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_____________ ISSN 2278-3202

International Research Journal of Biological Sciences ___________________________
Vol. 6(11), 1-7, November (201
(2017) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.

Quantification of bioelements in seed and oil of black chia ((Salvia
Salvia hispanica L)
Alejandro Alonso-Calderón1*, JuanaDeisy Santamaría
Santamaría-Juárez1, Jorge R. Omaire-Vargas1, Esmeralda Vidal-Robles
Vidal 1
1 1 2
Jenaro LeocadioVarela
LeocadioVarela-Caselis , D. Cruz and Edith Chávez-Bravo
Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 72000, Puebla, Mexico
CICM del Instituto de Ciencias de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 7200
0, Puebla
Available online at:,
Received th August 2017, revised th September 2017, accepted th October 2017
The Aztec empire stood out from a nutritional point of view by having corn, beans, amaranth and chia, as main components
of their diet. Chia had also medical applications such as in infusions for gastrointestinal problems, and respiratory,
ophthalmology, obstetrics,
bstetrics, skin treatments among others. This research was conducted to determine the concentration of the
metals Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Ca, K and Na, using a Perkin Perkin-Elmer
Elmer Precisely, Model 400 AAanalyst spectrophotometer,
equipped with a flame atomization system. The results obtained for the chia seed were: nickel: 1.407 ppm, iron: 338.125
ppm, manganese: 6.937 ppm, zinc: 6.3 ppm, copper: 4.375, boron: 6.316 ppm, cadmium 0.0, calcium: 228 ppm, potassium:
24.743 ppm y sodium: 3.089 ppm. Calcium is essential for all organisms as it is a structural component of cell walls and
bones, for the metabolism of bone fixation it is needed synergy with nickel, boron, zinc, manganese and copper, Iron
deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world aand
nd Mexico is no exception causing anemia, being chia an
excellent source of these bioelements.

Keywords: Chia, Seed, Bioelements, Atomic absorption.

Introduction around 15-20:
20: 1, indicating a deficiency in omega-3
omega fatty acids.
This may contribute to the high prevalence of many diseases
The Aztec empire stood out from a nutritional point of view by such as heart disease, cancer etc., being a major problem in
having corn, beans, amaranth and chia, as main components of current nutrition5. In
n animal models lipid redistribution has been
their diet. The relevance of these crops is well grounded in the evaluated and it has been found that rats improved insulin
historical Florentino Codex. Chia was as important as Corn in sensitivity and glucose tolerance, reduced visceral adiposity,
Mexico, but was also popular in other areas, the Mendoza decreased hepatic steatosis and reduced cardiac and hepatic
Codex of thehe sixteenth century indicated that 21 of the 38 states inflammation and fibrosis without
thout changes in plasma lipids or in
under the rule of the Aztecs gave chia as an annual tribute to the blood pressure6.
Spanish. With the expansion of Spanish colonization,
cultivation of chia was shifted quickly by flaxseed in traditional This seed also contains a number of compounds with potent
farming systems ms limiting ethnobotanical studies. This seed antioxidant activity: myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and
quickly became popular in artistic fields after oil paintings were caffeic acid. These compounds are primarily antioxidants,
introduced, and it was widely used in the culinary field and synergists and contribute to strong antioxidant activity of chia7,8.
medicines, such as in infusions for gastrointestinal problems, They are also good sources of dietary fiber, protein and
and respiratory, ophthalmology,
hthalmology, obstetrics, skin treatments minerals9, in aqueous medium, is wrapped in a copious
among others. Chia was nearly reduced to extinction because it mucilaginous polysaccharide, which is excellent for digestion10.
was considered to be sacrilegious; chia was a main element of The consumption of dietary fiber improves
imp the formation of
religious ceremonies dedicated to the Aztec gods mainly to fecal bolus and safe disposal of feces, which helps to prevent
Chicomecóatl1. obesity, colon cancer and high levels of cholesterol and blood
glucose11. In black chia seed from San Mateo Coatepec
It has been determined
ermined that chia seeds contain oil quantities Atzitzihuacán, Puebla, México, it was found that it hash 1224.3
ranging between 32 and 39%2. This oil together with the linen, mg / l of β-Sitosterol12, phytosterol has the ability to lower
offer the highest naturally known percentage of α-linolenic acid cholesterol13 and has been used in treatment of benign prostatic
(Ώ 3). It has been reported3,4 that the ratio of this acid to linoleic hyperplasia14.
acid (Ώ 6) ranges from 3.18 to 4.18 depending on the extraction
method and the seed origin. At present, the fatty acid content Ώ Materials and methods
6 has increased considerably as a result of the consumption of
oils from grains rich in Ώ 6, causing the ratio of omega omega-6 to We worked with black seed chia (Salvia L from San
Salvia hispanica L)
omega-3 essential
ntial fatty acids in today's western diets to be Mateo Coatepec Atzitzihuacán Puebla, Mexico, and was

