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2018

INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO
NACIONAL
ESCUELA SUPERIOR DE INGENIERIA Y ARQUITECTURA UNIDAD
ZACATENCO
ALUMNO: ERICK SIMÓN MARQUEZ
PROFESOR: ANTELMO DÍAZ GUERRA
ÍNDICE

1. Introducción a las ecuaciones diferenciales

2. Ecuaciones diferenciales por variables separables

3. Ecuaciones diferenciales homogéneas

4. Ecuaciones diferenciales exactas

5. Ecuaciones diferenciales lineales

6. Ecuaciones diferenciales de Bernoulli

7. Ecuaciones diferenciales de segundo orden homogéneas

8. Ecuaciones diferenciales de segundo orden por variación de parámetros

1
EJERCICIOS 1ER PARCIAL DE MATEMÁTICAS “ALGEBRA LINEAL”
1.- INTRODUCCIÓN A LAS ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES
- Identificar el orden, linealidad y el tipo de ecuación de las siguientes ecuaciones diferenciales:
1.- (1-x) y”-4xy’+5x=cos (x)
R= Es ecuación diferencial ordinara, lineal y de 2do grado
𝑥𝑑 3 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 4
2.- -( ) + y =0
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

R= Es ecuación diferencial ordinara, no lineal y de 3er grado


3.- t5y4- t3y”+6y=0
R= Es ecuación diferencial ordinara, no lineal y de 2do grado
𝑑3𝑢 𝑑𝑢
4.- + + u = cos(r-u)
𝑑𝑟 2 𝑑𝑟

R= Es ecuación diferencial ordinara, no lineal y de 2do grado


𝑑3𝑦 𝑑𝑦
5.- = √1 + (𝑑𝑥 )2
𝑑𝑥 2

R= Es ecuación diferencial ordinara, no lineal y de 2do grado


𝑑3𝑅 𝐾
6.- =-
𝑑𝑡 2 𝑅2

R= Es ecuación diferencial ordinara, no lineal y de 2do grado


7.- (sen ϴ) y’” – (cos ϴ) y’= 2
R= Es ecuación diferencial ordinara, lineal y de 3er grado
𝑥̇ 2
8.- 𝑥̈ − (1 − 3 ) 𝑥̇ +x= 0

R= Es ecuación diferencial ordinara, no lineal y de 2do grado

2
- Comprobar que la siguiente familia de ecuaciones tienen solución:
𝑑𝑃 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡
1.- = P (1 – P) ; P=
𝑑𝑡 1+𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡

𝑑𝑃 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 𝐶 𝑒𝑡 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 (1+𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 )− 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 1 𝟏
= 𝑡
1
[1 - 1+𝐶 ]= 𝑡
[ ]= [ ]=
𝑑𝑡 1+𝐶1 𝑒 1 𝑒𝑡 1+𝐶1 𝑒 1+𝐶1 𝑒𝑡 1+𝐶1 𝑒𝑡 1+𝐶1 𝑒𝑡 (𝟏+𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒕 )𝟐

𝑑 𝐶 𝑒𝑡 (1+𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 ) 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 − (𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 ) 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 𝟏
( 1
𝑑𝑡 1+𝐶 𝑒𝑡
)= (1+𝐶1 𝑒 𝑡 )2
=
(𝟏+𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒕 )𝟐
1

Es correcta la solución, si cumple

𝑑𝑦 2 𝑥 2 2
2.- + 2xy = 1 ; y= 𝑒 −𝑥 ∫0 𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐶1 𝑒 −𝑥
𝑑𝑥
𝑑 2 𝑥 2 2 2 2 2 𝑥 2 2
(𝑒 −𝑥 ∫0 𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐶1 𝑒 −𝑥 ) = 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑒 𝑥 - 2𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 ∫0 𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 − 2𝐶1 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 =
𝑑𝑥
𝟐 𝒙 𝟐 𝟐
= 1 - 𝟐𝒙𝒆−𝒙 ∫𝟎 𝒆𝒕 𝒅𝒕 − 𝟐𝑪𝟏 𝒙𝒆−𝒙

Sustituyendo en:
𝑑𝑦 2 𝑥 2 2 2 𝑥 2 2
+ 2xy = (1 - 2𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 ∫0 𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 − 2𝐶1 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 ) + 2x (𝑒 −𝑥 ∫0 𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐶1 𝑒 −𝑥 )
𝑑𝑥

=1
Es correcta la solución, si cumple

𝑑2𝑦 𝑑𝑦
3.- –4 + 4y = 0 ; y= C1e2x + C2xe2x
𝑑𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥
𝑑
(C1e2x + C2xe2x) = C1(2e2x) + 2C2(e2x) = 2C1e2x + 2C2e2x
𝑑𝑥
𝑑2
(2C1e2x + 2C2e2x) = 2C1(2e2x) + 2C2(2e2x) = 4C1e2x + 4C2e2x
𝑑𝑥 2

Sustituyendo en:
𝑑2𝑦 𝑑𝑦
–4 + 4y = (4C1e2x + 4C2e2x) – 4(2C1e2x + 2C2e2x) + 4(C1e2x + C2xe2x)
𝑑𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥

= 4C1e2x + 4C2e2x – 8C1e2x - 8C2e2x + 4C1e2x + 4C2xe2x


=0
Es correcta la solución, si cumple

3
𝑑3𝑦 𝑑2𝑦 𝑑𝑦
4.- x3 3
+ 2x2 –x + y = 12x2 ; y= C1x-1 + C2x + C3x (ln x) + 4x2
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥
𝑑
(C1x-1 + C2x + C3x (ln x) + 4x2) = - C1x-2 + C2 + C3 + C3(ln x) + 8x
𝑑𝑥

𝑑2
(-C1x-2 + C2 + C3 + C3(ln x) + 8x) = 2C1x-3 + C3x-1+8
𝑑𝑥 2
𝑑3
(2C1x-3 + C3x-1+8) = -6C1x-4 - C3x-2
𝑑𝑥 3

Sustituyendo en:
𝑑3𝑦 𝑑2𝑦 𝑑𝑦
x3 3
+ 2x2 –x +y=
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥

= (-6C1x-4 - C3x-2) + 2x2(2C1x-3 + C3x-1+8) – x [-C1x-2 + C2 + C3 + C3(ln x) + 8x] + y(C1x-1 + C2x


+ C3x (ln x) + 4x2) = 12x2
= -6C1x-1 - C3x + 4C1x-1 + 2C3x + 16x2 + C1x-1 – xC2 + xC3 - C3 x(ln x) - 8x2 + C1x-1 + 4x2 + xC2 +
C3x (ln x)
= 16x2 – 8x2 + 4x2 = 12 x2
Es correcta la solución, si cumple

2.- ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES POR VARIABLES SEPARABLES


4
- Resolver las siguientes ecuaciones diferenciales por variables separables:
𝑑𝑦
1. = sin 5𝑥
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 = sin 5𝑥 𝑑𝑥

∫ 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ sin 5𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝟏
𝒚 = − 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝟓𝒙 + 𝒄
𝟓

𝑑𝑦
2. = (𝑥 + 1)2
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 = (𝑥 + 1)2 𝑑𝑥

∫ 𝑑𝑦 = ∫(𝑥 + 1)2 𝑑𝑥

𝟏
𝒚= (𝒙 + 𝟏)𝟑 + 𝒄
𝟑

3. 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑒 3𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑑𝑦 = −𝑒 −3𝑥 𝑑𝑥

∫ 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ −𝑒 −3𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝟏 −𝟑𝒙
𝒚= 𝒆 +𝒄
𝟑

4. 𝑑𝑦 − (𝑦 − 1)2 𝑑𝑥 = 0
𝑑𝑦
= 𝑑𝑥
(𝑦 − 1)2
𝑑𝑦
∫ = ∫ 𝑑𝑥
(𝑦 − 1)2
𝟏
− = 𝒙+𝒄
(𝒚 − 𝟏)

𝑑𝑦
5. 𝑥 = 4𝑦
𝑑𝑥
5
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
=
4𝑦 𝑥
1 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
∫ =∫
4 𝑦 𝑥
𝟏
𝐥𝐧(𝒚)𝟒 = 𝐥𝐧(𝒙)

𝑑𝑦
6. + 2𝑥𝑦 2 = 0
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
= −2𝑥𝑑𝑥
𝑦2

∫ 𝑦 −2 𝑑𝑦 = −2 ∫ 𝑥𝑑𝑥

𝟏
− = −𝒙𝟐 + 𝒄
𝒚

𝑑𝑦
7. = 𝑒 3𝑥+2𝑦
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
= 𝑒 3𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑒 2𝑦

∫ 𝑒 −2𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 𝑒 3𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝟏 𝟏
− 𝒆−𝟐𝒚 = 𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝒄
𝟐 𝟑

𝑑𝑦
8. 𝑒 𝑥 𝑦 = 𝑒 −𝑦 + 𝑒 −2𝑥−𝑦
𝑑𝑥
𝑒 𝑥 𝑦𝑑𝑦 = 𝑒 −𝑦 (1 + 𝑒 −2𝑥 )𝑑𝑥
𝑦 (1 + 𝑒 −2𝑥 )
𝑑𝑦 = 𝑑𝑥
𝑒 −𝑦 𝑒𝑥

∫ 𝑦𝑒 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + ∫ 𝑒 −3𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝟏
𝒚𝒆𝒚 + 𝒆𝒚 = −𝒆−𝒙 − 𝒆−𝟑𝒙 + 𝒄
𝟑
𝑑𝑥 𝑦+1 2
9. 𝑥 ln(𝑥) =( )
𝑑𝑦 𝑥
6
𝑥 3 ln(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = (𝑦 + 1)2 𝑑𝑦

∫ 𝑥 3 ln(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = ∫(𝑦 + 1)2 𝑑𝑦

𝒙𝟑 𝒙𝟑 (𝒚 + 𝟏)𝟑
𝐥𝐧(𝒙) − = +𝒄
𝟑 𝟗 𝟑

𝑑𝑦 2𝑦 + 3 2
10. =( )
𝑑𝑥 4𝑥 + 5
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
2
=
(2𝑦 + 3) (4𝑥 + 5)2

∫(2𝑦 + 3)−2 𝑑𝑦 = ∫(4𝑥 + 5)−2 𝑑𝑥

𝟏 𝟏
− =− +𝒄
𝟐(𝟐𝒚 + 𝟑) 𝟒(𝟒𝒙 + 𝟓)

11. csc 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 + sec 2 𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 0


𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
− 2
=
sec 𝑥 csc 𝑦
− cos 2 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = sin 𝑦 𝑑𝑦

− ∫ cos2 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ sin 𝑦 𝑑𝑦

1 + cos 2𝑥
−∫ 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ sin 𝑦 𝑑𝑦
2
𝟏 𝟏
− 𝒙 − 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝟐𝒙 = − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒚 + 𝒄
𝟐 𝟒

12. sin 3𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 2𝑦 cos3 3𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 0

7
sin 3𝑥
𝑑𝑥 = −2𝑦𝑑𝑦
cos 3 3𝑥
1 sin 3𝑥
( 2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = −2𝑦𝑑𝑦
cos 3𝑥 cos 3𝑥

∫ sec 2 3𝑥 tan 3𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = −2 ∫ 𝑦𝑑𝑦

𝟏
𝒕𝒂𝒏𝟐 𝟑𝒙 = −𝒚𝟐 + 𝒄
𝟔

13. (𝑒 𝑦 + 1)𝑒 −𝑦 𝑑𝑥 + (𝑒 𝑥 + 1)3 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 0


𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
=− 𝑦
(𝑒 𝑥 3
+ 1) 𝑒 −𝑥 (𝑒 + 1)𝑒 −𝑦

∫ 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥 + 1)−3 𝑑𝑥 = − ∫ 𝑒 𝑦 (𝑒 𝑦 + 1)−1 𝑑𝑦

𝟏
− (𝒆𝒙 + 𝟏)−𝟐 = (𝒆𝒚 + 𝟏)−𝟏 + 𝒄
𝟐

14. 𝑥(1 + 𝑦 2 )1/2 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑦(1 + 𝑥 2 )1/2 𝑑𝑦


