (certain), or otro (another).
- Coda dia voy at traboio an bkk/eta.
H. Before name·s of scholastic subjects: ,el ingles, J.o denda;
- Efla saU6 del pais.

Adjectives. ore used to modify nouns or p ro nou ns. house) or una cosa grande. However, grande always fol- DEMONSTRATIVE
-----------
ADJECTIVES
- ---- -- - - ~ - - -- lows a masculine noun; the shortene·d form is not used:
.QUALIFYING ADJECT~ViES un cuort~o gronde (a rlarge room). Gran may also bring a
A. Qua1Ufying adiectives add a quality to a noun and meaning change: un gf,an hombre (a great man).
agree in gender and number with the noun. E. Other adjectives can also change meaning depending on
1. To make an adjective plural, add - s after a vowel and whether they are placed before or after the noun:
~es after a consonant. a.nfiguo {old): - mi onf'iguo perro (my former dog)
.2. Most masculine adjectives end in - o; most feminine - mr perro anliguo (my aged dog)
adjectives ~end in - a. p·oibre (poor): - i P,obre~ hombrel (Poor man!)
a. Adjectives that end in - 6n or -on are made - un hombre pobre (an impoverished man)
feminine by adding - CJ and re•moving the accent:
ICOMPARAT~VE ADJECTIVES I
afeman, alemana; cabez6n, cabezooo.
.-~-~~------~- ·· -~~-
- ~~- -----
b. Aduective.s that end in -dor are made feminine :by more m as ... qve Yo soy m as alta que tO. ----- --- --

adding -~a : encontador: encontodora I'm taller than you.


POSSEBSI'VE ADJECTIIVES -~- --
.
c Adjectives ending in - e or in a consonant (-m; -r, less menos .. . que Yo comi menos que mi hermano.
- n, - z;) do not change Futl Form F'JII f OI'lJ' lhorf Meaning
:1 ate less than my !brother di1 d.
d. some adjectives that e.nd in - a do not change Masculine Feminine . Form
-.--.
equal ton ... c.omo Esta camisa es tan cara como la otra. mio(s} mia(s) mi(s} my
and can :be both mascuHne and feminine: hfpocri-
This shirt is os expensive os the other one.
t·a_, rosa, opt;mista, naranj.c1, vtol.eu:t tuyo(s1 tuya{s) tu(s) your
e. When describing a masculine and a feminine suyo(s) suya(s) su(sj his/her, their
noun with the same adjective, always adopt the
IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES .
nuestro{s} nuestra(s) our
masculine form. Quollfying Compa,ratfve vuestro(s) vuestro(s)' your (with plural subject)
18. Most adjectives are placed immediately after the noun. Meaning Meaning
Advective Adjective
C. Some adjectives can occur before the noun. In this case, . In Spanish. possessives come in full and short forms. The
.b.ueno good metor better
the masculine form is shortened: full forms are used after t~he noun; the short forms are used
malo bad peor worse
- un perro bueno or un buen perro (a good dog) before the noun: -~os Ubros 1uyos (your books)
gran de big mayor bigger - hJS' IU)fOS (your books)
Adjective Shortened Form English Form
- pequeiio small men or smaller
bueno buen good INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES
• When grande and pequ.erio refer to physical size;
malo mal bad regular comparative equtvalents {mas gronde, menos Indefinite adlectives refer to people or things without
.
primero prtmer first grande) often are used instead: identifying them specifically. The most common indefinite
tercero tercer third - Su casa es md.s gr.ande que la mfo. '(HI is house is adjectives are:
~J;igger than mine.) cada (each/every)
1
D. The adjective grande can take on the shortened form • Mayor and menor typicalliy are used in the·context of age: aJgun. olgunola~ a~gunos/os (some)
gran only before feminine nouns: t.mo gron caso (a large ~mi hermano mayor {my older brother) ningun ninguno (none)
IPr~onouns are used lo replace nouns .c:Jnd certain preposl1ionol phrases. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
.
PERSONALPRONOUNS · · Reflexive pronouns are used to conjugate reflexive verbs (verbs in which the subject
performs an action on itself).
!Personal pronouns substitute for the names of people or objects. They vary in form
IPronoun
G S

according to number and gender. Meaning Pronoun Meaning


~------------;_------------------~--------~--------~--~

Direct Indirect me myseff ourseJves


Person sublect Aefle•~ve re
Obj~ct ·Ob(act •
yoursel,f os yourselves
yo Ill
SingiJJiar ....:':__~~-f....:..._;_:_~~-----..:;___..:._
me Ime) _ _ me !me)
...:..,..;._ ; . __ _me !myself)
.;.....;;.--:..,........--- w ith/to himself, oneself, .efc. selsf themse1ves/yoU'rselves {.forma I}
2 tU (you! te ·!you) te {you) te (yourself} himself/herself/itself/yourself (forma I}
3-masc. e//Ud. lhe/U/youl lo lhimttt) /else( him) se/si (himself)
3-fem. e/la {she/it} la (her/it) Je/ se(her) se/si (herself) RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Pluro,l J nosotros (wel nos Ius} nos Ius) nos {ourselves) Relative pronouns refer to an earlier noun or action (an antecedent). Unlike in English,
2 vosotros* (you} os* fyou} os* fyo·u} o~ fyourselvesl they cannot be omitted.
3-masc. ellos!Uds. {they/you) Ios (them) les/se(them1 <
~~

3-fem. ellas Jthe}'l Ias lthem) les/se (them) s.e/sl !themselves)


Singular Pluta( Meaning
_._,.,.,;;:;;,._~----------~~-----............--------.-~--_._-
que that/wh ith /who/whom
•rhe second-person familiar plural~ 'tosotros, is used primarily 1
in Spain. Most Latin
cuol cua/es which
American countries use the third person plural- ustedes (Uds.}-for both the familiar
and the formal forms of second person with a plural subject. quien qvien@'S who/whom
cuyola cuyos/as whose
A. Subject pronouns usually are used only for emphasis and clarity, since verb endings
in Spanish indicate the person speaking. lo qr.J·e 1is used whern the antecedent is a whole clause or concept.
11. subject pronouns usually go before the verb, at the beginning of the sentence. - lo que m6.s odro es k1 viofencia. (What 1 hate most is violence.)
2~ In questions, commands, and reported speech, they usually are after the verb.
B. Prepositional pronouns always appear after prepositions, DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
1:~ Yo becomes mt and 1U becomes r;l after all prepositions except entre (between) and Demonstroti,ve pronouns ridentify or point to specific people or things.
segun (according to):
- El v;no Unto es para m i/para ·tJ. (The red wine is for me/for you.)
Masculine Feminine
·~
Neuter Meantng
2e When foll·owing con (with), mf and t~ become con + mf = conmtgo and con + ri = Singufar es1e esta esto th;is one
,

con~igo. ese esa eso that one
- Juan fw3· ai te·o!ro conmi,go. (.Juan went to the theater with me.) aquel ·aqueUa aquello .thot one ov·er there !far away}
3. When referrnng to him or her as himself or herself. the form is si, usuallY accompa- Piural estos estas estos these ones
nied by mlsmo/o:
esos esas esos those ones
-Jul~o. se corto eJ pelo o sf mismo. (Julio cuts his hair hlmse~f.) .·

4. When .sf is accompanied by ·con, the construction becomes consigo: oquellos oque/las aquellos those ones over ~here ~l far away)
- EsUi conf·e nfo corrs;g,o misma. (She is pleased with herself.) Me gust.on estos out-os y aqueJ. (lr liike these cars and that one over there.)
C. Object pronouns usually go before verbs. However, when used with a verb in the infini-
tive~ imperative, or gerund form, the object pronoun is attached to the end of the verb. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
---------------- --

1. When the pronoun is attached to the verb, the stress of the word changes and Indefinite pronouns refer to people and things without identifyhng them. The ~most com-
often needs an accent: mon are o~go (something/anything), nada (not hing/anything), o~gu;en (someone/anyone),
- Come !as verduras. {Eat the vegetables) becomes C6melos (Eat them). and nad1e (no one).
2. If the infinitive or gerund is part of a compound verb, then the pronoun can go - - - -- - -- -

before the main verb. INTIERROGATIVE PRONOUNS


- - - - - -- - ------ .

3. When a sentence contains both a subject and an object pronoun, the subject pro- lnter.rogative pronouns introduce questions or queri.es.
noun precedes the object pronoun. .
4. If ie/ 1res is used! together wah lolfa , lelfes beco:mes se: S'e la di. (I gave it to her.) Silngular Plural Ma.anlng
··~·'"-------------~~~------=--- ···-·- ·· -~---.----------------"
que what?
cuol cuales which?
Subfect + Indirect Obl..e. ....ct
- "+
. ---~,..,_.. -··-· ··- ·~---...,.,.-~...·~~of.-
= =...!...- ~
Dire:ct-'-•._._ __Obi;ect +
-. .- ·-·,.._··-··-- _,.~_._,_ ~,...,_--..,
Verb
... --..
. '!Y!:!.-·~-~
: Sentence
.· - -.-..·- cu6ntola cu6ntoslos !how much/how many?
Y.o te lo doy Yo te lo doy.
.quien quienes who?
I fo yo:u iif' g ive I'm giving it to you.

Verrbs ~express action.. occurtenc.e. or stoles or being. 1. When conjugated, some verbs have ,stem changes for every person except first- and
- . - -- - . . - ~-~-

s·econd-person plural forms. There are four mqjor stem-change categories rn Spanish:
V!ERB MOODS a. e ~ ie: querer: quJero. quieresL qu1ere~~ queremo·s~ quen?is"' quieren
A. lnd1catlve: Expresses facts and actual situations b. o ~ ue: volver· vu,elvo, v~ue~ves~ vuelv.e, voJvem.c:ls, volveis~ vue~ven
B. SubJunctive: Expresses actions that are doubtful, possible, or desirable c.. u ~ ue: jvgar: ju.ego, jue.gos~ fuega. ~·ugomos~ jugais~ ju~egon
C. Imperative: Expresses orders or commands d. e ~ i: pedir~ pido, pides. pide.. pedimos, pedfs.. p iden
'2. Other verb-s have a stem change in the first-person s:ingular ·form only:
IN FI·N 1TIVE 1

----- -- - - - - - - - - .
o. c ~ zc; conoce·r: conozco
The fnfinttrve is the basic root form of a verb. All infinitives in Spanish end in - ar, -er, or ~ir. b. c ~ g; hacer~ hogo
Regular verb forms are conjugated by dropping the infinitive ending and adding whichever e. I ~ lg: solk:. scdgo
ending corresponds to the mood, tense, and person that are being employed. d.. n ~ ng: poner: pongo
-- --- - -
,PRESENT TENSE (INDICATIVE) PRESENT PARTICIPLE --- -- - -··- - -- .

A. Used to describe: A. Equiva~ent to the Engli~sh -ing form; used for progressive t~enses with the verb estar.
1. Action that is happening at the moment B. Form:

2. Habitual actions 1. verbs with infinitives ending in - a, drop - ar and add -ando ~ hablar; hobkmdo.
3~
Future action when. using an adverb of time 2. Verbs with infinirtives ending in - -er and - it drop -.er an1d ~i,r and add -Iendo:
B. conjugation: comer, comiendo; vjvir, v;v~endo.
PRISENT :PAST PAR:TIGIPlE
.I Person. i- ar I;..., ]-ir