International Science Community Association 1

641 24.375 + Na 589 1.5 L / 25 ml of 98% HNO3.315 4. and as blank solution.300 2+ Ca 422.3 Table-2: Concentration of bioelements in chia’s oil and seed.125 2+ Zn 213.8/1.45 1. solution. Ni2+ 232 1.67 2. a 1 M stock solution of boron was prepared from ppm. which was extracted by a Soxhlet extractor using hexane as quantify each metal.320 6. J.7/1. Ni2+. November (2017) Int. Analytical data precision and Element λ nm Slit mm accuracy was ensured with repeated analysis of sample (n=3) Check ppm and the results were found to be within ±3%.966 g / ml. using a flow of acetylene of 2. ((COOH)2 2H2O. Meyer). in a CEM microwave calibration curve.0 Cu2+ 2.3 Mn2+ * 6.7/1. ethanol (CH3CH2OH.410 338. deionized water with a conductivity of 4 equipped with a flame atomization system. Mn2+. Measurements were made for seed and chia starting with a certified Perkin Elmer 1000 ppm pure standard to oil.35 2.1924 g of oil were transferred to Teflon containers adding done with a deuterium lamp. using a high using concentrated HNO3 to ensure that all metals are vacuum pump traces of hexane were removed to give a quantitatively in the oxidation state. 70%) Elmer Precisely. A mass of 2 g of seed solution and the correction of the background radiation was and 1.8 2.6 0.35 3.35 0. Res.718 3. spectrophotometer was previously calibrated based on the Perkin-Elmer. 2H2O). with cells of 1 cm optical path and λ Ca2+ 17. Cd2+. obtaining excellent correlation factors.7/0.8/1. Biological Sci. Reasol). Model 400 AAanalyst spectrophotometer.9% sigma aldrich®).8/0. 5 min at 400 Watts and 5 min at 500 Watts. Cu2+ 249.743 The determination of boron was conducted with the standard Na+ 2. conducted to determine the concentration of the metals Cu2+. In Table-1 the parameters used The calibration curves for the different bioelements are in atomic absorption for determination of each metal are shown. Zn2+.0 Ni2+ 2. nitric acid (HNO3.8 1. Prior to obtaining the Each sample was digested by wet process. USA calibration regulations.86 2. 6(11).0 Cd2+ * * *Recommended conditions for the Perkin-Elmer Precisely. acid (HCl.8/0.000 228.7/0.3 B * 6. with a heating cycle in 3 steps: 5 min at min and 10 L / min of air. The mS / cm at 25°C. at a constant temperature of 115°C.937 2+ Cd 228. The chemical reagents used were *The limit of detection of the flame atomization system is in reactive grade.5 Zn2+ 1. Table-1: Parameters used in atomic absorption. which is an indication of having a linear range. model Mars 5. using a Perkin. 98%.8 0. K+ 20. presented in Figure-1.316 K+ 766.0 Fe2+ 501. Each curve has 4 to 5 performance of 30% oil with a density of 0. according to the results obtained it was not detectable in dry boric acid (H3BO3. oxalic acid this system. using UV/Visible. The calibration Results and discussion curves were prepared for each metal (Figure-1) from standard certified Perkin Elmer solutions with 1000 ppm diluted in a 5% Nine calibration curves were performed on different days. equipped with 10 bottles of 50 ml performed using a certified Perkin Elmer 2 ppm Cu standard capacity TFM (Teflon Fluor Modified). HNO3 v/v. The concentration of the different bioelements of the seed and Sensitivity oil are reported in Table-2.6 1. the spectrophotometer burner alignment was digester.000 = 540 nm spectrophotometer. Model 400 AAanalyst spectrophotometer.22 2. 97% JT Baker) (HC2O4. curcumin (C21H20O6sigma aldrich®).49 2. Ca2+. hydrochloric International Science Community Association 2 .6 1. 1-7. 60%. Fe2+.407 2+ Fe 248 1. points.7/0.International Research Journal of Biological Sciences ________________________________________________ISSN 2278-3202 Vol.0 Metals Chia’soil ppm Chia’s seed ppm Mn2+ 403 1. Na+ and K+. The solutions prepared for the calibration a solvent which was removed using a rotary evaporator curve were treated in the same way as the oil and seed samples controlling the temperature at 60°C for 40 minutes. Brand Perkin Elmer Lambda 25. 250 Watts.052 1. 99.089 method APHA AWWA 4500-B.

