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Buddhism, Shintoism, the


Philosophy of
Confucianism, & Hinduism
Buddhism
Origins
Founder:
• Prince
Siddhartha
Gautama (the
Buddha)
Date:
• 520 BCE
Believers
Approximate # of followers:
•360 million
Followers are called:
•Buddhists
Founded in India
Monks & the Dalai Lamma
Views
Gods:
• no real ‘gods’.
What do they Believe:
• Buddha taught about
suffering. People
suffer because of
desire or wanting.
Life’s Purpose
•Purpose is to avoid suffering & gain
enlightenment to be released from
the cycle of rebirth, or attain a
better rebirth.
•A life of moderation
Afterlife
•Reincarnation until they gain
enlightenment
•Nirvana- reaching
enlightenment & escaping
the cycle.
General Practices
•Meditation, mantras, dharma
wheels, shrines for prayers and
devotion.
•Following The Middle Path & The 4
Noble Truths, Noble 8 Fold Path
Holy Texts
•Tripitika
•Sutras- Buddha’s
sayings
Shintoism
•https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=LoQqxdAbRS0
Shintoism
Origins
Founder:
•No specific person; indigenous religion
•Founded in Japan

Date:
•Ancient; 6 th Century BCE (500s)
Believers
Approximate # of followers:
•3-4 million
Followers are called:
•Shinto
Views
God(s):
• The Kami; polytheistic
• EX: Amaterasu- Sun
Goddess
What do they believe:
• humans are generally
good. Evil spirits cause
negativity.
•Be in touch with Kami
•Human’s are pure by
Life’s nature and can keep
away evil through
Purpose purification rituals and
attain good things by
calling on the Kami.
Afterlife
•Death is bad & impure.
Humans become Kami
after death.
General Practices
Worship & offerings to
Kami at shrines and at
home.
Purification rituals and
celebrations
Holy Texts
•Kojiki / Nihongi
Confucianism
•https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=tUhGRh4vdb8
Confucianism
•Is not a religion,
but a philosophy.
•Founded in China
Origins
Founder:
•Confucius

Date:
•551 BCE
Believers
Approximate # of followers:
•5-6 million
Followers are called:
•Confucianists
Views
Gods:
•No gods
What do they believe:
•It’s more a philosophy of how to live
•Obey & honor parents
Afterlife
•Not addressed
What is Important?
•Ceremonies & rituals are important
•Honesty, politeness humaneness,
perform correct role in society, loyalty
to family & nation.
•Purpose of life is to fulfill one’s role in
society with propriety, honor & loyalty
Holy Text
The Analects- a
collection of
Confucius’ sayings
Hinduism
Origins
Founder
• unknown

Date
•Ancient, oldest in the world
Believers
Approximate # of Followers
•1.1 billion

Followers are called


•Hindus
•Mohandas Gandhi
Views
God(s):
•One Supreme (Brahman) manifested in many
gods and goddesses
•Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesha
What do they believe:
•Beliefs vary depending on caste system, etc.
Life’s Purpose
•Purpose is to gain release from
rebirth, or at least a better rebirth
from doing good things, honoring
brahman, having good karma.
Afterlife
Reincarnation until release-
Samsara
- Effected by Karma
- Moksha: freedom from the cycle.
General Practices

• Yoga, meditation, worship


(puja), devotion to a god or
goddess, pilgrimage to holy
cities & rivers, live according
to one's dharma (purpose/
role).
• Diwali, Holi
The Vedas
Holy Text