=- ' ·-
-- -- -- - - -

A. Used wit.h the verb nob er to form compound tenses.


---- -

Singutor yo hob~o como VI VO


• B. can b·e us~ed as an adjective, in which case it agrees 1in num:ber and gender.
t.(J habt,as comes VlVe.s
C. Also used in passive voice constructions.
el, elfa, Ud. habt-a come vive D. Form:
Plum'l nosotros hab~mo~ com eJ'tH)S vMmo.s 1. Verbs with infirnritives ending in - ,or drop - ar and add ~ado : hobJarl hobJado.
vosotros hab~flis: come~s
... VlWS
• •
2. v~erbs with infinitives ending in ~e1 and - ir drop .....er and -.lr and add - ido: eo mer,
..
ellos, ellas, Uds. ha·b fan eomen VIVe n comldo; v;v;r, ''ivldo.
IPRESENT--PHOGRES;SIVE
___
TENSE
----- --------
------ F. some verbs have di.stinct meanings in th·e preterite: dWhereas the preterite form emphasizes distance
from the past action, the present perfect brings
A. Used to express action taking place exactly at the time Meaning in MeCinJ~ng in
Vef.b the action to the present:
of expression : E"s!oy comiendo, 0 am eating right now.) Present Preterite·
------.-·-'------~-----....,___ _ _ __ _ _ _ _,! - Su abuelo ha muerlo· (Her grandfather has
8. Formed by using the appropriately conjugated form of conoaer a to know [someone) to meet !someone! died) instead of Su obuelo mur;o {Her grand-
.estor in t he present tense plus the present particiipl·e of [alguienJ father died)
the verb of action: Elk1·.estO hablando/comiendolcon- ·2. Form: present form of haber + past participle
dudendo. (She is. speaking/eating/driving.) sober lalgoJ to know [something! to find o.uf !something)
- Yo he hobfado/co,midolsaltdo.
---- -
no quer-er to not want [to do to refuse [to do
FUTURE TENSE B. Past perfect (pluperfect)
- ·-- ------- fhac·er olgo} something! something! 1. Expresses the equivalent of "had done something";
A. Used to expr~ess action that wHI take place in the events in the past preceded by other events
future: El avi6n Uegard maitano. (The plane will arrive 2. Form: ~mperfect form of haber + past participle
tomorrow.} - Yo habfa hablado/comrdolsalido.
B. Can also be us·ed to express probabrili1ty: ti,O.ue horo es? A. Expresses a past action that does not have a defined C. Preterite perfect .
No se.
ser,dn Ios tr.es. (What ti:me is it? I don't know, it's beginnjng or end: l. Mainly used in literary texts to express an action
probably around three.) - Habf.ab.a o Jo.s chicos en ingles. (He spoke to the completed j ust before another past action. usually
C. Conjugation children in English.) with openos (hardly, barely}
B. Describes a habitual action in the past, corresponding to 2. Form: preterite form of haber + past participle
FUTURE the E~glish "used to"; describes people and things: - :Yo hube hobfado:lcom;dol sol;do.
~Person -ar -er -rr •
.J - lbamos ol mismo bar todos Ios diocS. (We used to
go to the same bar every day.)
D·. Future perfect
yo hablafe corner.§ vivlre 1. Expresses the equivalent of "will have done something''
- Mi obueJo ~era ca11to. (My grandfather was bald.) 2. Form: future form of haber + past jparticiple
tU hablaras cameras viviras C. Describes what was going on when something else
..
. . - Yo hobre ha.blo do/comidolsalldo.
et ello, Ud. hoblar6 comer6 vtvtra happened: E. Condltionai perfect
nosotros hablaremos comere·mos vMremos - M1irdbam,os fa pelicula y ~co·miamos p.aiom;·ras 1. Expresses "would have done something"
vosotros hablareJs
...
COffi fH61S v~vlreis
cuondo de repente se apago la iuz. (We were - Penso que cu:ando terminom la pelicula ya
watching the movie and eating popcorn when the habrd dejado de nevor. (I thought that when the
enos, ellas, electricity suddenly went out.} movie ended it would have stopped snowing.)
Uds. hablaran comeriin
. ...
.
VMran D. Often used with the following expressions: siempre 2. Form: conditional form of haber +past particip·l-e
(always). a menudo (often). todos Ios d(os (every day), - Yo habric hobJodolcom~dolsolido.
. D. Irregularities: frecuentementa {fr.equently).
1. A - d is added to the stem of some verbs (lener, poner, E. Conjugation:
vol,er, venr~ saiJr) when conjugated in the future·tense. REFLEXIVES//os REFLEXIVOS
This change is the samfe cfor all forms of person:
IMPEREEGT A. In reflexive verbs, the subject both performs and
mner; tendr~, tendros, tendr6, fendromos. t·endrers~ Person -ar -er -lr receiVes the action of the verb.
--- . ·-
tendran • • B.. Form: reflexive pronoun + reflexive verb
yo habtabQ comfa V!'VUJ
- Cado dia me bono y me vrsto. {Every day l lbathe and .
:2. Other ver.bs drop the -~e from the root (cober, haber, -·
V'l
:;::5
• •
poder, querer, sober). Ag.ai1n, this change is the (0
c: tO hoblabas comia.s V!VfOS get dr·essedi.)
same for all forms of person: 0
"'11
et ella, Ud. habla.bo *
C·omra '
VMd .
,c,o ber! cabre, cobras., cobra, cobremos. cobreis, . ~

eo bran nosotros hobUi.bamos comJomos VMOm·OS


3. The verbs dedr and hacer ar'e irregular as foltlows: :!Z • • •
re: vosotros habJ'a.bois comrai:s VJ11j0~S
de.dr: dire~ dJras, dira~ d;remos, dke,;s.. dir6n a-
hacer: hore. hares, hard, haremo.s, hareis. . haran ellos, ellas, Uds. habfabon comion vivtan
lE. The construction lr (prese.nt tense) + o + infinitive can
also be used to express actions in the future: F. Irregularities:
- 'Voy a saJir o Ios tres. (I'm going to leave at three s·e r: erai ems~ era, eromos, erofs:, eran
o'clock.} lr: iba. ;bcrs, ibo, ibamos,. fbois, Iban
.oa
ver.: ve•o, veros.. ve,o, vewmos. ve•als, vefan
.. ~ ... .... ..o/

-- --- - - -------- --

!PAST (PRETER~TE].
-- - --
T!ENSE
------ --·
G. tmrpe.r fect progressive: The imperfect of esh:Jl plus the
1 C. The meaning of some verbs changes 'in the reflex-ive
present participle is used to emphasize that somethi,ng form: ponerse (to becomei to get); cambiarse (to get
A. The preterite tense is used to express finished or com-
plete actions that happened in the past.
was in progress when something else happened. changed); aburdrse {to get bored); dormirse (to tall
B. lt can also indicate an action occurring in the - &stoba c:aminoodo pore~ porque cvondo empez6 asleep); vohrerse. (to become, to turn); lr.s~e (to go away)
present that began at a specific point in the past:
a llov·er. (I was walking in the park when it began
to raln.) SUB-JUNCTIVE/et SUBJUNTIVO
- E'mpece·a estudiar oyer. (I began to study yesterday.)
C. conjugation: CONDIITIIONAL TENSE
P' RESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
1

- ------- -
-
PR~TER,TE L A. Expresses the English e.quivalent of "would" or "could":
A. uses:
Person - ar -er -ir - Te d;jo qve 'e oy.udcuj,e~ man ono. (He told you he
l r o express a wish, hope, desire, preference, sugges-
• would help you tomorrow.)
yo hoble comf •
VM tion, request, or ord·er
!lA
-· B. Also used to give advice, for polite questions and requests,
;;l
~tu vrvlste - Que teng,as suerte. (Good luck.}
IQ habJaste eomine and in conditional sentences with the subjunctJive:
-c. 2. After a main clause that expresses doubt, fear, joy, or
...0 et, ella, Ud. hab16 ••
comro v;vi6 - Sj vintera el conductor. ilfamos ol mvseo. (If the
other emoHon
driver came, we would go to the museum.)
nosotros habfamos comJmos v;v·m
r o_
-.s - Es.pero que ganemos e~premfo. (I hope we win
C. Conj!ugation:
the pr.iz·e.}
J1
c
...,
vosotros hobfastois· comistel:s vivisteis.
CONDITIONAL . e.s pr·obab.fe que,. es dudoso que. es rmposible que
3- After certain impersonal-expressions (es posible que..
-
Q
eJios, ellas,
hob~aron
'-
n-
comrero· Person -ar - er - ir
r

Uds. es necesar.fo que. es mrefor que. es lmporfonte que.


Singul'or yo hablatia ·-
comerHJ ' • •
VI VInO es l6stima que) that show necessity, regret possibil-
D. Irregularities: -----------------------------------
tu · ' ._ ,. - ity, or doubt
1. When conjugated in the pretertite tense, the root hablorf.a:s· v1vrr¥as
-
com em:~s
r

vowel in the stem of some verbs changes to - u. This


- fs importonte q ue tJegt.J.es a trempo. Ot's
el, ella, Ud. hab/arfo comeria vivirio important that you .arrive on time.)
change is the same for all forms of person.
Plural nosotros hablariamos comerfamos vlviri·am.os 4. After the negative form of verbs relati ng to knowl-
poder: pude# pudista, pudo, pudtmos. pudlstejst
edge, perception, and communication
pudieron vosotros hablaticrrs come.rJc:ds vivid:ai.s: - No creo que se·a rn r·eirgenl'e. (I don't think he's
2 . For some verbs, the root vowel changes to - i..
eiJos, ellas, intell!igent.}
de., ir: diJe, di{iste, dr~o~ dij~m o s, dijJsteis., dijeron
Uds. ha.blarJan comerft.m vivirfan 5. After ~expressions of intent and purpose such as para
3. For some verbs. add - uv at the end of the root.
que (so that), o fin de que (in order that)
estar: e.str.Nei estuviste, esluvo. estuvlmo~ estiJvrste;s,
D. conjugating irregu1
lar verbs: same irregular verbs as the - Voy a codnar pa ro .que comas me jor. (I' m going
estuvieron
to cook so that you eat !better.)
4. For some verbs, add a -i. future tense, as the irregularity occurs in the. root
6., After expressions of time such as cuando (when),
frrt:UU: tra[e, fr.aiis1e" trajo.. fr·CI{rmos, trajjsteis,
COM·:POUNiD TENSES --
- - --------------- - ---- - - -- - - - - - - - --- hosfa que (untif). tan pronto como (as soon as),
1rajeron . . -

A. Present perfect mientros que (While)


E. Pres,erving sound in th·e first-person pretedte:
1. uses: 7. After express·ions of concHtion. exception, or
1. Since there is no ze in Spanish, c.e is always used
o. Expresses the equivalent of "to have done concession, such as con ta, de que (given that),
instead:
something" exc.eplo que (except vf), ounque (al'though), sin que
almorzar: olmorce,· comenz.ar; comence
b.. Expresses actions that have happened in a (without, unless), ~a pesorde que (even though)
2. To keep the hard c sound. change to qui:
period of time that is not yet over -No voy a salir sin que habtes con Ano. (I'm not
buscor: busque; sacor; soque
c. Expresses even~s in the past that have particular going to leave un1
1ess you talk to Ana.)
3. To keep the hard g sound. change to gue:
llegar: Jlegu~; pagar: pague importance for the present
,, . - - - -~ -

The following verbs foJiow the same pattern as the verb


·~- - ~- -

PURPQS,E ·,OIF THIS :C


----- --- - -- - - - - - - - · -
HART - - -
-- --- ---- doJer to hurt
gusJor (the equivalent of the English "to like,'' hut literally
This chart covers Spanish words and phrases encantar to love~ t o adore
"to be pleasing"). As with gustor, the person who would
that English speakers often find tricky or difficult be the subject of the verb in En_ ish is the indirect object in
gl1 enfodar to n1ake angry
to remember, inCluding idiomatic expressions, Spanish (expressed with me, te~ le, nos, os, or /es).
verb expressions, and false cognates. It is meant extranar to surprise
for students who already know basic Spanish. Examples: faltor to lack, to be missing
1
--------------'---~------=----

For intro-level vocabulary and pronunciation, see Nos guston Ios pelicu1as d6sicas. We like classic movies. fasclnar to fascinate
the Spanish Vocabulary SparkChart. For more (uterally, "Classic movies please us.") hacer falta to need
in-depth grammar, see the Spanish Grammar A Lazaro, l,e inleresa la musica jazz. IL6zoro is interested in
jazz mus:ic, (LiteroH~ "Jazz music interests Lazaro."J
imponar to matter
and Spanish Verbs SparkCharts. "' .
1mpas1o·nar
.
to tmp-ress
..
. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----- - - --- - - - - -
agrodor to like ----------~,
TEPS 'F'OR s.PEAKING AND: WR'!I TING I interuar to interest
\¥hen speaking or ·writing in Spanish, try to use ·coer bien to make a good impression mo'lestar to bother
words and grammatical structures that you,re _·c_o_e_r _m_-a_l _ _ _ __ t_o_m
_._a_k_e _a_b_·a_d_ im
_. ·.:;
I p_re_s_s_io_n_ _ _ parecer to seem, to appear
already familiar with. If you're talking and get ·'--"----- - - -- -
·Convenlr to suit, to be s uitable preocvpar to worrv
stuck and don't kno·w a word, explain what you •'

want to say using other words that you do kno-w. costor·trab«lo to be difficult quedar to have [eft
den oseo to disgust, to revolt sabrar to have in excess
disgustar to upset so·t~prender to surprise
When using a Spanish-English dictionary, keep
the follo¥ving suggestions in mind.
1. To start with, use a dependable dictionary.
2. Know what part of speech you're looking for. Many idiomafk expressions in Spanish jnvolve the de a·cuerdo· in agree1nent
For instance, looking up the word well could prepositions a or de.
cause a lot of confusion if you don't know de aqui en adelante from now on
- -.,..,...Ut!!"'
a- - ~ de- because of
whether you need an adjective, adverb, noun, - --- - - -- ·--·· de buena 'gana willingly
verb, or interjection. a fin de qoe so that, in order that
de este modo in this V\ray,. in this manner
3. There may be several choices> even for the off in the distance, far away
de golpe suddenly
same part of speech. In such cases, it helps to a mas tardar at the Latest de hoy en adelanf.e from nov.r on
do a reverse lookup and look up each of the
a medid~· que 'vhile, at the same time as de mala gana unwillingly
choices in the Spanish-to-English section.
o menos que: unless de modo in style, fashionable
4. Don)t try to translate idiomatic expressions
word for \-vord. In most cases this will result o meau(Jo often de ningun mod_o by no means, no ·way
---~~ · --------~~----------------------
in misunderstanding. If you can't find the ~

a m1 parecer •
U1

my OplUlOD,

de nuevo again
correct ''translation" for an idio1natic expres- to me it seems that -----------------~----------------------

sion, avoid using it. de otro modo otherwise


--~-------------------
a partir de+ from on, starting )
de pie on one's feet, standing
5· Note any regional variations mentioned in point in tim~ effective
the dictionary. Sometimes this is crucial, as de priso in a hurry
w·ith the verb coger, which is used commonly a pesar de in spite of, despite-
in Spain and other countries to mean "to get"
-- •
de r.epe-nte suddenly
~-·---- --------~------------------------
a p1e on foot de· rodi'llas kneeling, on one's knees
or "to catch'' but has an obscene meaning in
lVIexico and other parts of Latin America.
o propQsito 'by the way
- ·
· -- - -·- · - - - - .. -..•- ..., _ . . , . ----- ~- n

de subito
0 oo-::"n :o=-'
- • • •-. - -- --

suddenly
·

----------------~---------------
a solos on one's own, alone de todos modo.s anyway, anyhow
6. ~1ake sure you know the correct spelling ----------------- ----------------
of the English word you)re looking up. For Oiti.empo on time de va·cacion·es on vacation •

example, the results \Nill be very different for a naves de through de verras really, tndy

stationary as opposed to stationery, or prin- ••

ciple as opposed to principal. a vec:es someti1nes de vez en cuand:o fTom time to time

