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Most nouns ending in -o also form their plural by adding -es to the singular.

Mango (singular), mangoes (plural)

Hero, heroes
Potato, potatoes
Volcano, volcanoes

Nouns ending in consonant + “o” merely add -s.

Dynamo (singular), dynamos (plural)

Piano, pianos
Photo, photos
Logo, logos
Kilo, kilos

Nouns ending in a consonant + y form their plural by changing -y into -i and

adding -es.

Baby (singular), babies (plural)

Lady, ladies
City, cities
Story, stories

The following nouns ending in -f or -fe form their plural by changing -f or -fe into
v and adding -es.

Thief (singular), thieves (plural)

Wife, wives
Leaf, leaves
Half, halves
Self, selves
Calf, calves
Loaf, loaves
Knife, knives
Elf, elves
Wolf, wolves
Shelf, shelves

Most other nouns ending in -f or -fe add -s.

Chief (singular), chiefs

Gulf, gulfs
Safe, safes
Proof, proofs

A few nouns form their plural by making some changes to inside vowels.
Foot (singular), feet (plural)
Man, men
Woman, women
Tooth, teeth
Mouse, mice
Goose, geese

Plural Nouns: Rules and Examples


Most singular nouns are made plural by simply putting an -s at the end. There
are many different rules regarding pluralization depending on what letter a noun
ends in. Irregular nouns do not follow plural noun rules, so they must be
memorized or looked up in the dictionary.

Plural Noun Rules

There are many plural noun rules, and because we use nouns so frequently
when writing, it’s important to know all of them! The correct spelling of
plurals usually depends on what letter the singular noun ends in.

1 To make regular nouns plural, add -s to the end.

cat – cats

house – houses

Cow - cows (plural)

Boy - boys

Girl - girls

Book - books

Tree - trees

Dog - dogs

Pen - pens

2 If the singular noun ends in -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z, add -es to the end
to make it plural.

truss – trusses

bus – buses
marsh – marshes

lunch – lunches

tax – taxes

blitz – blitzes

3 In some cases, singular nouns ending in -s or -z, require that you double
the -s or -z prior to adding the -es for pluralization.

fez – fezzes

gas –gasses

4 If the noun ends with -f or -fe, the f is often changed to -ve before adding
the -s to form the plural version.

wife – wives

wolf – wolves


roof – roofs

belief – beliefs

chef – chefs

chief – chiefs

5 If a singular noun ends in -y and the letter before the -y is a consonant,

change the ending to -ies to make the noun plural.

city – cities

puppy – puppies

6 If the singular noun ends in -y and the letter before the -y is a vowel,
simply add an -s to make it plural.

ray – rays

boy – boys

7 If the singular noun ends in -o, add -es to make it plural.

potato – potatoes

tomato – tomatoes

photo – photos

piano – pianos

halo – halos

With the unique word volcano, you can apply the standard pluralization for
words that end in -o or not. It’s your choice! Both of the following are correct:



8 If the singular noun ends in -us, the plural ending is frequently -i.

cactus – cacti

focus – foci

9 If the singular noun ends in -is, the plural ending is -es.

analysis – analyses

ellipsis – ellipses

10 If the singular noun ends in -on, the plural ending is -a.

phenomenon – phenomena

criterion – criteria

11 Some nouns don’t change at all when they’re pluralized.

sheep – sheep

series – series

species – species

deer –deer

You need to see these nouns in context to identify them as singular or plural.
Consider the following sentence:

Mark caught one fish, but I caught three fish.

Plural Noun Rules for Irregular Nouns

Irregular nouns follow no specific rules, so it’s best to memorize these or look
up the proper pluralization in the dictionary.

child – children
goose – geese

man – men

woman – women

tooth – teeth

foot – feet

mouse – mice

person – people
1. These (person) are protesting against the president.
2. The (woman) over there want to meet the manager.
3. My (child) hate eating pasta.
4. I am ill. My (foot) hurt.
5. Muslims kill (sheep) in a religious celebration.
6. I clean my (tooth) three times a day.
7. The (student ) are doing the exercise right now.
8. The (fish) I bought is in the fridge.
9. They are sending some (man) to fix the roof.
10. Most (houswife) work more than ten hours a day at home.
11. Where did you put the (knife) ?
On the (shelf) .
12. (Goose) like water.
13. (Piano) are expensive
14. Some (policeman) came to arrest him.
15. Where is my (luggage) ?
In the car!