𝑥(1 + 𝑥 2 )−1/2 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑦(1 + 𝑦 2 )−1/2 𝑑𝑦

∫ 𝑥(1 + 𝑥 2 )−1/2 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑦(1 + 𝑦 2 )−1/2 𝑑𝑦

(𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 )−𝟏/𝟐 = (𝟏 + 𝒚𝟐 )−𝟏/𝟐 + 𝒄

𝑑𝑆
15. = 𝑘𝑆
𝑑𝑟
1
𝑑𝑆 = 𝑘𝑑𝑟
𝑆
1
∫ 𝑑𝑆 = 𝑘 ∫ 𝑑𝑟
𝑆
𝐥𝐧(𝑺) = 𝒌𝒓 + 𝒄

𝑑𝑄
16. = 𝑘(𝑄 − 70)
𝑑𝑡
8
𝑑𝑄
= 𝑘𝑑𝑡
(𝑄 − 70)
𝑑𝑄
∫ = 𝑘 ∫ 𝑑𝑡
(𝑄 − 70)
𝐥𝐧(𝑸 − 𝟕𝟎) = 𝒌𝒕 + 𝒄

𝑑𝑃
17. = 𝑃 − 𝑃2
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑝
= 𝑑𝑡
𝑃 − 𝑃2
𝐴 𝐵
∫ 𝑑𝑃 + ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑃 = ∫ 𝑑𝑡
𝑃 1−𝑃
1 1
∫ 𝑑𝑃 + ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑃 = ∫ 𝑑𝑡
𝑃 1−𝑃
𝐥𝐧(𝑷) + 𝐥𝐧(𝟏 − 𝑷) = 𝒕 + 𝒄

𝑑𝑁
18. + 𝑁 = 𝑁𝑡𝑒 𝑡+2
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑁
= (𝑡𝑒 𝑡+2 − 1)𝑑𝑡
𝑁
1
∫ 𝑑𝑁 = 𝑒 2 ∫ 𝑡𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 − ∫ 𝑑𝑡
𝑁
𝐥𝐧(𝑵) = 𝒆𝒕+𝟐 (𝒕 − 𝟏) + 𝒄

𝑑𝑦 𝑥𝑦 + 3𝑥 − 𝑦 − 3
19. =
𝑑𝑥 𝑥𝑦 − 2𝑥 + 4𝑦 − 8
𝑦−2 𝑥−1
𝑑𝑦 = 𝑑𝑥
𝑦+3 𝑥+4
𝑦 1 𝑥 1
∫ 𝑑𝑦 − 2 ∫ 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥 − ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑦+3 𝑦+3 𝑥+4 𝑥+4
𝒚 − 𝟓 𝐥𝐧|𝒚 + 𝟑| = 𝒙 − 𝟓 𝐥𝐧|𝒙 + 𝟒| + 𝒄

𝑑𝑦 𝑥𝑦 + 2𝑦 − 𝑥 − 2
20. =
𝑑𝑥 𝑥𝑦 − 3𝑦 + 𝑥 − 3
9
𝑦+1 𝑥+2
𝑑𝑦 = 𝑑𝑥
𝑦−1 𝑥−3
𝑦 1 𝑥 1
∫ 𝑑𝑦 + ∫ 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥 + 2 ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑦−1 𝑦−1 𝑥−3 𝑥−3
𝒚 + 𝟐 𝐥𝐧|𝒚 − 𝟏| = 𝒙 + 𝟓 𝐥𝐧|𝒙 − 𝟑| + 𝒄

𝑑𝑦
21. = 𝑥√1 − 𝑦 2
𝑑𝑥
1
𝑑𝑦 = 𝑥𝑑𝑥
√1 − 𝑦 2
1
∫ 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
√1 − 𝑦 2

𝒙𝟐
𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 (𝒚) = +𝒄
𝟐

𝑑𝑦
22. 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑒 −𝑥 = 𝑦2
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
=
𝑦2 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑒 −𝑥
𝑒𝑥
∫ 𝑦 −2 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥
(𝑒 𝑥 )2 + 1
𝟏
− = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 (𝒆𝒙 ) + 𝒄
𝒚

3.- ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES HOMOGÉNEAS


- Resolver las siguientes ecuaciones diferenciales homogéneas:
10
1. (x − y) dx + x dy = 0
𝑦 = 𝑣𝑥 ; 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑣𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑣
[x – (vx)] dx + x(vdx + xdv) = 0
(x – vx) dx + (xv) dx + (𝑥 2 ) dv = 0
[(x) dx + (𝑥 2 ) dv = 0
𝑥
∫ 2 dx = ∫ −dv
𝑥
ln(x) = −v
𝐲
𝐥𝐧(𝐱) = − + 𝐂
𝐱

2. (x + y) dx + x dy = 0
𝑦 = 𝑣𝑥 ; 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑣𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑣
[x – (vx)] dx + x(vdx + xdv) = 0
(x)dx + (vx)dx + (xv)dx + (𝑥 2 )dv = 0
(1 + 2v)dx + (𝑥 2 ) dv = 0
𝑥 𝑑𝑣
∫ 2 dx = ∫ −
𝑥 1 + 2𝑣
1
ln (x) = − ln (1 + 2v)
2
𝟏 𝟐𝐲
𝐥𝐧 (𝐱) = − 𝐥𝐧 (𝟏 + )
𝟐 𝐱

3. (x) dx + (y – 2x) dy = 0
𝑥 = 𝑣𝑦 ; 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑣𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑣
vy (vdy + ydv) + [y – 2(vy)] dy = 0
(𝑣 2 y) dy + (v𝑦 2 ) dv + (y) dy – 2(vy) dy = 0
y (𝑣 2 – 2v + 1) dy = −(v𝑦 2 ) dv
𝑦 −𝑣 𝑑𝑣 𝑣 𝑑𝑣
∫ 2 dy − ∫ 2 = −∫
𝑦 (𝑣 − 2𝑣 + 1) (𝑣 − 1)2
1 𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑣
∫ − ∫ 2
+ ∫ = 0
𝑦 (𝑣 − 1) (𝑣 − 1)
1
ln (y) = − + ln (v − 1) = 0
(𝑣 − 1)
1 y
ln (y) = − 𝑦 + ln ( − 1 ) = 0
(𝑥 − 1) x

4. (y) dx = 2 (x + y) dy = 0
𝑥 = 𝑣𝑦 ; 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑣𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑣

11
y (vdy + ydv) = 2 (vy + y) dy
(vy) dy + (y2) dv = 2(vy) dy + (2y) dy
(𝑦 2 ) dv = 2(vy) dy + (2y) dy − (yv) dy
(𝑦 2 ) dv = y (v + 2) dy
𝑑𝑣 𝑦 𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑦
∫ dy = ∫ 2 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 𝑑𝑦 = ∫
(𝑣 + 2) 𝑦 (𝑣 + 2) 𝑦
ln (v + 2) = ln (y) + C
x
ln ( + 2 ) = ln (y) + C
y

5. (𝑦 2 + yx) dx − (𝑥 2 ) dy = 0
𝑦 = 𝑣𝑥 ; 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑣𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑣
[𝑣 2 𝑥 2 + vx(x)] dx – 𝑥 2 (vdx + xdv) = 0
(𝑣 2 𝑥 2 ) dx + (𝑥 2 v) dx – (𝑥 2 v) dx – (𝑥 3 ) dv = 0
x (x𝑣 2 ) dx + (𝑥 3 ) dv = 0
x𝑣 2 dx = (−𝑥 3 ) dv
1
∫ dx = ∫ −𝑣 −2 𝑑𝑣
𝑥
ln (x) = − 𝑣 −1 + C
𝐱
𝐥𝐧 (𝐱) = − + 𝐂
𝐲

6. (𝑦 2 + xy) dx − (𝑥 2 ) dy = 0
𝑦 = 𝑣𝑥 ; 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑣𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑣
[𝑣 2 𝑥 2 + x(vx)]dx − 𝑥 2 (vdx + xdv) = 0
(𝑣 2 𝑥 2 ) dx + (𝑥 2 v) dx + (𝑥 2 v) dx + (𝑥 3 ) dv = 0
𝑥 2 (𝑣 2 + 2v) dx = −𝑥 3 dv
(𝑥 2 𝑣 2 ) dx = −(𝑥 3 ) dv
𝑥2 −𝑑𝑣
∫ 3 dx = ∫ 2
𝑥 (𝑣 + 2𝑣)
1 1
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑣
∫ =− 2 −∫ 2
𝑥 𝑣 (𝑣 + 2)
1 1
ln (x) = − ln (v) − ln (v + 2) + C
2 2
𝟏 𝐲 𝟏 𝐲
𝐥𝐧 (𝐱) = − 𝐥𝐧 ( ) − 𝐥𝐧 ( + 𝟐) + 𝐂
𝟐 𝐱 𝟐 𝐱

𝑑𝑦 𝑦 − 𝑥
7. =
𝑑𝑥 𝑦 + 𝑥

12
𝑦 = 𝑣𝑥 ; 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑣𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑣
(y + x) dy = (y – x) dx
(vx + x) (vdx + xdv) = (vx – x) dx
(𝑣 2 x) dx + (v𝑥 2 ) dx + (xv) dx + (𝑥 2 ) dv = (vx) dx – (x) dx
x (𝑣 2 + 1) dx + 𝑥 2 (v + 1) dv = 0
𝑥 𝑣+1
dx = − dv
𝑥2 (𝑣 2 + 1)
𝑑𝑥 𝑣 𝑑𝑣
∫ = ∫− 2 𝑑𝑣 − ∫ 2
𝑥 (𝑣 + 1) (𝑣 + 1)
1
ln (x) = − ln (𝑣 2 + 1) – tan − 1 (v) + C
2
𝟏 𝒚 𝒚
𝐥𝐧 (𝐱) = − 𝐥𝐧 [( ) 𝟐 + 𝟏)] – 𝐭𝐚𝐧 − 𝟏 ( ) + 𝐂
𝟐 𝒙 𝒙

𝑑𝑦 𝑥 − 3𝑦
8. =
𝑑𝑥 3𝑥 + 𝑦
𝑦 = 𝑣𝑥 ; 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑣𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑣
(3x + y) dy = (x + 3y) dx
(3x + vx) (vdx + xdv) = [x + 3 (vx)] dx
(3xv) dx + (3𝑥 2 ) dv + (𝑣 2 x) dx + (v𝑥 2 ) dv = (x) dx + (3vx) dx
𝑥 2 (v + 3) dv + (v𝑥 2 ) dv = (x) dx − (𝑣 2 x) dx
(𝑣 + 3) 𝑥
=
(−𝑣 2 + 1) 𝑥 2
(𝑣 + 3) 1
∫ 2
𝑑𝑣 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥
(−𝑣 + 1) 𝑥
2 𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑣 1
∫ 𝑑𝑣 + ∫ = ∫ 𝑑𝑥
(1 − 𝑣) (1 + 𝑣) 𝑥

2 ln (1 − v) + ln (1 + v) = ln (x) + C
𝒚 𝒚
𝟐 𝐥𝐧 (𝟏 − ) + 𝐥𝐧 (𝟏 + ) = 𝐥𝐧 (𝐱) + 𝐂
𝒙 𝒙

9. − y dx + (x + √𝑥𝑦 ) dy = 0

𝑥 = 𝑣𝑦 ; 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑣𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑣
13
−y (vdy + ydv) + (vy + √𝑣𝑦(𝑦) dy = 0
− (yv) dy − (y2) dv + (vy) dy + √𝑣𝑦 2 dy = 0
− (𝑦 2 ) dv = − √𝑣(y) dy
𝑑𝑣 𝑦
∫ dv = − ∫ 2 dy = 2√𝑣 = ln (y) + C
√𝑣 𝑦
𝒚
𝟐√ = 𝐥𝐧 (𝐲) + 𝐂
𝒙

𝑑𝑦
10. (x) = y + √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = 0
𝑑𝑥
𝑦 = 𝑣𝑥 ; 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑣𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑣

(x) dy = y + √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 dx = 0
(vx) dx + √𝑥 2 + 𝑣 2 𝑥 2 dx − (xv) dx – (𝑥 2 ) dv = 0
√𝑥 2 + 𝑣 2 𝑥 2 dx − (𝑥 2 ) dv = 0
𝑥
√1 − 𝑣 2 dv − dx = 0
𝑥2
𝑥
∫ √1 − 𝑣 2 𝑑𝑣 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑥2
ln (x) – 𝑠𝑒𝑛−1 (v) = C
𝒚
𝐥𝐧 (𝐱) – 𝒔𝒆𝒏−𝟏 ( ) = 𝐂
𝒙

4.- ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES EXACTAS


- Resolver las siguientes ecuaciones diferenciales exactas:

14
𝟏. (𝟐𝒙 − 𝟏)𝒅𝒙 + (𝟑𝒚 + 𝟕)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 0; = 0 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

2𝑥 2
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(2𝑥 − 1)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = − 𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)
2
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥 2 − 𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) = (3𝑦 + 7)
𝜕𝑦
3 2
𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(3𝑦 + 7)𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦 + 7𝑦 + 𝑐
2
3
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥 2 − 𝑥 + 𝑦 2 + 7𝑦 + 𝑐
2

𝟐. (𝟐𝒙 − 𝒚)𝒅𝒙 − (𝒙 + 𝟔𝒚)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎


𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 1; = −1 ∴ 𝑁𝑂 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝟑. (𝟓𝒙 + 𝟒𝒚)𝒅𝒙 + (𝟒𝒙 − 𝟖𝒚𝟑 )𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎


𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 4; = 4 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

5
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(5𝑥 + 4𝑦)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑥 2 + 4𝑥𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑦)
2
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 4𝑥 = 4𝑥 − 8𝑦 3
𝜕𝑦

𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(−8𝑦 3 )𝑑𝑦 = − 2𝑦 4 + 𝐶

5
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥 2 + 4𝑥𝑦 − 2𝑦 4 + 𝐶
2
𝟒. (𝑺𝒆𝒏𝒚 − 𝒚𝑺𝒆𝒏𝒙)𝒅𝒙 + (𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒙 + 𝒙𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒚 − 𝒚)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎

15
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑦 − 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥; = 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑦 − 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑦 − 𝑦𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑥𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑦 + 𝑦𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑦 + 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑦 − 𝑦
𝜕𝑦
𝑔′ (𝑦) = −𝑦
1
𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(−𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = − 𝑦 2 + 𝐶
2
1
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑦 + 𝑦𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 − 𝑦 2 + 𝐶
2

𝟓. (𝟐𝒙𝒚𝟐 − 𝟑)𝒅𝒙 + (𝟐𝒙𝟐 𝒚 + 𝟒)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎


𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 4𝑥𝑦; = 4𝑥𝑦 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

2
𝑥2 2
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(2𝑥𝑦 − 3)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 2𝑦 − 3𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑥 2 𝑦 2 − 3𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)
2
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 2𝑦𝑥 2 = 2𝑥 2 𝑦 + 4
𝜕𝑦
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 4

𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(4)𝑑𝑦 = 4𝑦 + 𝐶

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥 2 𝑦 2 − 3𝑥 + 4𝑦 + 𝐶

𝟏 𝒅𝒚 𝒚
𝟔. (𝟐𝒚 − + 𝑪𝒐𝒔𝟑𝒙) + − 𝟒𝒙𝟑 + 𝟑𝒚𝑺𝒆𝒏𝟑𝒙 = 𝟎
𝒙 𝒅𝒙 𝒙𝟐
1 𝑦
(− 𝑦 2 + 𝐶𝑜𝑠3𝑥) 𝑑𝑦 = (− 2 + 4𝑥 3 − 3𝑦𝑆𝑒𝑛3𝑥) 𝑑𝑥
2 𝑥
𝜕𝑀 1 𝜕𝑁 1
= − 2 − 3𝑆𝑒𝑛3𝑥; = 2 − 3𝑆𝑒𝑛3𝑥 ∴ 𝑁𝑂 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝑥

16
𝟕. (𝒙𝟐 − 𝒚𝟐 )𝒅𝒙 + (𝒙𝟐 − 𝟐𝒙𝒚)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 2𝑦; = 2𝑥 − 2𝑦 ∴ 𝑁𝑂 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝒚
𝟖. (𝟏 + 𝐥𝐧 𝒙 + ) 𝒅𝒙 = (𝟏 − 𝐥𝐧 𝒙)𝒅𝒚
𝒙
𝜕𝑀 1 𝜕𝑁 1
= ; = ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝑦 1 𝑦
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ (1 + ln 𝑥 + ) 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = − 2 + 𝑔(𝑦)
𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 2𝑦𝑥 2 = 2𝑥 2 𝑦 + 4
𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) 1
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 2 = 1 − ln 𝑥
𝜕𝑦 𝑥
1
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 1 − 𝑙𝑛𝑥 − =0
𝑥2

𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(0)𝑑𝑦 = 0 + 𝐶

1 𝑦
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = − +𝑐
𝑥 𝑥2

𝟗. (𝒙 − 𝒚𝟑 + 𝒚𝟐 𝑺𝒆𝒏𝒙)𝒅𝒙 = (𝟑𝒙𝒚𝟐 + 𝟐𝒚𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒙)𝒅𝒚


𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= −3𝑦 2 + 2𝑦𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥; = −3𝑦 2 + 2𝑦𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

3 2
𝑥2
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(𝑥 − 𝑦 + 𝑦 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = − 𝑦 3 𝑥 + 𝑦 2 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)
2
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) − 3𝑦 2 𝑥 − 2𝑦𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 = 3𝑥𝑦 2 + 2𝑦𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥
𝜕𝑦
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 0

17
𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(0)𝑑𝑦 = 0 + 𝐶

𝑥2
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = − 𝑦 3 𝑥 + 𝑦 2 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝐶
2

𝟏𝟎. (𝒙𝟑 + 𝒚𝟑 )𝒅𝒙 + (𝟑𝒙𝒚𝟐 )𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎


𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 3𝑦 2 ; = 3𝑦 2 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝑥4
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(𝑥 3 + 𝑦 3 )𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = + 𝑥𝑦 3 + 𝑔(𝑦)
4
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 3𝑥𝑦 2 = 3𝑥𝑦 2
𝜕𝑦
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 0

𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(0)𝑑𝑦 = 0 + 𝐶

𝑥4
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = + 𝑥𝑦 3 + 𝐶
4

𝟏
𝟏𝟏. (𝒚 𝐥𝐧 𝒚 − 𝒆−𝒙𝒚 )𝒅𝒙 + ( + 𝒙 𝐥𝐧 𝒚) 𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎
𝒚
𝜕𝑀 1 𝜕𝑁 𝑥
= 𝑦 +ln 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥𝑦 ; = + ln 𝑦 ∴ 𝑁𝑂 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝑦

𝟏𝟐. (𝟑𝒙𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒆𝒚 )𝒅𝒙 + (𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝒆𝒚 − 𝟐𝒚)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎


𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 3𝑥 2 + 𝑒 𝑦 ; = 3𝑥 2 + 𝑒 𝑦 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(3𝑥 2 𝑦 + 𝑒 𝑦 )𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑥 3 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑒 𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 𝑥 3 + 𝑥𝑒 𝑦 = 𝑥 3 + 𝑥𝑒 𝑦 − 2𝑦
𝜕𝑦

18
𝑔′ (𝑦) = −2𝑦

𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(−2𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = −𝑦 2 + 𝐶

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥 3 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑒 𝑦 + −𝑦 2 + 𝐶

𝒅𝒚
𝟏𝟑. (𝒙) = 𝟐𝒙𝒆𝒙 − 𝒚 + 𝟔𝒙𝟐
𝒅𝒙
(𝑥)𝑑𝑦 + (−2𝑥𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑦 − 6𝑥 2 )𝑑𝑥 = 0
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 1; = 1 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(−2𝑥𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑦 − 6𝑥 2 )𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = −2𝑒 𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑥𝑦 − 2𝑥 3 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 𝑥 = 𝑥
𝜕𝑦
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 0

𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(0)𝑑𝑦 = 0 + 𝐶

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = −2𝑒 𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑥𝑦 − 2𝑥 3 + 𝐶

𝟑 𝒅𝒚 𝟑
𝟏𝟒. (𝟏 − + 𝒙) +𝒚= −𝟏
𝒚 𝒅𝒙 𝒙
3 3
(1 − + 𝑥) 𝑑𝑦 + (𝑦 − + 1) 𝑑𝑥 = 0
𝑦 𝑥
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 1; = 1 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

3
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ (𝑦 − + 1) 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑥𝑦 − 3 ln 𝑥 + 𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)
𝑥
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) 3
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 𝑥 = 1 − + 𝑥
𝜕𝑦 𝑦

19
3
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 1 −
𝑦
3
𝑔(𝑦) = ∫ (1 − ) 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦 − 3 ln 𝑥 + 𝐶
𝑦
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥𝑦 − 3 ln 𝑥 + 𝑥 + 𝑦 − 3 ln 𝑥 + 𝐶

𝟏 𝒅𝒚
𝟏𝟓. (𝒙𝟐 𝒚𝟑 − 𝟐
) + 𝒙 𝟑 𝒚𝟐 = 𝟎
𝟏 + 𝟗𝒙 𝒅𝒙
1
(𝑥 2 𝑦 3 − ) 𝑑𝑦 + (𝑥 3 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑥 = 0
1 + 9𝑥 2
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 ; = 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

1 1 3 3 1
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ (𝑥 2 𝑦 3 − ) 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑥 𝑦 − arctan 3𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)
1 + 9𝑥 2 3 3
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 𝑥 3 𝑦 2 = 𝑥 3 𝑦 2
𝜕𝑦
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 0

𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(0)𝑑𝑦 = 0 + 𝐶

1 1
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥 3 𝑦 3 − arctan 3𝑥 + 𝐶
3 3

𝟏𝟔. (𝟓𝒚 − 𝟐𝒙)𝒚′ − 𝟐𝒚 = 𝟎


(5𝑦 − 2𝑥)𝑑𝑦 − (2𝑦)𝑑𝑥
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= −2; = −2 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ −2𝑦 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = −2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) − 2𝑥 = 5𝑦 − 2𝑥
𝜕𝑦

20
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 5𝑦
5
𝑔(𝑦) = ∫(5𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦 2 + 𝐶
2
5
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = −2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 + 𝐶
2

𝟏𝟕. (𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝒙 − 𝑺𝒆𝒏𝒙𝑺𝒆𝒏𝒚)𝒅𝒙 + (𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒙𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒚)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎


𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= −𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑦; = −𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑦 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(tan 𝑥 − 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑦)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = ln(𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑥) + 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑦𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑦 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑦
𝜕𝑦
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 0
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ln(𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑥) + 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑦𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝐶

2 2
18. (2𝑦𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 − 𝑦 + 2𝑦 2 𝑒 𝑥𝑦 )𝑑𝑥 = (𝑥 − 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 − 4𝑥𝑦𝑒 𝑥𝑦 )𝑑𝑦
𝜕𝑀 2 𝑥𝑦2
= −1 + 2𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 + (4𝑦𝑒 𝑥𝑦 + 4𝑥𝑦 3𝑒 )
𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑁 2 2
= −1 + 2𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 + (4𝑦𝑒 𝑥𝑦 + 4𝑥𝑦^3𝑒 𝑥𝑦 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

2 2
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(2𝑦𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑥 − 𝑦 + 2𝑦 2 𝑒 𝑥𝑦 )𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑦𝑆𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 − 𝑥𝑦 + 2𝑒 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) 2 2
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 𝑆𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 − 𝑥 + 4𝑥𝑦𝑒 𝑥𝑦 = 𝑥 − 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 − 4𝑥𝑦𝑒 𝑥𝑦
𝜕𝑦
𝑔(𝑦) = 0
2
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑦𝑆𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 − 𝑥𝑦 + 2𝑒 𝑥𝑦 + 𝐶

21
𝟏𝟗. (𝟒𝒕𝟑 𝒕 − 𝟏𝟓𝒕𝟐 − 𝒚)𝒅𝒕 + (𝒕𝟒 + 𝟑𝒚𝟐 − 𝒕)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 4𝑡 3 − 1; = 4𝑡 3 − 1 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(4𝑡 3 𝑡 − 15𝑡 2 − 𝑦)𝑑𝑡 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑡 4 𝑦 − 5𝑡 3 − 𝑡𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑦)

𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 𝑡 4 − 𝑡 = 𝑡 4 + 3𝑦 2 − 𝑡
𝜕𝑦
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 3𝑦 2
𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑦 3
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑡 4 𝑦 − 5𝑡 3 − 𝑡𝑦 + 𝑦 3

1 1 𝑦 𝑦
𝑡
20. ( + 2 + 2 ) 𝑑𝑡 + (𝑦𝑒 + ) 𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑡 𝑡 𝑡 + 𝑦2 𝑡2 + 𝑦2
𝜕𝑀 𝑡 2 − 𝑦 2 𝜕𝑁 𝑡2 − 𝑦2
=− 2 ; =− 2 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝑡 + 𝑦 2 𝜕𝑥 𝑡 + 𝑦2

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ 𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)

1 1 𝑦 1 𝑡
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫ ( + 2 + 2 ) 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑔(𝑦) = ln 𝑡 + (arctan ) + 𝑔(𝑦)
𝑡 𝑡 𝑡 + 𝑦2 𝑡 𝑦
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑡 𝑡
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 2 = 𝑦𝑒 𝑦
+
𝜕𝑦 𝑡 + 𝑦2 𝑡2 + 𝑦2
𝑔′ (𝑦) = 𝑦𝑒 𝑦
𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑦𝑒 𝑦 − 𝑒 𝑦
1 𝑡
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ln 𝑡 + (arctan ) + 𝑦𝑒 𝑦 − 𝑒 𝑦
𝑡 𝑦

𝟐𝟎. (𝒙 + 𝒚)𝟑 𝒅𝒙 + (𝟐𝒙𝒚 + 𝒙𝟐 − 𝟏)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎


𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 2𝑥 + 2𝑦; = 2𝑥 + 2𝑦 ∴ 𝐸𝑆 𝐸𝑋𝐴𝐶𝑇𝐴
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥
1
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∫(𝑥 + 𝑦)3 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦) = 𝑥 3 + 2𝑦𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦)
3

22
𝜕𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑔′ (𝑦) + 𝑥 2 + 2𝑥𝑦 = 2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑥 2 − 1
𝜕𝑦
𝑔′ (𝑦) = −1
𝑔(𝑦) = −𝑦 + 𝐶
1 3
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥 + 2𝑦𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 𝑥 + −𝑦 + 𝐶
3

23
5.- ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES LINEALES
- Resolver las siguientes ecuaciones diferenciales lineales:
𝒅𝒚
𝟏. = 𝟐𝒚
𝒅𝒙
𝑑𝑦 = 2𝑦𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 − 2𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 0𝑑𝑥
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ −2𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 −2𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 −2𝑥 ) = ∫ 0𝑑𝑥
𝑦𝑒 −2𝑥 = 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = 𝑐𝑒 2𝑥

𝒅𝒚
𝟐. + 𝟓𝒚 = 𝟎
𝒅𝒙
𝑑𝑦 + 5𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 0𝑑𝑥
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ 5𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 5𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 5𝑥 ) = ∫ 0𝑑𝑥
𝑦𝑒 5𝑥 = 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = 𝑐𝑒 −5𝑥
𝒅𝒚
𝟑. + 𝒚 = 𝒆−𝟑𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 −3𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 𝑥 ) = ∫ 𝑒 −3𝑥 ∙ 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑒 𝑥 = ∫ 𝑒 −2𝑥 𝑑𝑥
1 −2𝑥 1
𝑦𝑒 𝑥 = − 𝑒 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = − 𝑒 −3𝑥 + 𝑐𝑒 −𝑥
2 2

𝒅𝒚
𝟒. 𝟑 + 𝟏𝟐 𝒚 = 𝟒
𝒅𝒙
4
𝑑𝑦 + 4𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥
3
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ 4𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 4𝑥
4
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 4𝑥 ) = ∫ 𝑒 4𝑥 𝑑𝑥
3
1 4𝑥 1
𝑦𝑒 4𝑥 = 𝑒 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = + 𝑐𝑒 −4𝑥
3 3

𝟓. 𝒚′ + 𝟑𝒙𝟐 𝒚 = 𝟏𝟎𝒙𝟐
𝑑𝑦 + 3𝑥 2 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 10𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥
2 3
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ 3𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥
3 3
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 𝑥 ) = ∫ 10𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
3 10 𝑥 3 10 3
𝑦𝑒 𝑥 = 𝑒 +𝑐−−−𝑦 = + 𝑐𝑒 −𝑥
3 3
24
𝟔. 𝒚′ + 𝟐𝒙𝒚 = 𝒙𝟑
𝑑𝑦 + 2𝑥𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 3 𝑑𝑥
2
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ 2𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥
2 2
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 𝑥 ) = ∫ 𝑥 3 ∙ 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
2 1 𝑥2 2 1 2
𝑦𝑒 𝑥 = [𝑒 (𝑥 − 1)] + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = (𝑥 2 − 1) + 𝑐𝑒 −𝑥
2 2

𝟕. 𝒙𝟐 𝒚′ + 𝒙𝒚 = 𝒙 + 𝟏
𝑑𝑦 + 𝑥 −1 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = (𝑥 −1 + 𝑥 −2 )𝑑𝑥
−1
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑥) = ∫(𝑥 −1 + 𝑥 −2 ) 𝑥𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑥 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥 + ∫ 𝑥 −1 𝑑𝑥
𝑦𝑥 = 𝑥 + 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = 1 + 𝑥 −1 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐𝑥 −1

𝟖. 𝒚′ = 𝟐𝒚 + 𝒙𝟐 + 𝟓
𝑑𝑦 − 2𝑦𝑑𝑥 = (𝑥 2 + 5)𝑑𝑥
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ −2𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 −2𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑒 −2𝑥 ) = ∫(𝑥 2 + 5) ∙ 𝑒 −2𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑒 −2𝑥 = ∫ 𝑥 2 𝑒 −2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 5 ∫ 𝑒 −2𝑥 𝑑𝑥


1 2 −2𝑥 1 11 −2𝑥 1 1 11
𝑦𝑒 −2𝑥 = − 𝑥 𝑒 − 𝑥𝑒 −2𝑥 − 𝑒 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = − 𝑥2 − 𝑥 − + 𝑐𝑒 2𝑥
2 2 4 2 2 4

𝒅𝒚
𝟗. 𝒙 − 𝒚 = 𝒙𝟐 𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝑑𝑦 − 𝑥 −1 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑑𝑥
−1
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 − ∫ 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 −𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑥 −1
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑥 −1 ) = ∫ 𝑥 −1 ∙ 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑥 −1 = ∫ 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑑𝑥
𝑦𝑥 −1 = −𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = −𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑐𝑥

𝒅𝒚
𝟏𝟎. 𝒙 + 𝟐𝒚 = 𝟑
𝒅𝒙
𝑑𝑦 + 2𝑥 −1 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 3𝑥 −1 𝑑𝑥
−1
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ 2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 2𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑥 2
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑥 2 ) = ∫ 3𝑥 −1 ∙ 𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑥 2 = 3 ∫ 𝑥𝑑𝑥

25
3 2 3
𝑦𝑥 2 = 𝑥 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = + 𝑐𝑥 −2
2 2

𝒅𝒚
𝟏𝟏. 𝒙 + 𝟒𝒚 = 𝒙𝟑 − 𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝑑𝑦 + 4𝑥 −1 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = (𝑥 2 − 1)𝑑𝑥
−1
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ 4𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 4𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑥 4
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑥 4 ) = ∫ 𝑥 4 ∙ (𝑥 2 − 1)𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑥 4 = ∫ 𝑥 6 𝑑𝑥 − ∫ 𝑥 4 𝑑𝑥
1 7 1 5 1 1
𝑦𝑥 4 = 𝑥 − 𝑥 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = 𝑥 3 − 𝑥 + 𝑐𝑥 −4
7 5 7 5

𝒅𝒚
𝟏𝟐. (𝟏 + 𝒙) − 𝒙𝒚 = 𝒙 + 𝒙𝟐
𝒅𝒙
𝑥
𝑑𝑦 − 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥𝑑𝑥
1+𝑥
𝑥
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫1+𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 ln(1+𝑥) − 𝑥 = (1 + 𝑥)𝑒 −𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦(1 + 𝑥)𝑒 −𝑥 ) = ∫ 𝑥(1 + 𝑥)𝑒 −𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑦(1 + 𝑥)𝑒 −𝑥 = ∫ 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + ∫ 𝑥 2 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑦(1 + 𝑥)𝑒 −𝑥 = −𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 − 𝑒 −𝑥 − 𝑥 2 𝑒 −𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 − 2𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑐
𝑥2 3 𝑐𝑒 𝑥
𝑦=− − +
1+𝑥 1+𝑥 1+𝑥

𝟏𝟑. 𝒙𝟐 𝒚′ + 𝒙 (𝒙 + 𝟐)𝒚 = 𝒆𝒙
𝑑𝑦 + (1 + 2𝑥 −1 )𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 −2 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
−1
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫(1+2𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥+2𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥 ) = ∫ 𝑥 −2 𝑒 𝑥 ∙ 𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥 = ∫ 𝑒 2𝑥 𝑑𝑥
1 2𝑥 1
𝑦𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑥 = 𝑒 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = 𝑥 −2 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑐𝑥 −2 𝑒 −𝑥
2 2

𝟏𝟒. 𝒙𝒚′ + (𝟏 + 𝒙)𝒚 = 𝒆−𝒙 𝒔𝒆𝒏𝟐𝒙


𝑑𝑦 + (𝑥 −1 + 1)𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 −1 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑥𝑑𝑥
−1
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫(𝑥 +1)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 ln(𝑥)+𝑥 = 𝑥𝑒 𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑥𝑒 𝑥 ) = ∫ 𝑥 −1 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑥 ∙ 𝑥𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑥𝑒 𝑥 = ∫ 𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑥𝑑𝑥
1 1
𝑦𝑥𝑒 𝑥 = − cos 2𝑥 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = − 𝑥 −1 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 + 𝑐𝑥 −1 𝑒 −𝑥
2 2

𝟏𝟓. 𝒚𝒅𝒙 − 𝟒(𝒙 + 𝒚𝟔 )𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎


26
𝑑𝑥 − 4𝑦 −1 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 4𝑦 5 𝑑𝑦
−1
𝑀(𝑦) = 𝑒 ∫ −4𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑒 −4𝑙𝑛𝑦 = 𝑦 −4
∫ 𝜕(𝑥𝑦 −4 ) = ∫ 4𝑦 5 𝑦 −4 𝑑𝑦

𝑥𝑦 −4 = ∫ 4𝑦𝑑𝑦
𝑥𝑦 −4 = 2𝑦 2 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑥 = 2𝑦 6 + 𝑐𝑦 4

𝟏𝟔. 𝒚𝒅𝒙 = (𝒚𝒆𝒚 − 𝟐𝒙)𝒅𝒚


𝑑𝑥 + 2𝑦 −1 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑦 𝑑𝑦
−1
𝑀(𝑦) = 𝑒 ∫ 2𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑒 2𝑙𝑛𝑦 = 𝑦 2
∫ 𝜕(𝑥𝑦 2 ) = ∫ 𝑦 2 𝑒 𝑦 𝑑𝑦
𝑥𝑦 2 = 𝑦 2 𝑒 𝑦 − 2𝑦𝑒 𝑦 − 2𝑒 𝑦 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑦 − 2𝑦 −1 𝑒 𝑦 − 2𝑦 −2 𝑒 𝑦 + 𝑐𝑦 −2

𝒅𝒚
𝟏𝟕. 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒙 + 𝒚𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒙 = 𝟏
𝒅𝒙
1
𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
1
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 − ln(𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥) =
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
𝑦 1 1
∫𝜕( )= ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
𝑦 1
= ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥
𝑦
= 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥

𝒅𝒚
𝟏𝟖. 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝒙𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒙 + (𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟑 𝒙)𝒚 = 𝟏
𝒅𝒙
1
𝑑𝑦 + (𝑐𝑡𝑔𝑥)𝑦𝑑𝑥 =
𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
∫ 𝑐𝑡𝑔𝑥𝑑𝑥 ln(𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 = 𝑒 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥) = ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
1
𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥
𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑥 + 𝑐 ∙ 𝑐𝑠𝑐𝑥