Many idiomatic expressions in Spanish involve the


preposiHons por and para.
m·apar dic:J1 day by day

to be about to [do something]

estar para+ infinitkve to be about to [do something]


paro emonces by t!hat Ume
----------------~.
from what they say :para otra vez for another occasion
therefore ~ as a result :pa.ra que so that, in order th at
-··- - ·--- -- - - -- - - - -- - - - --
Many common expressions in Spanish use verbs in a
manner different from their literal meanings. English has
,.....:...::_.::____:_:.______ ___
estar de vacadones to be on vacation poner en apuros to put in a jam
numerous idiomatic expressions of the same kind: "to estar de ~~ie to be traveli~g_.. poner en duda to eaU into question
~------------------~ - ------------
kill time/ "to make do," "to hang out," and so on. The estar de vuelta to be back, to have returned poner en ,rnarcha to start
tables below list many common idiomatic expressions in e-star en buenas to be in good shape poner en movim,iento to set in motion
Spanish, grouped by verb. The verb's literal meaning is condicfones poner la mesa to set the table
listed in red at the beginning of each entry. estar en matas to be in bad shape poner Ios cosas en to clear things up
condiciones daro
caef' [I o "fa~il} estar en Ios nubes to daydream
-· ~~-~~-~~~~~~------------- poner manos a la Obra to get to '"'ork
taerle bien to make a good impression estar fuero de si to be beside oneself
queda r (to stay.. 'to remain, to be le·ttl
caerle mat to make a bad impression estar hecho polvo to be \vorn out
to drop estar heeho una sopa to be soaked quedar + adjec1ive to be [ad.L: je__c--
t~ i_
ve-=]!'...-....._ _ __
-.- --- - .- .---.-- . - - - - -- -
hater caer to knock over estar listo to be readv .,
quedarfe bien to fit well ...
estar por + infinitive to be about to, quedarse dego to go b~ind
dar Uo giveJ
to be on the verge of quedarse coio to go lame
c.tar a to face, to be fac_ing"----- 7 - - -
7

quedar con to make a date with [someone]


dor a, conocer to make known ha:ber ~to hG\fe [helping verblll ----·.. : .· -- ·-
~~ u~ ed~a =
' 'r_s_
e·~c_
o_n ______~t~
o _k~e~e~
p ______~---------
dar a luz to give birth haber de + infioithte. to be supposed to, to have to
--~------------------~~----~----~--= quedar de tPie to remain Sitanding
dar as-eo to disgust hay que+ infinit~ve it is necessary to, one must
queda~r ern to agree on} to an·auge to
.--.:..!..__ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ ____;::::..._____ __ _ ·- ·" ' - - -
dor con to meet 1 to run into ~ to h it on hoeer ~lo do, lo make~ quedarle mal to fit badly
dar contra to hit, to knock against desde haGe + since [amount of time] quedar sin hacer to re1nain und!one
dorse cuento d:e to rea~ize amount of 1ime
soUr (lo leavej to go out]
dar de beber to give a drink to hace + [amount of time] ago
dor de co.rner to feed amoun1 cf 1ime. + que salir bien to succeed
-~~- ~~~~~~~~-----------------------
dor en to hit 1 strike hacerse to becotne salir con to go out vvith, to date
dar la bienvenida to welcome hacer buen tiempo to be g,aod vv:eather (out) salir con ~a suya to get one's way
dar la espJJida to turn one's b~_c_ k _ _ __ hacer caer salir mal to fail
to knock over
dar la hora to strike the hour hacer calor to be hot (out) tener Uo hovei to possess, 1·o hold, Io corrfain)
-~ ....- ~=- ~o -
---~---------- -
__dar Ios gracios.___
o - -·- to thank [someone]
_..;:::;.,___..._~
_ ~~
. ,.____ ---=-- - hacer caso de to pay attention to tener . aiios to..--·be years old
- ---=-.:-
dorse fa m;ano to shake bands hacer col'a to stand in Hne tener colo.r to be hot
- dar
··'·- -lo- - - - - - to
mismo make no difference
..;.,.,.;,....:......::..._;__ ______ ___ hacer dano o to harm [someone/something] tener celos (de) to be jealous (of)
dar pena Q to aggrieve
hace.r de nuevo to do over tene·r cuidado to be careful
dar por to consider, to regard, ···· ··- .. ~·--·-----~-----~~---~-----

hacer el papel de to play the role of tener dolor de + to have a [head]ache,


to assume
hace.r folta to be in need of ~body port") [back]ache, etc.
to give up, to acknowledge
hacer trio to be cold (out) tener en cuento to have in mind
defeat -----------------
hacer iuego to match tener exito to be successful
dar un 1paseo to trake a waiDk>to take a ride ------~ --·~-----~--------:----

hacer ta[s) ma'leta{s:) to pack one's suitcase(s) tener 'M~ to be cold


dar un ,paso to trake a step --·---------------,~='-~-------------------
hacer fos. paces (con) to make peace (with) tene'r ganas de to feel like,
dar una mono to lend a hand
to be in the mood for
dar una vuelta to take a walk) to take a ride hacer mal tiempo to be bad weather (o-ut) -·-----------------~~-------------------
tener grada to be funny•
dar voces: to shout ihacer so"l to be sunny (out)
----------~~~------~--~------ --~-·- =-~ tener hambre to be hungry
dar vueltas a to think [something] over hacer un viai~ to take a trip
tener Ios ner"Vios .de to be on edge
decir [to soy~ to 1"-!;:IIJ to ask a question punta
.
hacer v1ento
'
to be windy (out)
t,Gomo se dice...? How do you say ... ? tener lugor to take place
1 ------:-----------------~---------------
dicho de Oilfa man.era in other ·words ir [to, go) te.ner mala •cara to look bad
~;Diga! or ·iDigame! Hello? (on the phone) ~ira p_ie__________to_~~k, to go on foot tener miedo (de) to be afraid (of)
-
e'l que diran pLu:.: . : b: . :J.: . . :ic=-.:-.:o_p.lC.-.i. :.:n:
.:: .io::. . . .n.:=-
__ _ _ _ __
ir de compras to go shopping tener por to consider to be,
es dedr that is to savl [ mean ir de iuerg.a to go out partying to taike [someone] for
melo'r dicho rather, I mean ir de mal en :peor to ,go from bad to worse fener presente to bear in mind
no hoy m6_s q~e declr there''s nothing more to say irse to go away tener priso
-
to be in a hurry
=
r;No me di.gas! You don't say~ tener que +. i~ m~finitive to have to [do something]
nevor [to~ lake.. ·r.o (0 rry.~
·querer decir to mean tener que ver rfOn to have to do with
llevar +amount of time to take (amount of time) tener razon to be r~ght~ to be correct
ec.h ar no 'fhrow, lo put in, lo add; to ~emitl llevarse to carry off, to take away tener• sueno to be sleepy
echar a + inffnl1ive to start/begin to [do something] llevar a to lead to tener suer.re to be lucky
echar a perdet to ruin, to spoil 'llevarse bien con to get along well l\ith - ---·
ten.er verguenza (de) to be asham.ed CoO
edlar abaio to demolish, to overthirovv llevorse mal con to get along badly with
·-----------~~----~------------- '

echQr de menos to miss llevar una vida' buena to live a good life .

echar la culpa (a) to blame tomar a pecf:lo to take to heart


ester Uo be~
o.i'r U·o hear,. lo lis1en I'O}
oir decir que to hear (it said) that
___
tomar a~....;:.,_ ________________________
- -~--~~---------~~-------------------
pie de la letra to take ~iterally:
tomarl~ el pelo to pun son1eone's leg
.

estor + gerund to be [doing somet~~ng=-]_ _


estar a
-
£o be priDced at, to cost
oir hablar de to hear about, to hear of tomor en serio to take seriously
·---~
;Oye! or iO;iga! Hey.!, Listen!
esto_r al corriente de to be u p to date on veni r ~to come~
~~--~----------------- poner [l~o put. to plocel to add~
estor como el pez en to be r.ight at home el mes que viene next month
e'l agua ponerse + ad jective to become i[adjective] la sem.ana que viene next week
estar conforme con to be in agreem.e nt with ponerse to put on [article of cloth ~ng] iVenga,J Come on!, Lefs go!, Okay!
·-----------------~----~~--~---
esta:r de + P:_r_o_fe_ss_io__n_ t_o;_b_e_.w_o_r_~ng as a [profession] ponerse a + infinitive to begin to do [something] __ vengQIO que vengar com,e what may
estor de acuerdo
- z 2
to ag!iee . poner al corriente to ~nform •
ventr + to have been I[doing something]
estar de·buen humor to be in a g<?_ o_d_ .m_o_.o_d_ _ _~ ,Poner al dia to bring [someone] up to date prresent participie
- -
estar de mal humor to be in a bad mood ,ponerse de pie to stand up •
ventra to come to
- ··-·. ,.. , .-
'm... [lll':J~_..,..n r-:t·
·. .,.
•"' ~~~ · iL ;~-
cli,{ I ~j i'!J• I .l, J{j- ·.~
'
I k1 ;.1 ~ ~ I ' I ~I J, • .. ': : • t;" l' p:l ',
fl rll l
1
~ .~. · r~ . rIf•~ l
· ~
Y=({j{ ~~t; ~·~~jl !:~1{1f:~ r~r.~ ~.i:l
1
r;l ": ~~ -
~~
~ ·, '..:;.~
~ T .:--
'i

to ask ·to look .


.. -

~ouestionar to question (philoSOJ2hically) buscar to took for
hacer una pregunta to ask a question mirar to 1ook at ![something]
-
ped'lr to ask for, to request '
parecer
1 to appear, to seem
preguntar
preguntar par
-
to ask a question
~· '
parecerse a to took like [someone]
to ask about (person/thing) f,o meet
' ~

t·o become conocer to meet [someone]!for the first time


convertirse en + noun indicates that one object changes into another: dar con, encon1rarse con to meet [someone]!by chance
transform~rse en + noun £1 agua se convrrli6 en hiefo. (The water turned ~nto ice.) encontrar to meel [someone]\ either intentionally or by chance
haGerse· + indicates a grad ual change brought about by •
reumrse to meet [someone] in an official capacity
noun or adlective someone's effort; a~so expresses what has happened
verse con t.o meet [someone] by appointment
or will happen to someone: Me, pregun1o que se hizo· de
Juan. Uwonder what become of Juan.) memory·
I
·nega.r a ser + indicates a gradual change over time:. Ana Jlegoro a ser reGuerdo a specific recoUection
'

noun or odiediv.e rlca sJsigue frobafondo tonlo. (Ana will become rich if she '
••
memona the capacity to remember
keeps working so mUJch.} ' - ~
~

1meterse a + noun indicates a change in profession or activity, usuaUy in ·kJ, miss


a derogatory sense·: Mi Ua fue a Ho~·lywood para meletse ecbQr de menos, extraliar to miss (someonejs{)mething)
a ocfriz aunque no tiene tolent.o. (My aunt went to Hollywood
evitar to avoid
.
to become an actress even though she has no talent.)
fohra to fail to attend an event or ap_Qointment
,ponerse + od~octhte indicat es an involuntary change of state: AJ ofr la --
nofido, A~arlo se puso emoc~onada. !Upon hearing the news, perder to ·m iss (a chance/busf planefetc.)
Marita became excited.)
- - ·t o play
quedarse + adjeclfrve indicates that a person or object has been left in a
certain state, often by some sort of loss; Atinque se. iugar (a) to play a game or sport
qued6 sordo.. .Beethoven sigui6 componiendo muska has1a su tocar to play a musical instrument
muerte. (Aithoug,h he became deaf, Beethoven continued fo
compose music unfilllhis death.) ·qua'li1y
volverse + ~adledive indicates a sudden, often irreversible change:· Jose se calidad a measure of value
volv16 Joco y dej6 su l.mbajo. (Jose went crazy and quit his job.) cualidadl a characteristic or trait
Many Spanish verbs con be used with the pronoun sa ro indicate a process of change. to 1raise
This is often expressed in English as "to become . .i H "to get " or w.ith ~he suffix -en: -
aumentar to increase (amount of)
c:onsane ·--·---
to get tired enor •
to care for (person/ animal) .

casorse to get married


'

cuttivar to raise, to cultivate (crops)



emoctonarse to get excited educ:ar to rear, to bring up
eofadarse to get angry l!e~~antar to raise (physically), to lift
enfermarse to get sick subir to take something up, to ma'k e higher
.
enfria.rse to get cold

- to save
eno.1arse to get ang_~
ahorrar to save (money)
enr:ojecerse to tur n red, to blush
g.uardar to set something aside, to put something away
moiatse to get wet
salvar to rescue from danger
secorse to become dry, to dry out -
to stop
For several other common Spanish verbs, the meaning "to become " is inherent:
dejar de + inftntUve to stop doing something
adelgazar to become thin., to lose weight
detener to detain [someone]
engordar to get fat, to gain weight
detenerse .
t o pause, to come to a stop
ensordecer to go deaf . ped.
• 1m, · 1r to stop [someone] from doing something
enve1ecer to grow old, to age
parar(se) to stop (to come to a stop)
to care
to support
cuidar to take care of someone or something .

apoyar to back, to support emotionally


importar to matter: No me· importo. (I don'f care.)
montener to support financially
dose soporta.r to ibear, to tolerate
cerea (adverb.) .refers to physical proximity sostener to sustain, to hold up physically
cercono (adiec1~ve} refers to physical proximity or degree of separation of to ·take
blood .relatives . -~

intimo (,adiec1ive) dar un paseotpa,so to take a wa)k/ step


refers to relationships other than family; friendship,
emotional ties, etc. hacer un via]e to take a trip .
unido· ~ad[ettwe) refers to closeness of family members, but with no ltevar to carry from one p~ace to another
reference to blood ties quJtar to take something away
[tlQr) d(de quftarse t o take off [article of cloth ing]
1

cito 1[noun) an appointment tardar en + iln·tini1ive to t ake time to do something


fecha ~noun~ the tener lugar to take place
.. calendar
_ , date
salir con (verb) to date someone socially tomar to take (most general meaning, for n1ost other cases)
met - .
flme

dato a specific piece of information hora a specific time (of d.ay/night)


hecho a known reality rato a brief amount of time,, a while
ti·empo time in an abstract sense, a duration or period of time
funny
vez . an instance or occurrence I

comtCO
r\1' •
comical - ~

fa, try·
curioso~ extrano odd, strange -

divedido entertaining intenltar + Tnfini1ive to try to do [something]


. .. .......... -. .L. - - r ., . ..
The following words are often mistaken because they appear to be cognates but are not. SPANISH-ENGUSH
For examp 1e, actual in Sponi.sh means Hcurrenr'; the real Spanish word for the English
1

"'actuaiN is. efec1ivo or v.-erdodero. All Spanish words in the table ore in bold. honesto decent, honorable honest honrado, recto
idioma language idiom modismo
ENGU5R-SPANISH
igJlotar to be unaware of to i.gnore no hacer caso de
current, present efecti¥o, verdadero
aplh:ar to apply, to attach ·t o apply solicitor in·toxicar to poison to intoxieate emborrachar
(for a job) introducir to 'introduce (a topic) to intraduce presentar
------------------------------~--~~----------------------
eulogy ~P9lOg)' , disculpa, excusa
(a petson)
to attend largo long large grande
lectura reading lectur~e conferenda
to take care of to attend O·Sistir
bachiller bachelor soltero libreria bookstore library biblloteca
secondary-school
graduate mayor greater, older mayor alcalde
billon triUion billion mil millones mesu~a m od eration measure medida
cm»on coal carbon carbon.o mdlestar to annoy, to bother to moWest abusar sexualmente
campo country, field camp campamento nomlue noun, name number ~nu. mero

duty, responsibility cargo cargo porientes relatives ptu·e nts 1padres


corpeta
. folder, file affombra pin~har to puncture to pinch 1pellizcar
'T ..

cbocar to crash, to shock to choke asfi~iarse preservative condom pre..servative conservante


coilar necklace coUar cuello p.retender: to try to, to aspire to to pretend fingir
constitution, complexiQ'D tez quitar to take away, to ·r emove to, ~quit
temperament nmr royal £eal verdadero·
compromiso1 obligation oonlpilrom~ ~e acuerdo mutuo,. arreglo Jeafizor to carry out to realize darse cuenta de
,eonsfipaoi6rn cold, illness eonsti'pation
_ _..,;._._ _ _ __ __ __..:;__ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __e:___ _ _ __
estrenimiento
.
~~- ----.--> --.-.-- ··~---- ~ net red ro'lo
eont&.star to answel', to reply to contest refutar recordar to remind, to remember to recoiJ.'d ·grabar, registrar
convenir to agree, to fit, to suit to convene convocar ropa c]othes rope cuerda
---------·~ -
dec-epciim disappointment dec~pt~Ofl! . engano sano healthy sane· ·cuerdo, sensato
del1to ~r~me delig~t deleite sensible sensitive sensible s.ensato, prudente
-desgracla misfortune disgrace verguenza sentencla court verdict sentence fro.se
desnaayo faint dis~nay consternacion --------------------------------~------~~-~-~~~--~--
sopa soup soap iabon
_ ...;;;_____~_to~qp_s~e_.
t,_t_
o _d~_~is~p,__l_ea_s_e_ _'t_o
'_~di
_•..;Si~·u__
st____d_a_
r _as._c_o_,_re_;;_p_u,; ;_g_na_·r_____ ----------- ~~~------------~---------~------------
soportar to hold upJ to tolerate to support mantener, apoyar,
polite1 well-mannered educated culto .sostener
pregnant embarrassed avergonzado· suceder

to happen, to follow to succeed tener exito
envior suceso event success exito

success exit salida tabla board. table mesa
fllbrico factory ·fabric tela, teiido tfampa cheat vagabundo
fldbo1 soccer football ffitbol al'lhlericano tuna prickly pear cactus, tuna atUn
----------~~---------------------·----------
·mto trivial futile vano, inutill student musical group
voso glass vase florero, iarron