𝒅𝒚
𝟏𝟗. (𝒙 + 𝟏) + (𝒙 + 𝟐)𝒚 = 𝟐𝒙𝒆−𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝑥+2 2𝑥𝑒 −𝑥
𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥
𝑥+1 𝑥+1
𝑥+2
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫𝑥+1𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥+ln(𝑥+1) = (𝑥 + 1) 𝑒 𝑥
𝑥
2𝑥𝑒 −𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦(𝑥 + 1)𝑒 = ∫ (𝑥 + 1)𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑥+1
𝑦(𝑥 + 1)𝑒 𝑥 = ∫ 2𝑥𝑑𝑥
27
𝑥 2 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑐𝑒 −𝑥
𝑦(𝑥 + 1)𝑒 𝑥 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = +
𝑥+1 𝑥+1

𝒅𝒚
𝟐𝟎. (𝒙 + 𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟓 − 𝟖𝒚 − 𝟒𝒙𝒚
𝒅𝒙
8 + 4𝑥 5
𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥
(𝑥 + 2)2 (𝑥 + 2)2
8+4𝑥 4
∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 = 𝑒 ∫𝑥+2𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 4 ln(𝑥+2) = (𝑥 + 2)4
(𝑥+2)2
5
∫ 𝜕(𝑦(𝑥 + 2)4 ) = ∫ (𝑥 + 2)4 𝑑𝑥
(𝑥 + 2)2
𝑦(𝑥 + 2)4 = ∫ 5(𝑥 + 2)2 𝑑𝑥
5 5 𝑐
𝑦(𝑥 + 2)4 = (𝑥 + 2)3 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = +
3 3(𝑥 + 2) (𝑥 + 2)4

𝒅𝒓
𝟐𝟏. + 𝒓𝒔𝒆𝒄𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝜽
𝒅𝜽
𝑑𝑟 + 𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃𝑑𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑑𝜃
𝑀(𝜃) = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃𝑑𝜃 = 𝑒 ln(𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃+𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃) = 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 + 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃
∫ 𝜕(𝑟(𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 + 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃) = ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃(𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 + 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃) 𝑑𝜃

𝑟(𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 + 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃) = ∫ 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝜃𝑑𝜃 + ∫ 𝑑𝜃


𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝜃 𝑐
𝑟(𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 + 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃) = −𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 + 𝜃 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑟 = − + +
𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 + 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 + 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 + 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃

𝒅𝒑
𝟐𝟐. + 𝟐𝒕𝒑 = 𝒑 + 𝟒𝒕 − 𝟐
𝒅𝒕
𝑑𝑝 + (2𝑡 − 1)𝑝𝑑𝑡 = (4𝑡 − 2)𝑑𝑡
2
𝑀(𝑡) = 𝑒 ∫(2𝑡−1)𝑑𝑡 = 𝑒 ∫ 2𝑡𝑑𝑡− ∫ 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑒 𝑡 −𝑡
2 −𝑡 2 −𝑡
∫ 𝜕(𝑝𝑒 𝑡 ) = ∫(4𝑡 − 2)𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡
2 −𝑡 2 −𝑡
𝑝𝑒 𝑡 = 2 ∫(2𝑡 − 1)𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑡 2 −𝑡 𝑡 2 −𝑡 2 +𝑡
𝑝𝑒 = 2𝑒 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑝 = 2 + 𝑐𝑒 −𝑡

𝒅𝒚
𝟐𝟑. 𝒙 + (𝟑𝒙 + 𝟏)𝒚 = 𝒆−𝟑𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝑑𝑦 + (3 + 𝑥 −1 )𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 −1 𝑒 −3𝑥 𝑑𝑥
−1 −1
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 ∫(3+𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 ∫ 3𝑑𝑥+∫ 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 3𝑥+𝑙𝑛𝑥 = 𝑥𝑒 3𝑥
∫ 𝜕(𝑦𝑥𝑒 3𝑥 ) = ∫ 𝑥 −1 𝑒 −3𝑥 ∙ 𝑥𝑒 3𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑥𝑒 3𝑥 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑦𝑥𝑒 3𝑥 = 𝑥 + 𝑐 − − − 𝑦 = 𝑒 −3𝑥 + 𝑐𝑥 −1 𝑒 −3𝑥

28
𝒅𝒚
𝟐𝟒. (𝒙𝟐 − 𝟏) + 𝟐𝒚 = (𝒙 + 𝟏)𝟐
𝒅𝒙
2 𝑥+1
𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥
𝑥2 − 1 𝑥−1
2
∫ 2 𝑑𝑥
1 𝑥−1
𝑥−1
𝑀(𝑥) = 𝑒 𝑥 −1 = 𝑒 2(2𝑙𝑛(𝑥+1) =
𝑥+1
𝑥−1 𝑥+1 𝑥−1
∫ 𝜕(𝑦 ( )) = ∫ ( )( ) 𝑑𝑥
𝑥+1 𝑥−1 𝑥+1
𝑥−1
𝑦( ) = ∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑥+1
𝑥−1 𝑥(𝑥 + 1) 𝑐(𝑥 + 1)
𝑦( )=𝑥+𝑐−−−𝑦 = +
𝑥+1 𝑥−1 𝑥−1

29
6.- ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES DE BERNOULLI
- Resolver las siguientes ecuaciones por Bernoulli:
𝑑𝑦 1
1. (x) + y = 2
𝑑𝑥 𝑦
x dy + y dx = (y − 2) dx
𝑦 𝑦−2
dy + dx = dx
𝑥 𝑥
n = −2
z = 𝑦3
dz = 3𝑦 2 dy
1
𝑦 2 dy = dz
3
1 1 3
dz + z dx = dx
3 𝑥 𝑥
3
μ (x) = 𝑒∫𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 3
∫ 𝑑(𝑧𝑥 3 ) = 3∫ 𝑥 3 𝑑𝑥
z𝑥 3 = 𝑥 3 + C
𝒚 𝟑 𝒙𝟑 = 𝒙𝟑 + 𝐂

𝑑𝑦
2. − y = 𝑒 𝑥 𝑦2
𝑑𝑥
dy – (y) dx = (𝑒 𝑥 𝑦 2 ) dy
𝑦 𝑦−2
dy + dx = dx
𝑥 𝑥
n=2
z = 𝑦 −1
dz = −𝑦 −2 dy
𝑦 −2 dy = − dz
dy – (y) dx = (𝑒 𝑥 𝑦 2 ) dy
(𝑦 −2 ) dy – (𝑦 −1 ) dx = (𝑒 𝑥 ) dx
dz + (z) dx = − (𝑒 𝑥 ) dx
μ (x) = 𝑒∫ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥
∫ 𝑑(𝑧𝑒 x ) = − 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥 )
z𝑒 𝑥 = − 𝑒 2𝑥 + C
𝒚−𝟏 = − 𝒆𝒙 + 𝐂𝒆−𝒙

30
𝑑𝑦
3. = y (x𝑦 3 − 1)
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
= x𝑦 4 − y
𝑑𝑥
dy = (x𝑦 4 ) dx – (y) dx
n=4
z = 𝑦 −3
dz = −3𝑦 −4 dy
1
𝑦 −4 dy = − dz
3
(𝑦 −4 ) dy + (𝑦 −3 ) dx = x dx
1
− dz + (z) dx = (x)dx
3
dz – (3z) dx = − (3x) dx
μ (x) = 𝑒∫ −3 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 −3𝑥
∫ 𝑑(𝑧𝑒 −3x ) = − 3 ∫ 𝑥 (𝑒 −3𝑥 ) dx
z𝑒 −3𝑥 = − 3x𝑒 −3𝑥 + 𝑒 −3𝑥 + C
𝐲 − 𝟑𝒆−𝟑𝒙 = − 𝟑𝐱𝒆−𝟑𝒙 + 𝒆−𝟑𝒙 + 𝐂

𝑑𝑦
4. x − (1 + 𝑥 2 )y = x𝑦 2
𝑑𝑥
(x) dy – (1 + 𝑥 2 )y dx = (x𝑦 2 ) dx
(1 + 𝑥 2 ) (x𝑦 2 )
dy − y dx = dx
𝑥 𝑥
n=2
z = 𝑦 −1
dz = −𝑦 −2 dy
𝑦 −2 dy = − dz
1
(𝑦 −2 ) dy − ( + 1) y dx = 𝑦 2 dx
𝑥
1
dz + ( + 1) z dx = − dx
𝑥
1
μ (x) = 𝑒∫𝑥 +1 𝑑𝑥 = x𝑒 𝑥
∫ 𝑑(𝑧𝑥𝑒 x ) = − ∫ 𝑥(𝑒𝑥 ) dx
zx𝑒 𝑥 = x𝑒 −3𝑥 − 𝑒 𝑥 + C
𝟏 𝒄𝒆𝒙
𝒚−𝟏 = − 𝟏 − +
𝒙 𝒙

31
𝑑𝑦
5. 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = xy
𝑑𝑥
𝑥 2 dy + 𝑦 2 dx = (xy) dx
𝑦2 𝑦2
dy + 2 dx = 2 dx
𝑥 𝑥
n=2
z = 𝑦 −1
dz = −𝑦 −2 dy
𝑦 −2 dy = − dz
−2
𝑦 −1 𝑦2
(𝑦 ) dy − ( ) dx = − 2 dx
𝑥 𝑥
1 1
dz + ( ) z dx = 2 dx
𝑥 𝑥
1
𝑑𝑥
μ (x) = 𝑒 ∫𝑥 = e ln (x) = x
𝑥
∫ 𝑑(𝑧𝑥) = − ∫ 2 dx
𝑥
zx = ln (x) + C
𝒚−𝟏 𝐱 = 𝐥𝐧 (𝐱) + 𝐂

𝑑𝑦
6. 3 (1 + 𝑥 2 ) = 2xy (𝑦 3 − 1)
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
3 (1 + 𝑥 2 ) = 2x𝑦 4 – 2xy
𝑑𝑥
2 𝑥 2 𝑥
dy + ( 2
) y dx = ( ) 𝑦 4 dx
3 1+ 𝑥 3 1 + 𝑥2
n=4
z = 𝑦 −3
dz = −3𝑦 −4 dy
1
𝑦 −4 dy = − dz
3
2 𝑥 2 𝑥
𝑦 −4 dy + ( 2
) y − 3 dx = ( ) dx
3 1+ 𝑥 3 1 + 𝑥2
1 2 𝑥 2 𝑥
− dz + ( 2
) z dx = ( )
3 3 1+ 𝑥 3 1 + 𝑥2
𝑥 𝑥
dz − 2 ( 2
) z dx = − 2 ( ) dx
1+ 𝑥 1 + 𝑥2
𝑥
−2 ∫ 𝑑𝑥
μ (x) = 𝑒 1+ 𝑥2 = e − ln ( 𝑥 2 + 1) = − ( 𝑥 2 + 1)
𝑥
∫ 𝑑[𝑧(𝑥 2 + 1)] = − 2 ∫ ( ) (𝑥 2 + 1) dx
1 + 𝑥2
z (𝑥 2 + 1) = 𝑥 2 + C
𝒚−𝟑 (𝒙𝟐 + 𝟏) = 𝒙𝟐 + 𝐂

32
𝑑𝑦 1
7. 𝑥 2 − 2xy = 3𝑦 4 ; y(1) =
𝑑𝑥 2
𝑥 2 dy – (2xy) dx = 3𝑦 4 dx
2𝑥 3
dy − ( 2 ) y dx = ( 2 ) 𝑦 4 dx
𝑥 𝑥
n=4
z = 𝑦 −3
dz = −3𝑦 −4 dy
1
𝑦 −4 dy = − dz
3
2𝑥 3
𝑦 −4 dy − ( 2 ) y − 3 dx = ( 2 ) dx
𝑥 𝑥
1 2𝑥 3
− dz − ( 2 ) z dx = ( 2 ) dx
3 𝑥 𝑥
6𝑥 9
dz + ( 2 ) z dx = − ( 2 ) dx
𝑥 𝑥
1
μ (x) = 𝑒6 ∫𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 6 ln (x) = 𝑥 6
9
∫ 𝑑(𝑧𝑥 6 ) = ∫ ( 2 ) (𝑥 6 ) dx
𝑥
9
z𝑥 6 = 𝑥 5 + C
5
𝟗
𝒚−𝟑 𝒙𝟔 = 𝒙𝟓 + 𝐂
𝟓
1−3 9 −1
( ) = (1 ) + C (1−6 )
2 5
𝟑𝟏
C= 𝟓