This table highlights some of the many computer


block (street) la cuadra ~ la computadora iLAl mushroom el champifi6n
regional variations in vocabulary and
slang across Spanish-speaking countries. la manzana el ordenador la callampa lir
The most common or universal word (if buddy am1go •
eyeglasses los anteojos !LA I
there is one) is listed first, and fhe regional el hongo ILAI
variations that follow are marked with flags. che C los espejuelos E
ITAI Latin America (entire) H Mexico compinche H las gafas
peanut el cacal1uate '1!11
,~ Central America C:C Nicaragua cuate H los lentes c:::J H
lSA~ South America = Paraguay gaHo a.i father/mother el padre/]a mad re el caeahuete .._.
Q Argentina D Peru giiey H el viejo/Ja vieja E el manf [LA!
,i iii Chile E Puerto Rico
jefe IIAI
kid (young. el/la nifio (-a), pineapple la piiia
Colombia ~ Spain boy/girl) elfl!a chico (-a)
macho Cl e] anana c::l
8 Cuba I! Uruguay elj1a chamaco (- a) H
=:1 Dominican Republic United States maJe ~ potato la papa [8)
elj11a chavaio (-a) B
Ecuador Venezuela mano li8]
, .. el guambito
r:z= El Salvador tlo pretty
. el/la nene (-a) C '~
viejo !Thl
eporlment el apartamento
bus el autobus .0
el/]a pibe (-a) •r H ~ lindo rm
el departamento [AI lunch el almuerzo ItA] shrimp el cama.r6n l1AJ
el autocar
el piso la comida lagamba .....,
el cami6n !~AJ H '
banana el ~onche ~
la camioneta ~ ellangostino C liiiil ~
la banana e n man che c:c
-:-:----;:;;:~:::;:--­ el colectivo C sidewalk la acera
el banana leA] gallo lii H
'
la ·guagua 13 e tipo E3E el anden ~
el eambur
el omnibus = ~ tfo la banqueta H
bdthroom el bafio M!
el servicio
car el autom6vil
el auto c::::l ~ ~
money el dinero
·---:-:---:--;-;:::::::;=- - - -
la vereda liil = ~
el bolo to stand up levantarse
el vater c::J el carro Ml el chavo E3 pararse ILAI
bean la alubia
~~~-
la caraota
el coche el chele == • •
sw1mm1ng la piscina
cool/great/ chevere !LA! el cuarto =:= pool
e~ frijoll LAJ neat la alberca H
chulo la lana H
· la habichuela Cl guay ' ~apUeta =
la pela
la judia la plata L§Al to throw out/ botar M:l
away
el poroto CC ~ § padre lA el quHo E3 E 1
tirar CI
~ IN'D I'CATIVE MOOD Note: All conjugations are presented as follows: y.o nosot.roslnosotros
. The i'ndi·o ative ·expresses foc~s and ocluol si.tualions. K1 vosotroslvosotr·as
· -· el/ellaiUd. eHos/ellasiUds.
SIMPLE TENSE:S
.---------- - ~ --

, 1. Present: Descri.bes (1) action happening at the moment; (2) habitual action:
- -
-AR VERBS
• Hablo con Ana €r~e cue·ntem,€mte. (I talk 1 am talking I do talk to Ana frequently.) Regu ~or - ar verbs like hab~or ore coniugo.ted !(.I S follows. M.aJt~' -ar verbs ~are· reg ular,
2. l:m perfect: Describe,s ongoing or !habitual past action: pruenf pclr'tielple: .hablondo
• H:ablabas. ~c on Ana c.ada dta, (You talked 1 used to talk to Ana every day.) past habtodo
I 3. Preterite: Describes past action that is finished or complete:
• Jua,n ha:bl~o ·C(m Ana ayer. (Juan talked to Ana yesterday.)
4. Future: Describes action that wilJ take place in the future:
• Los abogados hab~arall con Ana manana. (The lawyers will talk to Ana tomorrow.) hoblo hablamos hablario hobl oriamos 1

:habl'.
1
5. Conditional: Similar to English "would" or "could": lhoblos · <Us hobforias hab:lariais
1 hob la hoblan hobl'orlo habJ·arion
• IHaiblaria:mos con Ana, pero no estit (We would talk to Ana, but she's not here.)
- -- - .

PE ~RF':--ECT
-
T ·E NSES -
. hablaba ha,blabamos ·hable hablemos
The perfect tenses are formed by using the verb 11aber, ·Conjugated in the appropriate tense, hablabos hablabais hables hablels
along with the past participle of the verb of action. Haber is conjugated in the table below. habloba hablaban hoble hablen
1. Present perfect: Describes {1) action that began in the past and continues in the present;
(2) action that took place in the past but somehow bears on the present: ha:ble hob lamas hablaro h.ablommos 1
• Hie ha·bl'ado con Ana muchas veces. (I have talked to Ana many times.) habloste hablastels hablaros hablawis
2. Past ~perfect fp'f uperfed): Describes past action that was completed before another habl6 habl aron 1
hobloro hablamn
action took place: Future
• Elila hab[a ha.blado con A na antes del examen. (She had talked to Ana before the test.) habl;are hab1oremos
1
hablemos
. 3. Pretel'iite rp erfect·: Barely used except in literature; describes action completed just hablaros hob1areis habl.o I no hobles hoblad. I no· hobleis
before another past action occurs, often with apenas (hardly, barely}: hob1oril habla:r6n hoble hoblen
• Apenas llube· habfado con Ana cuarmdo sali6. 0 had barely talked to Ana when she left.)
4. Future perfect: Describes action that will have taken place before a future event or action: - ·E R VER:BS
• Ha bras llablado con Ana rnanana. (You wirll have talked to Ana by tomorrow.) Regular -er verbs like comer ore con~ ugoled os follows Several olher common_
5. Conditional perfect: Describes action that would have been completed in the past: fully regular -er v.e rbs ore Usted oHerword . Ahvoys be ccueliJI coniu·g aling - ,er verbs,
• Yo habria nabJado C:Ofl Ana, pero tenTa miedo. (I would have talked to Ana, but I was scared.) be.cous.e m a ny are irregular ~ n on~e or moW'e tenses o r hove Irregular porlicipjes .
hoblahdo presem tMrtfd.pfe: comteodo
hobfdO pm portlclpl&: comido

he hemos hobrio habriamos coma eo memos comeno• -•


comenamos

has hobeis . habrlos habrf:ais comes comeis comeriQs comena1s
ha han · habrio habrian come. eo men comena• -
comenan
Im
hobio hablomos ihayo hoyamos COFniO -
com1ar.nos coma coma mos
habias habiais ,hoyas hayais •
·COmiOS comlaris comas coma is
hobi.o hablan hoyo hayan_ ·comiar •
comtan coma eoman
l Preterite
hube hubimos hubiera hubieramos comi comimos
.. . ,.. .
comiera com1e.ramos
hubiste hubisfe!iS hubieras hubierois comiste comisfeis comieras comierais
hub<> hubieron hublera hubieron comi6 comieron

comtera comieron
Future Future
nab re hobremos hoyomos comere comeremos coma mos
habr6s habreis he 1 no hayos habed I no hay6is tom eras ••
comerers come I no comas corned I no coma is
hobr6 ihabron haya hayan cornera •
come ran coma coman
- - -

PRESENT. P IROGRES.SIVE TENSE aprender lto learn) d'eber (to owe} sorprender (to surprise)
--·--- -
-·--~------ .
borrer lfo sweep} depender (to depend! suceder fto happen)
The present progressive tense descri.bes action that is taking place exactly at the time of beber lto drink) esconder (to hide, to conceal) temer lto fear)
expression. lt is formed by :us'ing the verb estar, conjugated in the present tense, along with comprender lto understand) meter lto put inl toser (to cough!
the present participle (ge rL~ndio) of the verb of action. correr lto run) responder (to respond, to answer) vender (to sell I
• E:stoy harb~' and!o con A·n'a ahorrita. (I am talking to Ana right now.)
- .I R VERB.S
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD Reg u ~c~ r -lr ¥erbs l~ ke vrvir cue conjug,o led os fo~ l ows. Severof olher common.
The .sub',iunctive expresses ocllons that are unc~er~oin. doubt fuL possible, or desired . fu l~y regular -~.r verbs ore Hsted afterward. Always be careful coniugating - f( verbs.-
- ·--- · -- becouse· many a re irregu:lor In o ne or more lenses ·Otr have ~rregu~ a r parliciples_
SIMPLE TENSES,
- - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - -
present partic:lpte: vMendo
1. Present subiunctive: used after clauses that express wish, hope, doubt, necessity, possi-
bility, intent, and so on. For more information, consult the Spanish Grammar SparkChart. .Post participle: Yivtdo
• Espem que habi!es. con Ana noy. (I hope you talk to Ana today.)
• NO oreo. que hab~emos con Ana bastante. (I don't think we talk to Ana enough.)
·• oudo que Ana ha1b le e~ocue111temente. (I doubt that Ana talks eloquently.) • . . -
·• NOvo;~ a sal:ir sin Qu1e liab~es con Ana. (I'm not going to leave unless you talk to Ana.}
VIVO
.
v1ves
VMffiOS
vMs . .-
VIVIriO
VlVIriOS
viviriomos
. . .,. .
VIVIriQIS
.
viven
., .. #

2. Imperfect subiuncttve: used like the present subunctive but when the main verb is in VIVe vlviria VIVIrtOO.

the preterite, imperfect, or conditional tense: rfect


• .wan lnsis:U6 que yo lfla:blar.a con Ana. (Juan insisted that 1 talk to Ana.) .-
VI!VIO vMamos VIVO

vivomos
., .
• Note: There are two forms of the imperfect subjunctive: one with -ra endings (hablara) and vivfa1
VIVIQS
. , is VIVOS viv6is
one with -se endings (hablese). They mean the same thing. Aside from regional exceptions, vivla VlVI an viva

viVan
the -ra form is used far more frequently, so the -se form is not included on this chart. Preterite
--- • • • ••
P!ERFECT SU8,JUNCTIVE TEN:SE.S VI VI v,ivimos viv,iera v1v1eramos
• • •
----------- --- ------
viviste vivisteis vivharas VIVIerQ.IS
1. Present perfecf subiundive: used 1\ke the present subjunctive but when the action of vivio vivleron .'
VIVIero vivieron
the verb in the subjunctive clause Is viewed as completed: Futu;re
• No ereo que hayas h.a:blado con Ana. (I don't think you have talked to Ana.) .
viVIre • •
- •
~ ~

2. Past perfect subJunctive (pluperfect subjunctive): Used like the imperfect subjunctive • • •
v1vrrernos
. ,. . VNamos
v.ive I no v:ivas
~

VIVIrGS VIVIrei.S v~ivid I no vivo is


·but when the action of the verb in the subjunctive clause was completed before another vivlro vivi,r6n •
, VNO

V!IVan
action took place:
• No cre.ia q1.1e :hubleras. halblado c.on Ana. (I didn't think you had talked to Ana.) aburrir lto bore) discutir (to disGuss) persistir (to persist)
anadir lfo add, to increuse) exhibir {to exhibit to show) prohiblr lto prohibit)
aplaudir (to applaud) existir {to exist) recibir lto receive}
IIM PERATIVE MOOD asistir {1o oUend.) insistir \1o ins\st) sacudir tto shake}
The imperafiv.e expresses drrecl o.rders or commands. combatir lto c::ombatl interrumpir (to interrupt} subir lto go up, to get on)
• i Habla con Ana ~nmed~atamente ! (Tall< to Ana immediately!) confundir (to confuse) ocurrir (to occur) sufr1r (to suffer, to endure I
• :JNO hables con Anal Esta de mall humor. (Don't talk to Ana! She's in a bad mood.) consumir Uo consume) partir lto divide, to split) unfr lto unite, to join}
decidir (to decide) permitir Ito permit, to al.lowl
These to b~es show fhe coni IJQ ations of so me common i~ rregu lar Span i;sh verbs. Th ~s ijs
not on exhousllve list Verbs ~yp i·ca lly used reflexively ~e.g ,, divertirse, sent;r.se~ ore in
purple. For more information abo.ul use of 1renexive verbs. see Ihe box on the nex1 poge.
If you ~can.rt find the vem ·yo.u(re foo'ki ng for. eh ed< the odd iHone I v·erbs list on the lo sI
page~ whmch lisrs many verbs con~ugured in Ihe same woy as other verbs on lhis chart

afHW 11 a regular ... verb CIIIM from Its creo creemos creer110
,
-
creenomos
·' . • ."
cr:ees creels creenos creena1s
tttegul.ar pad patlklple: a biefto
cree creen creerija creerion
andondo ,
andGdo cre1o ueiomos erea creamos
creios UeiOIS
-. creos creois
cr.~ia creian ereo creon
an.do andomos ondario andmiomos Preterite
ondos andais andorios andoriais crei cr,,e-un os creyero creyeromos
on do ondon ondorio ondorion •
creiste cr.eisteis creyems creyer01s
Present crey6 creyeron creyeron
ondobo ondobomos. ande ondemos Future
andabas and:obais ondes a.ndeis ,
ondoba an do ban ande anden creere aee.rernos cream os

Preterite uncti\«e crreems creereis cree I no creas creed I no ereois
creero• oreeron ereo creon
onduve onduvimos onduviera a;nduvieromos
anduvis.fe a.nduvis1el~s. onduvieras onduvi.ero.is
onduvo onduvieron onduviem onduvieron
Future
an dare andoremos andemos
andoros andareis onda f no andes ondad I no andeis
andora andaran onde <mden
day damos daria doriomos
dos dais dorios doriois
:condudendo
do don dorio darian
pad partk.,..: conduddo

I dabo dabamos de demos


dabos dabais des de is
conduzco conducimos Gonduciria conducirio m os
·conduces con duds conducirio~s conduciriais dabo do ban de den
conduce conduoon conducitio, conducirion Preterite
di dimos diero dieromos
<Conducia condudamos condu£co conduzcamos diste disteis dieros dierois
condudos condudois conduzcos conduzc6ilS dio dler(m dle.ra dieran
conduda condudan condu:z·ca conduzcon
Preterite
dare doremos demos
o:mduje conduji,mos condujero oondujeramos
conduji.ste conduiisfeis condujeros oondujero1
is doros dare is do I no des dad I no dels
condujo conduieron condujero condujeron , dor6' doron de den

conducire conduoiremos I' _ conduzcamos


conducir6s condudreis. : conduce / no conduzcos condudd I no. conduzcais . ~ -

conducir6 conduoiron conduzco: conduzc.an


pNSent participle: conoclendo digo decimos dirio diriamos
past porttctpre~ conoddo dices decis
1

dirios diriais
dice diten 1 dirio dirion
~
Present
conozco conocernos conocerio conocenamos
conoces
•••
c<mocets •
conocenas c_onocer!ais d'edo deciomos dtgo digamos
conoce conocen conocerio conocer1on dedas de.ciais digos digais
l ,
deda d. eCIOD diga. dig on
conocia conoc1omos conozca conozcamos
, .
conocias conodais ·COnOZCO'S conozc01s dlje dijimos di'jera dijeromos
conocio -
conoCJon conozco co.nozcon dijisJe diJisfels dijeras dijerais
Im dijo dijeron dij·era dijeron
eo nod conocimos conociero conocieromos Future
conociste conocisteis conocieras conoderais
conoci6 conocieron conoci.ero conocleron dire di:remos digamos
Future diras d.i.re'is di I no digas decid I no dig ais
diro dlr6n diga dig on
conocere conoc~eremos conozcamos
conocer6s conocerets conoce I no con,ozcos conoced I no conozcoi.s
conocera conocer6n conozco conozcan praset:lf parlldpte: dlvirUendo
pe-st pa,tlclple: dlverlldo
preMnt pGrtidpJe1 consrruvendo
past parttciple: construJdo
divierto divertimos divertitio divertlri'omos
diviertes divertis divertirios di,vertirJais
construyo cons1ruimos eo nstrui rro const~ruirlomos divierte divierten divertirio di:vertirTon
constwyes constwis construirias construiriiois
const:ruye construirilan I Present
cons1ruyen cons1ruirTo
divertia divertiomos divierta
..........,
Present di:VirtOiinOS
~
... t ·,
...... . j· · ~ "...!'
•'l ..'lf t '.
• flf,.
: -~-
~~ ",~ tl. .._I o'l • " l ~ • PI •0: J 1
!J. '"'.I ,., l oo• .
··~·
-0
11
- " - •- - .. I - 4
l . .- .' · t ' • : .. , J •o- h lofl

__ ..
. . ~'" r• ..,,. ~4.,
. 11 o 'I;.
r.,. .. , : -~ -1
.. .... ~ ~ J' I
'o( • •- .... I '"' I'·•• 1
• 1".,!:11~•
.. -r...
,... .. •
... t
• •• 1
'I -"' ...... ..
..,_ t' lr"'! t I I o
·-.. - - -'0 ~-
,. "
·"·- .. ...... I • ..
t

- .. ·- .. .,._ 1 't•'l
. .
•-oo'fl! I I .. , •
.,.'.. ''"' ... t..!..,. ·
,.. I .....,..;
: r·. ..~Y • ... ···. , . •
~
,... I '"IJ '
.
I - ~ ....,.. , 11
._• ,.,.~} I

..
..-~;
~ !·
I
I .. . I '.. . . . -
J.••..,' '"I
~ •
-
~~·
• - \ · .. 1

oo.r"' .. ;.~· .. .. - ..- ,. .


- ·. _\: ~

.
··# 1,....:·,"'•_J,·m···
. . . -t o oi'loli' Jt •:.: -..,: ... J • -.;-, .. 'f.;l-1 _;.. ... t...,.l-- ' . I• J'.:
- ..... :·v, ' .. .~ ) •·'' ,--••o. • I• f"11 1'
lo I I '" • 11 ('-' r • - \o ... t• ...
~ I , ,~ . .... JII .. Ii! \ ~'~'" ,..- 1Jo "'•

.
\ . . . . . .. -

.
I

.."""'_. . . .. ... r,.., ..-"


.. • 0 ..

1
,.-., .. , -r. J')lf I
.._.-c.- I r •
'¥ I
..•p •
...... ....
...... ) ~·

..I
•. ~
• ,... .. , ,hft l I
•. .\ I ~: : I .., •
•'-'
,.
o ~ " '
• •'::.
• ,_ ·"#' •.
. . . ........ ..
~-., . 1._;.
~ ll .y
.....or. ., , 1
..._ I .
_ - • .. . .. ..._[·..._ .. I....
'• • o., .....
I
-· ~-
\ "
.. ,:'
-
. ;
- •
~ ' • • : r '£.1"
••• ~· 41
..
______ ______ ---
.. ...! .._-! I ~ \.• • • I _...._"~~
rtf f I
"'": J I- I ~ ....
-· .. t
.;..i j

f•j J ... .._


Fl -' l ~iY:. '
re

"r
- • ,...,- -r·
lol o ........ , .,. oo
,.·-
4
..... ~ 11 -·'I ' '1 .~.... ~ - ,,.,..'-' /J -:lfL"
,~ ..,-1 . . t -,
1,'l:jl ' ,••··'o.JIII
-•-!. J• j I

. I i" ~ Ho'i
. ....
... .,,,.,... ...
J .. ' ..:. " ...
~ .I o. oy ~ ,o.-. .. ft1.'
I
• ,..... , ,. -
• _, ~' ..
! .. , ..... .... .. - -
• l. l&.d, ' • -.I
, _ oo•-.··~ 1
t...l ..._:: ~
r•r'
0

....
• ~
" ,•!r· •·'
"-.:·-,.,. I ..,o•
· I, •'•
~·,,• ~·].>1:
, . ,.I<
..••
.i~ • •- ~ 0 ~0
~.. a ... -
.... 0 , · "11"0
• Ill "' • .,,0 , , 0 -- 0 ... 0 . 0 ..
_.

"' ._ • .... p 1o ,._. H \. l" ..1'6- lll o "'ol ' 1 • o 'J,j ',• " "a . o , •" ...• ~~;,' .. I • • 0
'J
o • .... .. • 1 •.,.._
~.. ._ " '

; ~ ,..•• ~':• "''~~~0~~


0
l,.oi.. . ., t ",l."lE ~·.I I
0 "' ... • .. ' '..6 ! 5-
------- --~~-=----~-----!-------~·-·-----------...___
Conditional _______.
muevo movemos moverlomos
,, .
pienso pensamos pensorio pensariamos
mueves move1s- '
moveno1s piensos pensais pensarlos pensaria is
mu eve mueven m oven' an pienso pienson pensario penso6an
..-- ---~-~------------~---~~~~~-F~
~ -
esentsubjunc~ve
Present ~-=-====~-----====,=-----~

movio movlamos mveva movamos pensabo- pensabamos piense pensemos


rYlOVIOS

moviais muevos -.
movms pensabas pensabais pienses
#•

pensets
• •
movia mov1an mueva muevan pensoba pensaban prense piensen
Pr.eterir:e nctive
mov1• movimos mo:viero movieromos pense pensamos pensora pen·s6romos
moviste movisfeis movieros moviera,js pensoste pensasteis pensaros pensorais,
movi6 movieron moviera movteron pens6 pensaron pensaro pensaran
-Fuhw
-- -
e--------~ ----------------tb;~~~-----------------------~

movere
,, move rem os movomos pensare

- pen:saremos - pensemos
••
moveros movereis mueve I no_muevas moved I no movais pensaros pensore1s piensa I no pienses pensod I no penseis
movera move ran mueva muevan pensoro - pensaran piense piensen

prasant p~rfldpla: ofredendo


past ofteddo

of,rezco ofrecemos ofrecerio ofrecerlomos puedo pod em os podrid podrlamos


ofreces ofreceis ofrecerios ofreceriois puedes podeis pod rids podrlais
ofrece ofrecen ofrec.erlo ofrecerlan puede pueden podria podrian
Present
ofredo ofredamos ofrezco ofrezcamos podia podiamos pueda podamos
ofre dos ofreciais ofrezcos ofrezc6is podias podia is puetlas pod6is
ofredo ofredon ofrezca okezcan podia podtan puedo puedan
Preterite Preterite Im
ofred ofrecimos ofreciera of1recieromos put;je pudimos pudiem pudie-ramos
ofreci_ste ofredsteis ofredeJas of:recierois pudiste pudisteis pudiems pudiera,is
ofred6 ofrecieron ofreciero ofrecleran_ pudo pudieron pudiero pudieran
------ -- -----------------+-,.-~ --~---=,---------------~-----~___,,
Future Im
ofrecere ofreceremos ofirezcamos pod re podremos podamos
ofreceras ofrecereis ofrece I no ofrezcas ofreced I no ofrezc6is podr·6s podreis puede I no puedas poded I rt;o pod6is
oirecer6 of'receran ofrezco ofrezcan podro pod ran puedo puedan

present pcwftciple: pontendo


pcqt pueslo

oigo oimos .oirio oiriamos pong.o ponemos pondria pondriamos


pones pondrioi~s
oyes
oye
ois
oyen
oirios
oma• • - .
Olr!Oiil pone
poneis
ponen
pondrias
pondria pon.drian
Im Present su
ola -
o1omos oiga oigamos '
POiiliO poniamos
.- ponga
'

pong.amos
' '
pon1os pong,ai,s
alas olo.is 01gas '
oig6i:s pOniOIS pongos
olo olan oigo oigan ponia.•. ponlan ponga pongan
Preter:ite Preterite
oi -
otmos oyera oyeramos puse pusimos pusiero pus~ieramos
• •
oiste oisteis oyeras oyerois pusiste pusisfeis pusieros pus:1 erms

oyo oyeron oyera oyeran puso pusieron pu.si.era pusieran
Future re Im
.• - ,.
otre oiremos oigamos pondre pondrernos pongomos
.
o1ras - oireis O}'e I no oigos old I no oigois pondr6s pondreis pon I no pongas poned I no pong6is
- . . ' l - pondra
o1ra o1ron 0190 o1gan pondr6n ponga pongan

Pr :mt ,. . l
------ - -------------- ----
huelo olemos J olerio oleriamos prefiero preferimos preferirio prefeririamos
hueles oh~is 1 olerias olerlais prefieres preferls preferirlos prefeririais
huele huelen ', oleria olefian prefiere prefieren preferir1o preferirion
-----·-- ·-··- 1---- - "'--------- - - .. ----- - --------- -- -------·-·-· ·-· .. -- - - ··- - - · - - ··-----·-- ·-·- ....
_!_f!lperfect i Present subiuncti~~- __ lme!rfect __ _Pr_esen! subiunctive
I -

oHa oliamos - '!huela olamos prefer!a preferlamos ! prefiero prefiromos


olias ollais , huelas ol6is prefer!os preferlais j prefieros prefirois
oHa oilan ! huela huelo preferfa preferfan 1 prefiera prefieran
------·-··--...-·....
.r1mr-~-~~;c·t -subitin-ctfve -·-
Preterite Preterite tlmpertect-subiunetive
---. .. ---- ....... _.__. .. '------- .., - - -
oli olimos 1 oliero olieramos prefer! preferimos ; prefiriera prefirieromos
oliste olisteis I olieras olierais preferiste preferisteis 1prefirieras prefirierais
oli6 olieron ! oliera olieran prefiri6 prefirieron prefiriera prefirieran
·---- ----- 1 ---- -- --·-------- -·-- --------
f•,ture _i_~m~~rative . __ Futur-- __ _____
,_
-rlmperative·-
-----------
olere oleremos olomos preferire preferiremos I- prefiromos
oler6s olereis I huele I no huelos oled I no ol6is preferir6s preferi re is I prefiere I no prefieras preferid I no prefirois
oler6 oleran ; huela hue' tn preferir6 oreferiran 1 prefiero prefieron

__ ____ _
,
- - - ·------
... •tt• . )t I

I ,

pi do pedimos pedirlo pediriomos qu1ero queremos 'querno querriomos
. .
pides pedis pedirias pediriais quieres quereis -
quernos quema1s
pi de nitiP-n pedirio pedirion •
qu1ere quieren querno - quem• on
. ·- -· . . . .. . . . .. . .. - -·- ------------·-
~reseni .;ub1u ,., "', .-.e _':!!perf.......• ___ _ Pr!sent~u~~c~~
- - - - - - - · · · · · - - -·-
pedlo pedlamos pida pidomos •
que no -
quenamos
.
qu1era queramos
pedlos pedlais pidas pid6is quenas - -
quenms '
qUieros ' -
queroJs
'

pedio p·edlan Lpid~--:-- - - pi~~ I


quer1a -
quenan quiero quieran
- ·- ............._._ ........ ·-· --- -·-- ---·--
Preterite
- - - - - -------- ·---
I Imperfect
•'•-
subiunctive
-··- --·-······-···"""'••"''-·""----··------··"
Preteri.'G l~perfect subjunctive
------- .,

• • •
pedl pedimos pidiero pidieramos qu1se quisimos qUJstera qu1s1eramos
pediste pedisfeis pidieros pidierais quisisfe quisisfeis quisieras quisierois
pidi pi - !n ' . pidiero pidieran qUI•SO quisieron quisiera quisieron
r-tnl"perati
__v_e____ -- - ·--- ------- -·----------
Future - - - - - - ----- _, ___ _,_ --------- ,. -· ----- -·-----· ·-·-·--·----
Future lmper~tive ·-----·- ···- ____________,_
pedire pediremos pidomos querre- querremos queramos
pedir6s pedireis pide I no pidos pedid I no pid6is querros - -
querre1s '
quiere I no quieras quered I no querais
.
oedir6

pedir6n , pido pidan qu rr6 '
querran qUJero qu1eron
present participle: tocondo present ~~fe! vlenda
parflclple: tocodo past partldple: vl.sto

toco tocamos tocorla 'tocariamos ve.o vemos vena - •


verwmos
tocas tocai~s tocorlos ·tocar1ois ves •
ve1s venas- -
veno1s
toea toca.n •
toeana tocarlan ve ven vena - -
venan
I Pr:esent .I Present
tocaba toc::obamos toque toquemos -
ve10
,
ve1amos vea veamos
Vel-aS
,.
focabos tocabo,is toques toqueis vela is veos VeOIS
tocaba tocaban toque toquen -
ye1a -
ve1an veo vean
nctive Preterite nd ive
toqu.e tocomos toeora tocaromos VI

vimos •
v1era .-
v1eromos
. • ..
fOGOSte tocasteis tocoros toc.arais visfe visfeis vt.er.as v1ero1rs
• • • •
toco tocoron tocoro tocaron VIO v1eron vtera v1emn
Future Future Im
tocare tocaremos toquemos
..
vere veremos veomos
tocar6s tocareis toca I no toques tocad 1 no toqueis -
veras

verels
,
vel noveas ved 1 no veois
tocar6 tocor6n toque foquen vera vemn vea vean

present purtlcJpJe: Jroyendo pDJ tk:Jpte: vJstiendo


past participle: troido V~rStldo

tmigo troemos traeria traer~amos vis to vestimos vestirio vestiriamos


tmes troeis traerfas traeriais vistes vest1s vestirios vestiria+s
tr;ae tmen ftmeri'o traerlan vtste vis ten vestiri:a vestir~an

Prese"t Present nctive


traia troiomos traig:o troigarnos vestia vestiamos vista vistamos
tro3as tralois tra!'1gas traigats vesffos vesfiais vistas vista is
traio traian tro·i9a tro~g an vesfio vestian vrsta vistan.
I Preterite nctive
troie ,frojimos tra'jera tro1jetomos vesti vesfimos visUero vistieramos
trajis-te ,froj isteis trojeros trojeroi~s vestiste vestisteis vistjeras vistierois
1rojo trojeron trajero 'frajeJon visti6 Vistieron vistier.a vistieron
Futwre tm rative re
troere troeremos ~
fraigamos vesti.re ves1iremos vistamos
troeros troereis troe I no troigras fraed I no traig6is vestiros vestireis viste I no vistos vestid I no vista is
troero traeron trorgd tra:igan vesUra vestiran vista vis*an

present participle: vln~ndo


pa.st participle: venldo


vengo ven1mos vendr;fo vendriamos vu-elvo volvemos vo'lveria voJveriamos
vienes
.
-
vems
. vendrias vendriais voelves volveis volverios vo,lveriais
vtene v1enen vendrio vendria·n vuelve vuelv·en volveria volverian
, Present Present

ven1a ven1amos - venga vengamos volvia volviamos vuetva vo'lvamos
-
veruos veniais vengas vengais volvfos volviais vue'lvos vo:lvais
,
ven1a ven1an - venga vengan volvia volvfan vuetvo vuelvan

• • • • • . ••
vme v1mmos v1mero VI n1er·a mos volvi volvimos volviem volvieramos
. . ..te
vuus v.inistei-s vinieras
• •
vmierars vo'lviste vo1vistels volvieras volviero.is
• • • •
vo~vi6

VI.OO v1meron viniera v1meran vo:lvieron vol.viero vol'vieran
Fuktre Future
vendr<e vendremos - vengamos volvere vo'lveremos vol,vamos
vendros vendr.eis ven I no vengas ven.id l no vengois vo·lveros volvereis vuelve I no vuelvas vo~ved I no volvais
vendro vendron vengo vengan vol.vero volveron vuelvo vuelvan

"
contar {to count to teiU see moS'Itmt estremecerse {to shudder) se-e ,ofrl-ec~r pertenecer {to belong, to pertain}: see oflncer
ADDITIONAL contener {to contain, f'o hold} see tener expUcar !to explaint see ·tocar pervertir (to pervert) see divenir
IRREGULAR VERBS contraer !to contract to !limit) s.ee traer
contribuir !to contribute) :see c:olf!lliSfruilr
exponer !to expose, to exhibit) see pone'r
extraer !to extract) see traer
poseer (to own, to possess) se~ cree,r
practlcar (to practice.) see to<:ar
Eo.c:h ot the foUowing verbs is conjugated convenir (to agree) see venlr predecir Ito predicU Sleolfl dedr
Inn mm"'ne.r similar re one or ~he verbs convertir !to convert) see. diverth'
ftnanzar (to finalize) see reolizor
prevenlr (to prevent. to antictpate) s.e-& venit
ftorecer !to flower, to thrive) see cbecer
conjugoled in lhe tabl.es above, costar !to cost! ·see mo.strar producir !to produce) see cotuJudr
freir lto fryl see Jeir
crecer !to grow) s-ee ofrecer proponer !to propose, to suggestJ se-e jponer
aborrecer Ito hate, to abhor) see ~o~er
criticar lto criticize} see ·~oau garantizar 1-to guarante.e) :see rea'tizar provocar Ito provoke) see tocar
absolver Ho absolve, to acquit) see volver
publlcor (to publish) see tocor
abstraer Ito abstract} see traer desaparecer lto disappear} Slfle ~frecer herir Ito wound, to hurl) see prefe;rfr .