1 𝑑𝑦 3
8. 𝑦 2 + 𝑦2 = 1 ; y(0) = 4
𝑑𝑥
1 3
𝑦 2 dy + 𝑦 2 dx = dx
1
dy + y dx = 𝑦 −2 dx
1
n=−
2
3

z= 𝑦 2
3 1
dz = 𝑦 2 dy
2

1 2
𝑦 2 dy = dz
3
1 3
𝑦 2 dy + 𝑦 2 dx = dx
2
dz + z dx = dx
3
3 3
dz + z dx = dx
2 2

33
3 3
∫ 𝑑𝑥
μ (x) = 𝑒 2 = 𝑒 2𝑥
∫ 𝑑[𝑧(𝑒 3/2 )] = ∫ 𝑒 3/2 dx
3 3
z (𝑒 2𝑥 ) = 𝑒 2𝑥 + C
𝟑 𝟑 𝟑
𝒚 𝟐 𝒆𝟐 = 𝒆𝟐 𝒙 + 𝐂
3 3
(42 ) 𝑒 2 (0) = 1 + C
C= 7

𝑑𝑦 𝑦 𝑥
9. 2 = − 2 ; y (1) = 1
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑦
𝑦
2 dy − dx = 𝑦 −2 x dx
𝑥
𝑦 𝑦 −2
dy − dx = x dx
2𝑥 2
n=2
z = 𝑦 −1
dz = −𝑦 −2 dy
𝑦 −2 dy = − dz
1 3 1
𝑦 2 dy − 𝑦 dx = − x dx
2𝑥 2
1 1 𝑥
dz − z dx = − dx
3 2𝑥 2
3 3𝑥
dz − z dx = − dx
2𝑥 2
3 3 3
∫− 𝑑𝑥
μ (x) = 𝑒 2𝑥 = 𝑒 2 ln (x) = 𝑥 −2
3
3𝑥
∫ 𝑑(−𝑧𝑥 3/2 ) = - ∫ (𝑥 −2 )𝑑𝑥
2
3 1

z𝑥 2 = −3𝑥 2 + C
𝟑 𝟏

𝒚𝟑 𝒙 𝟐 = −𝟑𝒙𝟐 + 𝐂
3 1

(13 )(𝑥 2) = −3(12 ) + C
C= 4

34
7.- ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES DE SEGUNDO ORDEN HOMOGÉNEAS
- Resolver las siguientes ecuaciones de segundo orden homogéneas:
1. (𝐷3 − 𝐷2 − 10𝐷)𝑦 = 0
𝑟 3 − 𝑟 2 − 10𝑟 = 0
𝑟1 = 5, 𝑟2 = −2, 𝑟3 = 0

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟓𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑

2. (𝐷2 + 2𝐷 − 3)𝑦 = 0
𝑟 2 + 2𝑟 − 3 = 0
𝑟1 = 1, 𝑟2 = −3

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟑𝒙

3. (𝐷2 + 𝐷 − 6)𝑦 = 0
𝑟2 + 𝑟 − 6 = 0
𝑟1 = 2, 𝑟2 = −3

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟑𝒙

4. (𝐷2 − 5𝐷 + 6)𝑦 = 0
𝑟 2 − 5𝑟 + 6 = 0
𝑟1 = 3, 𝑟2 = 2

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝟐𝒙

5. (𝐷3 + 3𝐷2 − 4𝐷)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 + 3𝑟 2 − 4𝑟 = 0
𝑟1 = 1, 𝑟2 = −4, 𝑟3 = 0

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟒𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑

6. (𝐷3 − 3𝐷2 − 10𝐷)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 − 3𝑟 2 − 10𝑟 = 0
𝑟1 = 5, 𝑟2 = −2, 𝑟3 = 0

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟓𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑
35
7. (𝐷3 + 6𝐷2 + 11𝐷 + 6)𝑦 = 0
𝑟 3 + 6𝑟 2 + 11𝑟 + 6 = 0
𝑟1 = −3, 𝑟2 = −1, 𝑟3 = −2

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆−𝟐𝒙

8. (𝐷3 + 3𝐷2 − 4𝐷 − 12)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 + 3𝑟 2 − 4𝑟 − 12 = 0
𝑟1 = 2, 𝑟2 = −2, 𝑟3 = −3

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆−𝟑𝒙

9. (4𝐷3 − 7𝐷 + 3)𝑦 = 0
4𝑟 3 − 7𝑟 + 3 = 0
3 1
𝑟1 = − 2 , 𝑟2 = 1, 𝑟3 = 2

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝟑/𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆𝟏/𝟐𝒙

10. (4𝐷3 − 7𝐷 + 3)𝑦 = 0


4𝑟 3 − 7𝑟 + 3 = 0
1 3
𝑟1 = 2, 𝑟2 = − 2 , 𝑟3 = − 2

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟏/𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆−𝟑/𝟐𝒙

11. (𝐷3 + 𝐷2 − 2𝐷)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 + 𝑟 2 − 2𝑟 = 0
𝑟1 = 1, 𝑟2 = −2, 𝑟3 = 0

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑

12. (𝐷3 − 19𝐷 + 30)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 − 19𝑟 + 30 = 0
𝑟1 = −5, 𝑟2 = 3, 𝑟3 = 2

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝟓𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆𝟐𝒙

36
13. (9𝐷3 − 7𝐷 + 2)𝑦 = 0
9𝑟 3 − 7𝑟 + 2 = 0
2 1
𝑟1 = −1, 𝑟2 = 3 , 𝑟3 = 3

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝟐/𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆𝟏/𝟑𝒙

14. (4𝐷3 − 21𝐷 + 10)𝑦 = 0


4𝑟 3 − 21𝑟 + 10 = 0
5 1
𝑟1 = 2 , 𝑟2 = − 2 , 𝑟3 = −2

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟓/𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟏/𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆−𝟐𝒙

15. (𝐷3 − 14𝐷 + 8)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 − 14𝑟 + 8 = 0
𝑟1 = −4, 𝑟2 = 3.41, 𝑟3 = 0.58

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝟒𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝟑.𝟒𝟏𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆𝟎.𝟓𝟖𝒙

16. (𝐷3 − 𝐷2 − 4𝐷 − 2)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 − 𝑟 2 − 4𝑟 − 2 = 0
𝑟1 = 2.73, 𝑟2 = −0.73, 𝑟3 = −1

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟐.𝟕𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟎.𝟕𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆−𝒙

17. (4𝐷4 − 16𝐷3 − 7𝐷2 + 11𝐷 + 6)𝑦 = 0


4𝑟 4 − 16𝑟 3 − 7𝑟 2 + 11𝑟 + 6 = 0
𝑟1 = −2.57, 𝑟2 = −0.326, 𝑟3 = 0.8, 𝑟4 = 2

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝟐.𝟓𝟕𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟎.𝟑𝟐𝟔𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆−𝟎.𝟖𝒙 + 𝑪𝟒 𝒆𝟐𝒙

18. (4𝐷4 + 4𝐷3 − 13𝐷2 − 7𝐷 + 6)𝑦 = 0


4𝑟 4 + 4𝑟 3 − 13𝑟 2 − 7𝑟 + 6 = 0
1 3
𝑟1 = −2, 𝑟2 = −1, 𝑟3 = 2 , 𝑟4 = 2

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆𝟏/𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟒 𝒆𝟑/𝟐𝒙

37
19. (4𝐷5 − 8𝐷4 − 17𝐷3 + 12𝐷2 + 9𝐷)𝑦 = 0
4𝑟 5 − 8𝑟 4 − 17𝑟 3 + 12𝑟 2 + 9𝑟 = 0
𝑟1 = −1.73, 𝑟2 = −0.16 − 0.634𝑖, 𝑟3 = −0.16 + 0.634𝑖, 𝑟4 = 1, 𝑟5 = 3.05

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝟏.𝟕𝟑𝒙 + 𝒆−𝟎.𝟏𝟔𝒙 [𝑨 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝟎. 𝟔𝟑𝟒𝒙) + 𝑩 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝟎. 𝟔𝟑𝟒𝒙)] + 𝑪𝟒 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟓 𝒆𝟑.𝟎𝟓𝒙

20. (𝐷4 + 2𝐷3 + 𝐷2 )𝑦 = 0


𝑟 4 + 2𝑟 3 + 𝑟 2 = 0
𝑟1 = −1, 𝑟2 = −1, 𝑟3 = 0, 𝑟4 = 0

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝒙𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 + 𝒙𝑪𝟒

21. (𝐷4 − 2𝐷3 − 7𝐷2 + 20𝐷 − 12)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 4 − 2𝑟 3 − 7𝑟 2 + 20𝑟 − 12 = 0
𝑟1 = 2, 𝑟2 = 2, 𝑟3 = 1, 𝑟4 = −3

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟐𝒙 + 𝒙𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟒 𝒆−𝟑𝒙

22. (4𝐷3 + 4𝐷2 + 𝐷)𝑦 = 0


4𝑟 3 + 4𝑟 2 + 𝑟 = 0
𝑟1 = −0.2367, 𝑟2 = 0, 𝑟3 = −0.2367

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝟎.𝟐𝟑𝟔𝟕𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 + 𝒙𝑪𝟑 𝒆−𝟎.𝟐𝟑𝟔𝟕𝒙

23. (𝐷3 − 5𝐷2 + 7𝐷 − 3)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 − 5𝑟 2 + 7𝑟 − 3 = 0
𝑟1 = 3, 𝑟2 = 1, 𝑟3 = 3

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝒙 + 𝒙𝑪𝟑 𝒆𝟑𝒙

24. (𝐷3 − 3𝐷2 + 9𝐷 + 13)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 − 3𝑟 2 + 9𝑟 + 13 = 0
𝑟1 = −1, 𝑟2 = 2 + 3𝑖, 𝑟3 = 2 − 3𝑖

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝒆𝒙 [𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝟑𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝟑𝒙)]

25. (𝐷3 − 3𝐷2 − 5𝐷 − 5)𝑦 = 0

38
𝑟 3 − 3𝑟 2 − 5𝑟 − 5 = 0
𝑟1 = 4.396, 𝑟2 = −0.693 + 0.806 𝑖, 𝑟3 = −0.693 − 0.806 𝑖

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟒.𝟑𝟗𝟔 + 𝒆−𝟎.𝟔𝟗𝟑𝒙 [𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝟎. 𝟖𝟎𝟔𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝟎. 𝟖𝟎𝟔𝒙)]

26. (𝐷2 − 6𝐷 + 9)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 2 − 6𝐷 + 9 = 0
𝑟1 = 3, 𝑟2 = 3

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝒙𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝟑𝒙

27. (𝐷2 − 5𝐷 + 6)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 2 − 5𝐷 + 6 = 0
𝑟1 = 3, 𝑟2 = 2

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝟐𝒙

28. (2𝐷3 − 5𝐷2 − 𝐷 + 6)𝑦 = 0


2𝑟 3 − 5𝑟 2 − 𝑟 + 6 = 0
3
𝑟1 = −1, 𝑟2 = 2, 𝑟3 =
2

𝟑
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆𝟐𝒙

29. (𝐷3 − 3𝐷2 − 𝐷 + 3)𝑦 = 0


𝑟 3 − 3𝑟 2 − 𝑟 + 3 = 0
𝑟1 = −1, 𝑟2 = 3, 𝑟3 = 1

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟑 𝒆𝒙

30. (12𝐷3 − 5𝐷 − 2)𝑦 = 0


12𝑟 3 − 5𝑟 − 2 = 0
𝑟1 = 0.79, 𝑟2 = −0.4 + 0.23 𝑖, 𝑟3 = −0.4 + 0.23 𝑖

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟎.𝟕𝟗𝒙 + 𝒆−𝟎.𝟒𝒙 [𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝟎. 𝟐𝟑𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝟎. 𝟐𝟑𝒙)]