acoger (to greet) s·e-e recoger desconocer (not to know, to disavowl see <CO'J'ii(I)Cor hufr !to flee) see ccnstru~ir reconocer !to recognize, :to ocknowledger see conocer
actualizar (to bring up ~o dafe) see reali:z:ar descreer !to disbelieve) see eteer reconstruir (to rebuild, to reconstruct} see mnstrulr
lmpedlr (to impede, to hinderJ see pedlr
adherir (to adhere, to stick to) see·:preferl~r describlr (to describe)' see ~e:s'tribir recordar lto remember, to :remind) see mostrar
lmponer (to impose) see po,ner
advertir Ho advise} see dll'lertir desenvolver Ito unfo'ld, to decipher) see volve11' reduclr Ito reduce! see .condudr
lncluir Ito include) see ~construir
agradecer {to thank) see ofre10er deshacer (to undo, to take apart) see hacer referlr {to refer, to relate] see ·preferir
lndkar I to indicate, fo hlntl see·tocar
almorzar !to eat lunch}< see mostror desobedecer l1o disobey! see ~otrecer repetir (to repeat) see pedJ.r .
inferlr (to infer, to inflict) see preferir
amanecer Ho get li.ght. out) see ,ofre.cer despedirse lto Jeave, to soy goodbye) s,ee pedlr reponer Ito replace, fo put back} see p-o,n er
fnffuir (to influence} se~ ecun<Strufr
analizar (fo analyze) see f\eaHzar destruir !to destroy} s~e cOni1nJir, reproduclr {to reproduce·) see condudr
intervenlr !to interv.ene, to mediate)' see v.enitll'
anochecer (fo get dark out) see ofrecer desvestir Ito undress} s.e~ V~.$1ir resolver !to resolve) see volver
introducir (to introduce:) see ~condudr
aparecer !to appear) see o:frec.er detener (to detain} see fcner retraer (to bring back)' see traer
invertir (to invert, to invest! s12e d~wrtir
apllcar !fo apply) see toa1r devolver (to return [something I} see volve·r revocar !to revoke, to repeal! see toca:r
aterrizar (to land) see realilzar disolver {to dissolve) see \IC~ver leer {to read) s~~ ·C::fE~tH" revolver (to stir, to turn) see volver
atraer !to attract, to captiva,te} see t:mfi!lr disponer (to dispose) se-~ pom.er llover !to rain) S~(t ntru )Vof
locallzor !to localj,ze, to locate) see·ma'fiz~r sacar {to take out) see tocar
autorizar (to authorize·~ see r~ecdiiZJlr distraer !to distract) see traer
seduclr {to seduce, to tempt) see·c<Jodu:cir
doler (to pain, to ache.l see •fli!iov.er
bendecir Ito bless) :s.e:e ded r maldecir (to curse) S-efll de~h simpatizar (to sympathi·zel' se~ rt.HJiizor
blanquecer (to bleach, to whiten} sQe otro(:ef edificar (to construct) s.,ee tocar mantener {to ma:intain) see tener sobreponer (to superimpose) SM jpOrte:r
buscar lto seek, to look for)! s~?e toc:;or encoger !to shrink! see recoger medlr !to measure, to weight S'€1& tp edit sobresalir (to excel, to stand out) sa~ solic
encontrar {to meet, to find) .see mostmr mentlr {to lieI see sentlr soler {to be in the tmbU of}. see mover
caractertzar {to characterize) see ma~izQil'
enfatizar {to emphasize) see·l ietdi:z:ar merecer !to deserve, to meri:t) s.t~-e ofrecer sonreir (to smite) see relr
carecer !to lack! see o·fmce r
enloquecer (to drive crazy) see ofr,eeer sostener !to sustain, to support) sellt tenet
chocor lto crash, to co~Udel see tocar obedecer {to obey) see ofrecer
colocar (to place) s.ee te>c;ar
enriquecer !to grow richl s.ee·offe.atr obtener Ito obtain) see tener· supUcar (to ibeg.l see tocor
entremorir lto flicker~ to die away) see mo.rir oponer (to oppose) see poner suponer !to suppose, to assume) s;,e;. poner
competir !to compete) see ped]r
enveiecer {to age, to grow otd) see ofrefJer suscrlblr !to subscr,ibe) Sie~ esaibir
componer !to compose, to arrange) su po.l!ler organizer (to org.onizel see f ea'llizcu·
envolver lto cover, to w.rop) see volwr sustltuir 11o subsHtute} soo CDMt:ruir
comunkar !to communicat-e~ see·1'·0:Car
entretener Ito entertain1 se-e tener parecer !to seem, to appear) see ,ofrecer sustraer {to t·Oke away, to steal) see .-.a er
conclulr {to conclude) see cai!'IISJII\Uiir
equivocarse !to be wrong) see 1'a:ear perder !to lose) see entem:ler
conferrr !to confer, to compare) see prefer~r traducir I to translate) see .c ondudr
escoger Ito choose, to pick out) see r:eto.grii:U perecer (to perish) see otr.ecer
conmover {to move IemotionaHyJ) see mover
especializar {to specialize}' see realiz;ar perfudicar {fo damage) see ~tocar utilizar (to utilize, ·to use) see re.aliza·r
consegulr {to get, to obt'oin) see seguir
espec1ftcar (to speoify, ,fa name I see toeqrr permanecer {to remain, to endure) see o·frecer
conseritir !to consent! see sent~r volar {to fly) see mosfmr
estoblecer Ito establish) see o:frecer perseguir !to pursue, to persecute) s-se seguir
constitulr !to constitute) see construJr
----~ - ~ -- - -

V·D WELS Cien is used when count- Ord~ 111 als


--· - ---~
0 cero 50 cincuenta
ing and before a noun
a like a infathe.r 1 uno 60 sesenta 1st primer (-of-a)
:----·--.-- - . . {den pesos). Cier1 to is used
e .. like e -in ten in combination with other 2nd segundo (-a)
·-=----~-.,..._

2 dos 70· setenta


i like ee in see numbers (107: dento s1ar.e).
o like o in ros, e 3 tres 80 ochenta .. ·- 3rd tercer (-of -a)
..--.-.. --:~-·~;o-
is invariable (sjete mft)
J\IW
u like oo in shoot; silent following q or g 4 cuatro 90 noventa 4th cuarto (-a)
except when used with
except when \·vritten with an umlaut (il)
5 •
CID CO 100 cien, ciento a nonspecific value (mi,e..s:
._.ai, ay like y in try 5th qu ~nto (-a)
de d6J.ores).
like ow in couJ 6 se1s
• 101 ciento uno
-au -~
1\JWton is always a mas- 6th sexto (-a)
~i~-~zl- . like ay in day 7. siete 200 dosdentos (-as)
culine noun; it takes -es 7th st~ptimo (-a)
--~!----~~~--··J ike ye in y_,!_e_ll_o_w__________ 201 doscientos uno whenever plural and takes
8 ocho
oi, oy Uke oy in boy de before a noun it quarl- 8th' octavo (-a)
.- ~- ~ - -~ - - . . • I
9 nu eve 300 tresc.ientos (-as)
CONSONANTS i tifies ( dnco m;flones~ dnco
. - - ---- - - - - - - - - - --- ~ -

400 cuatrocientos (-as) m;tlones de habUantes) . noveno (-a)


10 diez
b b and v are the same; at the beginning of a
word or after m or n, like English b 'Without a ll 5.00 quinientos (-as) Ordinal numbers are loth decimo (-a)
once
strong puff of breath; otherwise, intermediate
12 600 seiscientos {~as) adjectives and must agree 11th decimoprimero
doce in number and gender
between English b and English v (-a)
700 setecientos (~as)
___c____ . before a, o) u, and any consonant but h, like 13 trece vvith the nouns they
k in kitten; before e or i) like s in sit (except 800 ochocientos (-as) modify. Theyim1nediately 12th decimosegundo
14 catorce (-a)
'"' ~- in most of_§l?.ain, ~here it is Uke thin think) preoede the noun (la ocrava
• 900 novecientos (-as)
cc like cc in accept (except in most of Spain, 15 qutnce carto). Primero and tercero
20th vigesi mo (- a)
where second c is like th in think) Uno changes to un when are shortened to prrmer
. ..
.....;;,-...--.::..-·~_:__:__::.:.=.:.-=-=-=-=.::._::_:_:::::..__:__:..::_...:___--::----::---=----:-~
16 dieciseis
at the beginning of a word or after n or l, followed by a masculine and Jercer before singular l.Omh centesimo (-a)
d 17 di.ecisiete
like English d vvithout a strong puff of noun and to uncr when masculine nouns. Beyond
followed by a feminine decrmo,, cardinal numbers lOOoth milesimo (-a)
breath; otherwise, like a softer thin this 18 dieciocho
noun. usually are used and
when followed by e or i, like h in hit; 119 diecinueve follow tJhe noun (e' sjg~o
___ otherwise, like gin gold l/2 la mitad;
.......;.!,.-"'-"'--~~----=-..::::....:.__j~____,>!.___O,::.___---:::-::--:-:--:------
20 veinte vern rruno).
h
--_,.,- ---·-
, silent: hola is pronounced OH-la un medi.o
~J.L ~ ____,.__::: ,k:.e::..~h:....:i:.:..:n~h..::.:o_:.t~
li::.: ; J:.._:_
~o_ta_.
is_j,p~r--::o:--n_o_
u-::
n~ ce_d__
HO-=-----ta--::::--- 21 veintiuno 1.000 mH

0,5 ~ero coma c1nco
11 like y in yes (in parts of South America, like 22 veintid6s 1.101 miiD ciento uno
-~--- . · ~ in measure; in parts of Spain, likej in jelly) 113 un tercio
n-. 23 ve1ntltres
• ' I
10.000 diez mil
Hke ny in canyon Y• un cuarto
-~-~lik; k in kite, followed by u.e or ui (u is silent) 30 treinta 1.000.000 un miU6n
-~--~~~~~~--~-~~~~--~- tres cuartos
r at the beginning of a word or before a pause 31 treinta y uno 2.000.000 dos miUones
at the end of a word, like rr; otherwise, like tres y dos tercios
dd in ladder; never pronounced like English r 32 treinta y dos l OOO.OOO.OOO mil millones
3V1 tres afios y
rr with a pronounced trill ,4 0 cuarenta 11.000.000.000.000 un hill6n years medio
see b - - - - - - - - - : - - - : -- -::-:-- - - -
v- _...:;:_::-=-=-
-·-~·~
.X like English x; in words derived. from
Native American languages (e.g., Mexico)
sometimes pronounced like h in hit D c:rtes I Ios Fechas
y . . standing a~one, like Spanish i; otherwise, is today's date? i.Cua.l es la fecha de boy? What
wiAter e[ invierno summer el
. ve.rano- - ·-
like 8_£~nitsh ll
--- - -
z . l in Latin America and parts of Spain, like s
lt is... · Es ... spring la primavera autumn el otofio
May 1st el prim·ero de mayo
in sit; elsew·here in Spain, like th in think
M.ar:ch 2nd el dos de marzo
-- - -~---- ---

A NO'TE · :Q 1N · A.CCE:N JS, week la semana


October 31st el treinta y uno de octubre
Accents are often omitted over capital letters. last week la semana pasad.a
today hoy
yesterday ayer next week la semana proxima
,..,
'tomorrow manana in a week en una semana
English words that are sim~lar to their Spanocsh coun-· day before yesterday anteayer in two weeks
-~-----~----~----~-------------------
en dos semanas
terparts often can be recognized by their endings.
day after tomorrow pasado ·maiiana wee,kly sen1anal
Days of the' ·week /Ios D~os de lt~ Semdna weekend elfin de semana
...age passage el pasale Mondo'y lunes f ,rfday viernes month el mes
- ant brilliant bri11ante Tuesday rnartes Saturday sabado year elafio
-ary necessary - ario· necesono Wednesday m1ercol es Suf;lday
• il
domingo three yeors ago hace tres afios
-cal co.m ica'l -eo c6mico
- da la urgen do
Thursday jueves Ifs Monday. Es lunes. last year el aiio pasado
,._;,· _·_ __ u_rgency
-_ cy
What d~y of fhe week lQue dia es? decode ~a decada
-ed enchanted -ado~ -ido encantcndo is it?
-enf different -ente diferente in the fifties durante los afios cincuenta
Months. I Jo:s Meses
-er _ painter -or ef prntor century el siglo
• enero
- it dornestfc -t(() January July julio HoHdays I 1os Dfas Feriados
-ing stimulating -ante esl~mutante
february febrero August agosto Chrishnas la Navidad
-ador Insp1rador
-ism .
commumsm
-
e~ cornunismo March marzo September septiembre Christmas Eve la Nochebuena
-ous delicious -oso April ahril October octubre ~ew Year's Pay eiD Dia del Afio Nuevo
-tfal essential -dol esen r:iol
May mayo November noviembre Holy Week la Semana Santa
-tion liberation -d6n la rrberacion
-ty university -dad la unlverstdad June junio December diciembre Easter la Pascua
: I I

How is the lQue tiempo lt's ra-ining. Llueve. sun el sol Face I fa Caro
weathe.r? hace? . el pe19. .
""··
Ifs snowin,g. moon
!f .......- f..;../
I
Nieva. la luna 1
\

el ojo. .;.,:: . ~-, . , ~


What is the lA que esta la lt's hailing. Gran ~za. rmn•
la lluvia la frente ' ·
temperature? temperatura? ·' · ~ .. laceja
lt's sunnJ. Race sol. snow la nieve ...... .. ,.,...-.....
, . -( , · 1 n--r :"CS\ el parpado
1t is 20 Esta a 20 .la ~~la \ -· ·-Ji~ las pestonos
IYs windy. Hace viento. wind eiD viento
degree$... grados .... . . la narl~ la trJ'leliti<J
£.......,_·
H"S: cloudy. Esta nublado. rainbow el arco iris las ventanaJ delo nanz ~ . .. . ellabio
below zero. bajo ·cero. v-·'· ·"' ,~
di •
· __0,. ~-o J f. en,es
•&
shade la sombra ' ·,,.., ' ' .,-.. to l engua
lt is... Hace ... air el aire "' -
/ 1 -~IQ
·=I--
cloud la nube sky el delo -

buen tiempo
fo,g la niebla star la. estreUa
. .
/ el cu&llo \
- jaw ia qnijada
hot calor storm,
frost la helada la tormenta tfirr:~at Ja ga:rganta
cool fresco thunder el trueno fred<les las pecas
hail el granizo
moustache el bigot.e
frio lightning el relampago humidity la humedad beard la barba
bad mal tiempo lightning bott el rayo foreGa·st el pron6stico
~ ...... ___ - - --- - - ~~ . - - - - - --- - - - - -- - -- -- -. - -- - - ---

E 'N 1C:~OUNTERS I Ios ENCUENTR'D S' -- -~

Pleas·antries How d~ you do·? Intro dudic:ns


------~~--------------~
please por favor Ho·w are you lC6mo esta usted? What's lC6mo se llama?
thank you gracias doing? lC6mo estas.? (jam.) ¥OU.r n~me? lC6mo te llamas?
thank you very muchas gracias
(jam.)
mvc'h 1rm...
,;__ _______________ Estoy...
._ _________ ··u...
u r name :.• ... Me llamo ...
~

-~
-.o-u-
~~~e
-- -we
- o
--~-
=1c
-_~~wo
--..- D-e-· n_a_d_a_. - - - [mryl wellr [muy] bien Pleased' to
Encantado (-a}. el brazo
:No probl 1em~ . No hay de que. [very] bad [muy] mal meet you ..
Welcome to... Bienvendos a... so·,so asi asf I'd lllke you Querria
to, meet ... p.resentarle a ...
HeUo gndl Goodbye·
This is~--· Le presento a ...
Buenos dias Fine. Bie.n.
Buenas tardes Where lDe d6nde es usted? el muslo·.
Ifs going' w.ell. Va bien. are you lDe d6nde eres?
~Good evening1 Buenas noches ...,.badly. ...mal. from,? bosom, el seno>
(fam.)
Hello Hola la pletmJ la.·ro ' ill<} brea_s:t ·el pecho
Not bod Mas o menos. I'm from., ~ . Soy de ....
,>