31. (𝐷5 − 1)𝑦 = 0

39
𝑟5 − 1 = 0
𝑟1 = 1, 𝑟2 = −0.809 − 0.588 𝑖, 𝑟3 = −0.809 + 0.588 𝑖, 𝑟4 = −0.309 − 0.951 𝑖, 𝑟5 = −0.309 +
0.951 𝑖

𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒙 + 𝒆−𝟖𝟎𝟗𝒙 [𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝟎. 𝟓𝟖𝟖𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝟎. 𝟓𝟖𝟖𝒙)] + 𝒆−𝟎.𝟑𝟎𝟗𝒙 [𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝟎. 𝟗𝟓𝟏𝒙)
+ 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝟎. 𝟗𝟓𝟏𝒙)]

40
8.- ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES DE SEGUNDO ORDEN POR VARIACIÓN DE
PARÁMETROS
- Resolver las siguientes ecuaciones de segundo grado por variación de parámetros:
1. 𝑦" + 𝑦 = sec(𝑥)
(𝐷2 + 1)𝑦 = sec(𝑥)

𝑚2 + 𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 𝑖, 𝑟2 = − 𝑖
𝑦𝐻 = [𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝑥) + 𝐵 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)]
cos 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥
W=[ ]=1
−𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥 cos 𝑥
−𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)[sec(𝑥)]
𝑢′1 = = −tan(x)
1
𝑢1 = ∫ −tan(x) 𝑑𝑥 = ln(cos 𝑥)
𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑥)[sec(𝑥)]
𝑢′2 = =1
1
𝑢2 = ∫ dx = 𝑥
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝒙) + 𝐥𝐧(𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒙) [𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙] + 𝒙(𝒔𝒆𝒏 𝒙)

2. 𝑦" + 𝑦 = tan(𝑥)
(𝐷2 + 1)𝑦 = tan(𝑥)

𝑚2 + 𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 𝑖, 𝑟2 = − 𝑖
𝑦𝐻 = [𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝑥) + 𝐵 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)]
cos 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥
W=[ ]=1
−𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥 cos 𝑥
−𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)[tan(𝑥)]
𝑢′1 = = cos(x) − sec(x)
1
𝑢1 = ∫ cos(x) − sec(x) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) − ln(sec 𝑥 + tan 𝑥)
𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑥)[tan(𝑥)]
𝑢′2 = = sen(x)
1
𝑢2 = ∫ sen(x) dx = − cos(𝑥)
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝒙) + [𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝒙) − 𝐥𝐧(𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝒙 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝒙)][𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙] + [− 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝒙)][𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝒙)]

3. 𝑦" + 𝑦 = sen(𝑥)
(𝐷2 + 1)𝑦 = sen(𝑥)
41
𝑚2 + 𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 𝑖, 𝑟2 = − 𝑖
𝑦𝐻 = [𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝑥) + 𝐵 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)]
cos 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥
W=[ ]=1
−𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥 cos 𝑥
−𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)[sen(𝑥)]
𝑢′1 = = − 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 (x)
1
1 1
𝑢1 = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 (x) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛(2𝑥) − 𝑥
4 4
𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑥)[sen(𝑥)]
𝑢′2 = = cos(x) sen(x)
1
1
𝑢2 = ∫ cos(x) sen(x) dx = − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (𝑥)
2
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝒙) + [ 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝟐𝒙) − 𝒙] [𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙] + [− 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 (𝒙)] [𝒔𝒆𝒏 𝒙]
𝟒 𝟒 𝟐

4. 𝑦" + 𝑦 = sec(𝑥) tan(𝑥)


(𝐷2 + 1)𝑦 = sen(𝑥)

𝑚2 + 𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 𝑖, 𝑟2 = − 𝑖
𝑦𝐻 = [𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝑥) + 𝐵 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)]
cos 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥
W=[ ]=1
−𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥 cos 𝑥
−𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)[sec(𝑥) tan(𝑥)]
𝑢′1 = = 1 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 (x)
1
𝑢1 = ∫ 1 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 (x) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛(𝑥)
𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑥)[sec(𝑥) tan(𝑥)]
𝑢′2 = = tan(x)
1
𝑢2 = ∫ tan(x) dx = −ln(cos 𝑥)
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝒙) + [𝒙(𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝒙) 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒙] + [−𝐥𝐧(𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙)][𝒔𝒆𝒏 𝒙]

5. 𝑦" + 𝑦 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (x)


(𝐷2 + 1)𝑦 = sen(𝑥)

𝑚2 + 𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 𝑖, 𝑟2 = − 𝑖
𝑦𝐻 = [𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝑥) + 𝐵 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)]
cos 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥
W=[ ]=1
−𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥 cos 𝑥
42
−𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)[𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (x)]
𝑢′1 = = −𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)[𝑐𝑜𝑠 2(x)]
1
1
𝑢1 = ∫ −𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)[𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (x)] 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (x)
3
𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑥)[𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (x)]
𝑢′2 = = cos(x)[1 − 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 (x)]
1
1
𝑢2 = ∫ cos(x)[1 − 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 (x)] 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛3 (x)
3
𝟏 𝟏
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝒙) + [ 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 (𝐱)] [𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒙] + [ 𝒔𝒆𝒏𝟑 (𝐱)] [𝒔𝒆𝒏 𝒙]
𝟑 𝟑

6. 𝑦" + 𝑦 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 (x)


(𝐷2 + 1)𝑦 = sec(𝑥)

𝑚2 + 𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 𝑖, 𝑟2 = − 𝑖
𝑦𝐻 = [𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝑥) + 𝐵 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)]
cos 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥
W=[ ]=1
−𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥 cos 𝑥
−𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)[𝑠𝑒𝑐 2(x)] 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)
𝑢′1 = =−
1 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (x)
𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) 1
𝑢1 = ∫ 2
𝑑𝑥 = −
𝑐𝑜𝑠 (x) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 (x)
2 (x)]
𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑥)[𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑢′2 = = sec x
1
𝑢2 = ∫ sec x 𝑑𝑥 = ln(sec 𝑥 tan 𝑥)
𝟏
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝒙) + [− ] [𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒙] + [𝐥𝐧(𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝒙 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝒙)][𝒔𝒆𝒏 𝒙]
𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 (𝐱)

7. 𝑦" − 𝑦 = cosh(x)
(𝐷2 − 1)𝑦 = cosh(𝑥)

𝑚2 − 𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 1, 𝑟2 = − 1
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑥
𝑒𝑥 𝑒 −𝑥
W=[ ] = −2
𝑒𝑥 −𝑒 −𝑥
1
−𝑒 −𝑥 [2 𝑒 −𝑥 +𝑒 𝑥 ]
1 −2𝑥 1
𝑢′1 = 𝑒 + =
−2 4 4
1 −2𝑥 1 1 2𝑥 1
𝑢1 = ∫ ( 𝑒 + ) 𝑑𝑥 = − 𝑒 + 𝑥
4 4 8 4
43
1
𝑒 𝑥 [2 𝑒 −𝑥 +𝑒 𝑥 ]
1 1
𝑢′2 = = 𝑒 2𝑥 −
1 4 4
1 2𝑥 1 1 2𝑥 1
𝑢2 = ∫ ( 𝑒 − ) 𝑑𝑥 = − 𝑒 − 𝑥
4 4 8 4
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝒙 + [− 𝒆𝟐𝒙 + 𝒙] [𝒆𝒙 ] + [− 𝒆𝟐𝒙 − 𝒙] [𝒆−𝒙 ]
𝟖 𝟒 𝟖 𝟒

8. 𝑦" − 𝑦 = senh(2x)
(𝐷2 − 1)𝑦 = senh(2𝑥)

𝑚2 − 𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 1, 𝑟2 = − 1
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑥
𝑒𝑥 𝑒 −𝑥
W=[ ] = −2
𝑒𝑥 −𝑒 −𝑥
1
−𝑒 −𝑥 [2 𝑒 −𝑥 +𝑒 𝑥 ] 1 1
𝑢′1 = = − 𝑒 −3𝑥 + 𝑒 𝑥
−2 4 4
1 −3𝑥 1 𝑥 1 −3𝑥 1 𝑥
𝑢1 = ∫ (− 𝑒 + 𝑒 ) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 + 𝑒
4 4 12 4
1
𝑒 𝑥 [2 𝑒 −𝑥 +𝑒 𝑥 ] 1 1
𝑢′2 = = 𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑒 3𝑥
1 4 4
1 2𝑥 1 1 −3𝑥 1 −𝑥
𝑢2 = ∫ ( 𝑒 − ) 𝑑𝑥 = − 𝑒 − 𝑒
4 4 12 4
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 −𝟑𝒙 𝟏 −𝒙 −𝒙
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝒙 + [ 𝒆−𝟑𝒙 + 𝒆𝒙 ] [𝒆𝒙 ] + [− 𝒆 − 𝒆 ] [𝒆 ]
𝟏𝟐 𝟒 𝟏𝟐 𝟒

𝑒 2𝑥
9. 𝑦" − 4𝑦 =
𝑥
𝑒 2𝑥
(𝐷2 − 4)𝑦 =
𝑥

𝑚2 − 4𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 2, 𝑟2 = − 2
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 2𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −2𝑥
2𝑥
W = [ 𝑒 2𝑥 𝑒 −2𝑥 ] = −4
2𝑒 −2𝑒 −2𝑥
𝑒 2𝑥
−𝑒 2𝑥 [ 𝑥 ] 1
𝑢′1 = =
−4 4𝑥
44
1 1
𝑢1 = ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑥 = ln(𝑥)
4𝑥 4
2𝑥
−2𝑥 𝑒
𝑒 [ 𝑥 ] 𝑒 4𝑥
𝑢′2 = =−
−4 𝑥
𝑒 4𝑥 1 𝑒 4𝑥
𝑢2 = ∫ (− ) 𝑑𝑥 = − ∫ (− ) 𝑑𝑥
𝑥 4 𝑥
𝟏 𝟏 𝒆𝟒𝒙
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟐𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟐𝒙 + [ 𝐥𝐧(𝒙)] [𝒆𝟐𝒙 ] + [− ∫ (− ) 𝒅𝒙] [𝒆−𝟐𝒙 ]
𝟒 𝟒 𝒙
9𝑥
10. 𝑦" − 9𝑦 =
𝑒 2𝑥
9𝑥
(𝐷2 − 9)𝑦 =
𝑒 2𝑥

𝑚2 − 9𝑚 = 0
𝑟1 = 3, 𝑟2 = − 3
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −3𝑥
3𝑥
W = [ 𝑒 3𝑥 𝑒 −3𝑥 ] = −6
3𝑒 −3𝑒 −3𝑥
9𝑥
−𝑒 3𝑥 [2𝑥 ] 3
𝑢′1 = 𝑒 = 𝑥𝑒 −6𝑥
−6 2
3 −6𝑥 1 1
𝑢1 = ∫ ( 𝑥𝑒 ) 𝑑𝑥 = − 𝑒 −6𝑥 − 𝑥𝑒 −6𝑥
2 24 4
3𝑥 9𝑥
𝑒 [ 2𝑥 ] 3
𝑢′2 = 𝑒 =− 𝑥
−6 2
3 3
𝑢2 = ∫ (− 𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = − 𝑥 2
2 4
𝟏 −𝟔𝒙 𝟏 −𝟔𝒙 𝟑𝒙 𝟑
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟑𝒙 + [− 𝒆 − 𝒙𝒆 ] [𝒆 ] + [− 𝒙𝟐 ] [𝒆−𝟑𝒙 ]
𝟐𝟒 𝟒 𝟒
1
11. 𝑦" + 3𝑦′ + 2𝑦 =
1 + 𝑒𝑥
1
(𝐷2 + 3𝐷 + 2)𝑦 =
1 + 𝑒𝑥

𝑚2 + 3m + 2 = 0
𝑟1 = −1, 𝑟2 = − 2
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −2𝑥
−𝑥
W = [ 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑒 −2𝑥 ] = −𝑒 −3𝑥
−𝑒 −2𝑒 −2𝑥
1
−𝑒 −2𝑥 [1 + 𝑒 𝑥 ] 𝑒𝑥
𝑢′1 = =
−𝑒 −3𝑥 1 + 𝑒𝑥
45
𝑒𝑥
𝑢1 = ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑥 = ln(1 + 𝑒 𝑥 )
1 + 𝑒𝑥
1
𝑒 −𝑥 [1 + 𝑒 𝑥 ] 𝑒𝑥
𝑢′2 = = − − 𝑒𝑥
−𝑒 −3𝑥 1 + 𝑒𝑥
𝑒𝑥
𝑢2 = ∫ (− − 𝑒 𝑥 ) 𝑑𝑥 = ln(1 + 𝑒 𝑥 ) − 𝑒 𝑥
1 + 𝑒𝑥
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟐𝒙 + [𝐥𝐧(𝟏 + 𝒆𝒙 )][𝒆−𝒙 ] + [𝐥𝐧(𝟏 + 𝒆𝒙 ) − 𝒆𝒙 ][𝒆−𝟐𝒙 ]