Goodbye Adios belly la ba.rriga


.
. you soon. Hasta pronto. Whafs new? <.Que hay de l:a e.adera
Ras ta luego. nuevo?
first name e~ nombre
I skin la piei
last name eiD apellido
'Nothing, much. bone ei hne:so
No mucho.
Miss senorita (S.rta.) b lood la sangre
Until next 1li'lne. Hasta la
. /

pro::nma. yes
/

Sl
Mr./Sir sefior (Sr .) el dedo del pie ......,._...-. el talon
ei cninoo.
no lung el pulm6n
Have o ni'ce doy. Que pase buen no MrsJ sen ora (Sra.)
dia. quiZas
• 7
M ail!arm,

DIR:E.C'TIONS, I /a.s DIR'ECCI.DNE5


Cloc·k Tirne \Vhen using the 24-hour clock, do not indicate a.m. north el norte northeast el noreste
What time is it? lQue hora es? andp.m. (with expressions such as delomonono,.etc.)
south- el sur northwest
. el noroeste
or use special ter ms for the half~ and quarter-hour --· -
-· ..::
•'

Oo you have the time? lTie:ne la hora? (~~ cvarto, etc.).


east eI es te southeast e1 sureste
Do you know what time it is? west el oeste southwest el suroeste
• J5:30 (3:30 p.1n.) reads quince horcrs y rreinto mjnuros
What time is the concert? lA que hora es el • Son Jas 22:45 (It is 10:45 p.n1.) reads Son Ios left a la izquierda
con cierto? velntfdos horos ~~ cuore.nta y cinco minutos.
right a la derecha
tt is... Es ... Time of Day straight ahead derecho
---~~------~·- ~--------------~-
noon el med.iodia moming la maiiana Turn. right.
. Doble a ~a derecha.
mkfnlght la med.ianoche .. .in the right direction ... en eili sentido correcto
dawn el a~ba ...in th.e wrong direction ... en e~ sentido contrario
1:00 la una sunrise ·el amanecer,
1;.3'0 la una ...y media la salida del sol
lt is... Son... day el dia
2:00 las dos afternoon 1a tarde white blanco {:-o} brown
2:10 1
}as dos y diez evening ~a tarde yellow amari11o f-0) gray
2:15 las dos y cuarto dusk el crepusculo p:ink msado t-aJ bla.ck
2:30 las dos y media
siJinset el anochecer,
2:45 las tres menos. cuarto la puesta del sol gold
2:50 las tres menos diez orange
night la noche silver plateado (--a)
de la noche green
hour la hora
in the m.orning de la maiiana
minute el minuto blue light blue azul daro
in the afternoon/ de la tarde I

evemng second el segundo purple dark bl:ue azul: oscuro

fam1[y I la FamUia son...in~law el yerno baby el bebe to wea~ carry llevar blouse la blusa
daU;glilter·-i'n· la,w la n:.. .:.u:ec
;_;,___ra'--·_ _ boy el chico to put on ponerse skirt la falda
los parientes brother-l·n -low el cufiado gir;l la chica to ·take off quitarse dress e] vestido
sister-In-law la cufiada ----------------~ -~~------ -~~-------------------
mo:ther la madre - .
child el nifio, la nifia to get dressed ves.tirse sutt el traj e .

mom ]a mama .stepfather el padrastro to !get undfeSSedl d.esnudarse stockings las medias
stepMother la madrastra
to gmwup crecer
father el padre This skirt fits Esta falda te 01rterwea r / ,fa Rcpa Exterior
dad elpapa stepson el hijastro ..young people 1osj6venes
you well. queda bien.
stepdaughter la hijastra man el hombre c:oat el a brigo
husband el marido Sewing I Ja ~co.stura
stepbrother el hennanastro woman la muj.er locket la chaqueta
wife la mujer single to sew cos er
el esposo, ~a esposa :$ tepsister la helmanastra soltero (-a)
salir jt1ntos thread elhHo
raincoat
hot
el impermeable
el sombrero
-
son h· a ff..bro, t her em medio
el hijo to sleep dorrnir juntas needle li
.!fa aguJa

(knl) hat el gor.~o
hermano
dc:nJght·e r la hija ~ther ID as _tije~as
- la media scarf la bufanda
brother el hermano hermana to get erngaged comerometerse to iron planchar shawl elli chal
la bermana to clean litnpiar gloves Ios guantes
Fllilends I Ios Amigos engagement el comp~omiso
el hijo unico
friend el amigo, la amiga _t_o~g_ m_ 'm
_a_n_
r~~-~·-c~a~
s~,_s_
e ______ la pijama
younger menor
1 best ·
f r,
i and ei D mejor amigo, wedding la boda slee~e la manga swimsuit el traje de bafio
older ·mayor
la mejor amig__a receptkl\n1 la recepci6n pocket el bolsiiDlo
twin el gemelo * I T • • •
..!.,__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -=-=-----~--- Faotwear I el Cr;tl~ado
.~uddf, rpal el amigote moklen name el apellido de long largo (-a)
o,unt la tia GC.quaintance· el conocido; soltera sh1On... corto ·(-a·) ________
shoes Ios zapatos
....;..::..:.::.........:~_~~...-______ -
-=.::..:..::..:......_ _ _ _..;;;;;;;;_.:.....::....::~~-- hinh heels los tacones altos
um::le el tio la conocida honeymoon la luna de mie1 :loose flojo (-a) ·:or -
nephew
nie~e
el sobrino
la sobrina
boylglrifnend el novio, la novia
pregnant
1 embarazada ;~~J·
liiQ h"'

'lace
r•• apret ad o (-a)
el encaje
sneakers Ios zapatos para
deporte
-

my boyfriend ffil• 'OOV10 divorce el divorcio silk la seda slippers las pantuflas
el prilno, la prima
my ,g[lftriend m1• noVIa • dedl la muerte boots las botas
cotton e~ algod6n

gm rtdpo rents m os abuelos my friend! mi amigo/a to d' ie monr fur la pieiD socks los calcetines
el abuelo lover el amante {m, f) wldow la viuda leather el cuero Actessorles ! Ios Acresorios
grandmofl1er la abuela - wldower e~ viudo
----------~~~
checked a cuadras
-~------
-b~
a~g_ _ _ _l_a_b_o_l is_a_______
hetero-/ ~-u~tero-/
great- el bisabuelo homosexual! homosexual mourning el hJto po.lka~·dotted con lunares el bolso
grand•;JFH
,a,thtl~;er el huerfano, striped' a rayas
handbag
-
e~ padrino ¥~---- backpack
_ __;, IDa mochila
grandchildren los n ~etos godfather la huerfana -· _ _ !_ _ _ _ _ __ _ ::.:..___.::

fashfonabfe de moda
~grandson el nieto ~g~oo _. _m_1ofll
_ ' e_r _ __la__
. ·_ m
' ·_a_d_ri_n_a_ _ Emotions 1 fas Emociones w allet la cartera
UndargQJ.rment.s I la Ropo lntc.rlor g{:OSSes \as gafas
granddcD.tgh1er la nieta ~godson el ahijado
love el amor bra el sosten sunglasses las gafas de sol
greot-g:rand- la bisnieta noddaug_.hter . . la ahiJ' ad a
;:1 · · - hate el odio (mefis~ brie,fS los calzoncilllios umbrella1 el parag,u~s
daughter Cyc~e of Ufe I ei Cfclo,d'e JrJ VirJa
' - .. - "
friendship' la amistad tw·omen's) las bragas
fa1ftet,..fll-fOW eiD suegro bh1h el nacimiento reapect el respeto, underpants
tmofller-in-law la suegra to·be born nacer la consideraci6n _h_,a_lf_-s .:.._ _~l_
_li.P a ~e_n~agua corta sil:ver la plata
slip la combinaci6n gold el oro
fights las medias copper el cobre
platinum el platino
How are you lC6mo se blind ciego (-a) diet la dieta Everyday Clothes; I la Ropa Diaria diamond el diamante
----------~~~~---- ------------~---------
feeling? sien te? deaf sordo {- a) to lose weight, adelgazar shirt la camisa emerald la esmeralda
I don_;t feel
well.
No me siento
bien.
·
di$80se, iliness la enfermedad
ge,t thinner
~-" --
to gain weight, engordar
sweater el sueter
T-shirt la camiseta
ruby el rubi
pain e~ do~or
sapphire el zafiro
I feel... Me siento ... getfaHer tpants. los pantalones pearl la perla
-
...well. ...bien. cough la tos to fast ayunar belt el c.intur6n bracelet la pulsera
. cold el resfriado
... better. .. .meJor. Hyg~ene and Grooming I ~ans los vaqueros brooch el broche
.. :worse. .. .Eeo r.
fever la fiebre lo Migiene Personal $h0 11s los antal0fi€S COrtOS -e-,.,-.....~
-. n-, i ."-U'!'_ _.,_:__...;.._;....__ _~
los aretes,
P_

wllfln;:rr
lt hurts. Me due1e .
flu la gripe
soap el jab6n suit eI traJe
· los ientes
razo·r el rastrillo suit jacket la chaqueta ring e] anillo

shampoo el champU. deportiva no,senng el aro para la

toothpaste la pasta de dientes tuxedo nanz
toothbrush el cepillo de tie la corbata wedding ring la alianza
la cicatriz
dientes vest, waistcoat el chaleco el collar
el SIDA
(Omb el peine ~os tirantes watch el reloj
seropositive (.~2_
hairbrush el cepillo
el infarto
makeup el maquiUaje
lipstick ella-piz de labios What would. lQme querria? to sit down sentarse
pimple el grano ~~-uJik~e_?~-------------- "·-~ _ _....,.,_.,. . P
to order ~~~....e_d_'i_
r _______ -
blockhead la espinilla 1'11 have.... Quiero ... to share cornpartir
----~.~ - ~~~~~~-----
~~~···~- ~--~---~--------
-
Where is the lD6nde estan eat-in para tomar
to be hot to wash (self) lavar(se) restroom? los servicios? take-out ._ .__.z.:..p_a_
ra_l:.le
:.:. _v_a_r _ _
to be cold to wash (one's). lavarse las I'm [too] full. Estoy
hands manos
[demasiado]I
to pay pagar --
to bathe baiiarse check, bill la cuenta
Ueno.
to shower ducharse tip la propina
menu eltnenu
··----·' ~ ·-
tip included servicio .inclu~do courses I tors Pkttos
- --
waiter/ e~ camarero/ drinks la.s bebidas
wai1Tess la camarera apPf1tizer, el aperitive
place setting el cubierto starter
sick water:' p itdler una jarra de agua first course el prime~ plat~_
heolthy, fit - . •
empty· vacio (-a) ma1n course, el plato

tired entree principal
fu'll lleno (-a)
weak (not empty) dessert el postre