𝑒𝑥
12. 𝑦" − 2𝑦′ + 𝑦 =
1 + 𝑥2
𝑒𝑥
(𝐷2 − 2𝐷 + 1)𝑦 =
1 + 𝑥2

𝑚2 − 2m + 1 = 0
𝑟1 = 1, 𝑟2 = 1
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑥𝑒 𝑥
𝑒𝑥 𝑥𝑒 𝑥
W=[ ] = 𝑒 2𝑥
𝑒𝑥 𝑥𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑒 𝑥
𝑒𝑥
−𝑥𝑒 𝑥 [ ] 𝑥
1 + 𝑥2
𝑢′1 = =−
𝑒 2𝑥 1 + 𝑥2
𝑥 1
𝑢1 = ∫ (− ) 𝑑𝑥 = − ln(1 + 𝑥 2 )
1 + 𝑥2 2
𝑒𝑥
𝑒𝑥 [ ] 1
1 + 𝑥2
𝑢′2 = 2𝑥
=
𝑒 1 + 𝑥2
1
𝑢2 = ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 𝑥
1 + 𝑥2
𝟏
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒙𝒆𝒙 + [− 𝐥𝐧(𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 )] [𝒆𝒙 ] + [𝒕𝒂𝒏−𝟏 𝒙][𝒙𝒆𝒙 ]
𝟐
13. 𝑦" + 3𝑦′ + 2𝑦 = sen 𝑒 𝑥
(𝐷2 + 3𝐷 + 2)𝑦 = sen 𝑒 𝑥

𝑚2 + 3m + 2 = 0
𝑟1 = −1, 𝑟2 = −2
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −2𝑥
−𝑥
W = [ 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑒 −2𝑥 ] = −𝑒 −3𝑥
−𝑒 −2𝑒 −2𝑥
−𝑒 −2𝑥 [sen 𝑒 𝑥 ]
𝑢′1 = = 𝑒 𝑥 [sen 𝑒 𝑥 ]
−𝑒 −3𝑥
𝑢1 = ∫ 𝑒 𝑥 [sen 𝑒 𝑥 ] 𝑑𝑥 = −cos 𝑒 𝑥

46
−𝑒 −2𝑥 [sen 𝑒 𝑥 ]
𝑢′2 = = −𝑒 2𝑥 [sen 𝑒 𝑥 ]
−𝑒 −3𝑥
𝑢2 = ∫(−𝑒 2𝑥 [sen 𝑒 𝑥 ]) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑥 (cos 𝑒 𝑥 ) − sen 𝑒 𝑥
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟐𝒙 + [−𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒆𝒙 ][𝒆−𝒙 ] + [ 𝒆𝒙 (𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒆𝒙 ) − 𝐬𝐞𝐧 𝒆𝒙 ][𝒆−𝟐𝒙 ]

14. 𝑦" − 2𝑦′ + 2𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑎𝑟𝑐 tan 𝑥)


(𝐷2 − 2𝐷 + 2)𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑎𝑟𝑐 tan 𝑥)

𝑚2 − 2m + 2 = 0
𝑟1 = 1, 𝑟2 = 1
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑥𝑒 𝑥
𝑒𝑥 𝑥𝑒 𝑥
W=[ ] = 𝑒 2𝑥
𝑒𝑥 𝑥𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑒 𝑥
−𝑥𝑒 𝑥 [ 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑎𝑟𝑐 tan 𝑥)]
𝑢′1 = = −𝑥(𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 𝑥)
𝑒 2𝑥
1 + 𝑥2 𝑥
𝑢1 = ∫(−𝑥(𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 𝑥 +
2 2
𝑒 𝑥 [ 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑎𝑟𝑐 tan 𝑥)]
𝑢′2 = 2𝑥
= 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 𝑥
𝑒
1
𝑢2 = ∫(𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥(𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ) − ln(1 + 𝑒 2 )
−1
2
𝟐
𝟏+𝒙 𝒙 𝟏
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒙𝒆𝒙 + [− 𝒕𝒂𝒏−𝟏 𝒙 + ] [𝒆𝒙 ] + [𝒙(𝒕𝒂𝒏−𝟏 ) − 𝐥𝐧(𝟏 + 𝒆𝟐 )] [𝒙𝒆𝒙 ]
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐

15. 𝑦" + 2𝑦′ + 𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 𝑙𝑛(𝑥)


(𝐷2 + 2𝐷 + 1)𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 𝑙𝑛(𝑥)

𝑚2 + 2m + 1 = 0
𝑟1 = −1, 𝑟2 = −1
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥
𝑒 −𝑥 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥
W=[ ] = 𝑒 −2𝑥
−𝑒 −𝑥 −𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑒 −𝑥
−𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 [ 𝑒 𝑥 𝑙𝑛(𝑥)]
𝑢′1 = = 𝑥 ln(𝑥)
𝑒 −2𝑥
𝑥2 1
𝑢1 = ∫(𝑥 ln(𝑥)) 𝑑𝑥 = − [ln(𝑥) − ]
2 2
𝑒 −𝑥 [ 𝑒 𝑥 𝑙𝑛(𝑥)]
𝑢′2 = = ln(𝑥)
𝑒 −2𝑥
𝑢2 = ∫(ln 𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥[(ln 𝑥) − 1]
47
𝒙𝟐 𝟏
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆−𝒙 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒙𝒆−𝒙 + [− (𝐥𝐧(𝒙) − )] [𝒆−𝒙 ] + [𝒙(𝐥𝐧 𝒙 − 𝟏)][𝒙𝒆−𝒙 ]
𝟐 𝟐

16. 3𝑦" − 6𝑦′ + 6𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑥)


(3𝐷2 − 6𝐷 + 6)𝑦 = 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑎𝑟𝑐 tan 𝑥)

3𝑚2 − 6m + 6 = 0
𝑟1 = 1 + i, 𝑟2 = 1 − i
𝑦𝐻 = 𝑒 𝑥 [𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝑥) + 𝐵 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥)]
𝑒 𝑥 cos 𝑥 𝑒 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥
W=[ ] = 𝑒 2𝑥
𝑒 cos 𝑥 − 𝑒 𝑥 sen 𝑥
𝑥
𝑒 cos 𝑥 + 𝑒 𝑥 sen 𝑥
𝑥

−𝑒 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥[ 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑥)] 1


𝑢′1 = = − tan 𝑥
𝑒 2𝑥 3
1 1
𝑢1 = ∫ (− tan 𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = ln(cos 𝑥)
3 3
𝑒 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥[ 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑥)] 1
𝑢′2 = =
𝑒 2𝑥 3
1 1
𝑢2 = ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥
3 3
𝟏 𝟏
𝒚𝑯 = 𝒆𝒙 [𝑨 𝒄𝒐𝒔 (𝒙) + 𝑩 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝒙)] + [ 𝐥𝐧(𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙)] [𝒆𝒙 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙] + [ 𝒙] [𝒆𝒙 𝒔𝒆𝒏 𝒙]
𝟑 𝟑

𝑥
17. 4 𝑦" − 4𝑦′ + 𝑦 = 𝑒 2 √1 − 𝑥 2
1 1 𝑥
(𝐷2 − 𝐷 + )𝑦 = 𝑒 2 √1 − 𝑥 2
4 4
1
𝑚2 − m + =0
4
1 1
𝑟1 = 2 , 𝑟2 = 2
1 1
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 2 + 𝐶2 𝑥𝑒 2
𝑥 𝑥
𝑒2 𝑥𝑒 2
W = [1 𝑥 1 𝑥 𝑥] = 𝑒𝑥
𝑒2 𝑥𝑒 + 𝑒 2
2
2 2
𝑥 1 𝑥
−𝑥𝑒 2 [4 𝑒 2 √1 − 𝑥 2 ]
1
𝑢′1 = = − 𝑥√1 − 𝑥 2
𝑒𝑥 4
1 1 1
𝑢1 = ∫ (− 𝑥√1 − 𝑥 2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = (1 − 𝑥 2 )2
4 12

48
𝑥 1 𝑥
𝑒 2 [4 𝑒 2 √1 − 𝑥 2 ]
1
𝑢′2 = = √1 − 𝑥 2
𝑒𝑥 4
1 1 𝑥 1
𝑢2 = ∫ ( √1 − 𝑥 2 ) 𝑑𝑥 = [ √1 − 𝑥 2 + (arc sen 𝑥)]
4 4 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 𝑥 1 𝒙
𝒚𝑯 = 𝐶1 𝑒 2 + 𝐶2 𝑥𝑒 2 + [ (1 − 𝑥 2 )2 ] [𝑒 2 ] + [ ( √1 − 𝑥 2 + arc sen 𝑥)] [𝒙𝒆𝟐 ]
12 4 2 2

18. 2𝑦" + 𝑦′ − 𝑦 = 𝑥 + 1
(2𝐷2 + 𝐷 − 1)𝑦 = x + 1

2𝑚2 + m − 1 = 0
x
𝑟1 = 2 , 𝑟2 = −1
𝑥
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 2 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑥
𝑥
𝑒2 𝑒 −𝑥 3 𝑥
W = [1 𝑥 ] = − 𝑒 −2
𝑒2 −𝑒 −𝑥 2
2
−𝑒 −𝑥 [(𝑥 + 1)] 1 −𝑥
𝑢′1 = = 𝑒 2 (𝑥 + 1)
3 𝑥 3
− 2 𝑒 −2
1 𝑥 𝑥 2
𝑢1 = ∫ [ 𝑒 −2 (𝑥 + 1)] 𝑑𝑥 = −𝑒 −2 ( 𝑥 − 2)
3 3
𝑥
𝑒 2 [(𝑥 + 1)] 1
𝑢′2 = 𝑥 = − 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑥 + 1)
3 3
− 2 𝑒 −2
1 1
𝑢2 = ∫ [− 𝑒 𝑥 (𝑥 + 1)] 𝑑𝑥 = (− 𝑥𝑒 𝑥 )
3 3
𝒙 𝒙 𝟐 𝒙 𝟏
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟐 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝒙 + [−𝒆−𝟐 ( 𝒙 − 𝟐)] [𝒆𝟐 ] + [− 𝒙𝒆𝒙 ] [𝒆−𝒙 ]
𝟑 𝟑

𝑥
19. 4𝑦" − 𝑦 = 𝑥𝑒 2
𝑥
(4𝐷2 − 1)𝑦 = 𝑥𝑒 2

4𝑚2 − m + 1 = 0
1 1
𝑟1 = 2 , 𝑟2 = − 2
1 1
𝑦𝐻 = 𝐶1 𝑒 2 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −2
𝑥 𝑥
𝑒2 𝑒 −2
W = [1 𝑥 1 𝑥 ] = −1
𝑒2 − 𝑒 −2
2 2

49
𝑥 𝑥
−𝑒 −2 [𝑥𝑒 2 )] 𝑥
𝑢′1 = =
−1 4
𝑥 𝑥2
𝑢1 = ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑥 =
4 8
𝑥 𝑥
𝑒 2 [𝑥𝑒 2 )] 𝑥𝑒 𝑥
𝑢′2 = =−
−1 𝑥 4
𝑥𝑒 𝑥𝑒 𝑥 𝑒 𝑥
𝑢2 = ∫ (− ) 𝑑𝑥 = − +
4 4 4
𝟐
𝟏 𝟏 𝒙 𝒙 𝒙𝒆𝒙 𝒆𝒙 −𝒙
𝒚𝑯 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒆𝟐 + 𝑪𝟐 𝒆−𝟐 + [ ] [𝒆𝟐 ] + [− + ] [𝒆 𝟐 ]
𝟖 𝟒 𝟒

50