November (2017) Int. 3. 0. 9 ppm of boron. 8900 ppm of potassium. (AOAC 956.5 ppm of and chia oil is due to the fact that 2 g of sample were used for copper. with the exception (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy).96 g/ml.01). Figure-1: Calibration curves for the quantification of micronutrients by AAS. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. 667 (mg /100 g) of potassium Absorption16. On the other hand Bushway et al. < 0.15 have reported 8700 ppm of The difference of the concentrations of nickel and iron in seed calcium. 6. 58. Res. Biological Sci.6 ml the technique used to quantify bioelements by the of oil. however we processed 0.94 of cupper (US was not found in the chia seed studied although there are reports EPA 3050B Manual ISP 1998 – SGS Chile).01). The results for chia seed obtained in reported that chia seed contains 557 (mg/100 g) of calcium this research were lower than those reported. 1.70-1. J. hence the higher values International Science Community Association 3 . the heavy metal cadmium 4. If we have a yield of 30%. 2009) has aforementioned authors.3 of iron (AAS).95 of zinc.2000). Regardless of the seed.International Research Journal of Biological Sciences ________________________________________________ISSN 2278-3202 Vol. 6(11). 24.7-of of nickel found in a greater quantity.5 ppm of manganese. (AOAC 999. 1-7.94 (mg/100 g) of sodium (AOAC 956. this is equivalent to 0.2 mg/100 g quantified by Atomic (Manual ISP 1998 – SGS Chile).02 nickel of having been found at <0. 74 ppm of zinc.11.

for the metabolism of bone fixation it is needed the Implementation of a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity synergy with nickel . (2010). (Lamiaceae).94 mg/100 g.# Journal of Food (Table-2).): Characterization and process beneficial in patients with diabetes. zinc https://doi. This research was financially supported by the Benemérita In regard to boron..) is essential for iron power generation. Poudyal H. histological and biochemical changes.316 ppm were found in the seed. J.) as Affected liver21. remaining the rest in the solid residue. 166-174. and contain respect to the other bioelements only a fraction of these were nickel. 6.. 5. Diehl B. regard to copper deficiency has been associated with (2011).# Simopoulos component of cell walls and bones)17.. 192-199. eyes and Single Genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.M. (2012). 1-7. which had a wide deficiency affects the activity of different enzymes such as the application in various fields in the Aztec empire contains the dehydrogenases.64 mg/100g.. the action of insulin and carbohydrate metabolism. Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in Many enzymes rely on a metal ion for their activity. detected 6. C. suggesting that during extraction Seaweeds 22. #Supercritical element is required for the formation of osteoblasts22. L. manganese and copper. since in all cells (brain.M. 24(2). with Maestri D. #Characterization of chia seed oils obtained by osteoporosis24 detecting this bioelement both seed and chia oil pressing and solvent extraction. Tomás M. and Growing Cycle Length of a most are located in the brain. Mateo C. zinc. it require physical or mental activity and difficulty maintaining has been reported that nickel deficiency in humans causes body temperature in cold environments26. besides it References has been reported that the addition of boron to postmenopausal 1. this M. boron. Mn and Cu important for the binding of and metabolism of carbohydrates. which Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Panchal S.2010.International Research Journal of Biological Sciences ________________________________________________ISSN 2278-3202 Vol. Biological Sci.L.M. adults.1016/j. favoring the absorption of this trace With respect to the other 2.407ppm muscle. besides the excellent amounts of iron. 95. etc. Oleo Sci. and is by Environmental Factors. With respect to manganese 4. Cahill J. and Brown 338.003 deficiency impairs the synthesis of superoxide dismutase which leads to an increase oxidative stress.K. spinach these were concentrated in oil. affecting containing metal get involved in the process of chemical and the quality of life in various forms.M.937 ppm chia seed. Ayerza R.059ppm and 1. It has also carbon dioxide extraction of oil from Mexican chia seed been shown that supplementation of this bioelement is (Salvia hispanica L.# J Supercrit Fluids. involved in calcium absorption and prevention of osteoporosis. In this research 2. Nickel In this research it was shown that chia seed..# J. Its nickel in oil and seed respectively were found.# Economic Botany. the best source of nickel is chocolate for example the bitter variety provides 2... #Ethnobotany of chia. muscle.P. 604-618. energy transfer17. chia an excellent source of these bioelements. compounds the world and Mexico is no exception causing anemia.38 mg/100 g. 6(11). Ixtaina V. 347-354. being Lifestyle. Spotorno V. Composition and Analysis. bone. Nolasco S. Gimeno because of its essential role in DNA and protein synthesis. #Lipid redistribution by α-linolenic acid-rich reported the amount of iron for different sources such as: chia seed inhibits stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and induces International Science Community Association 4 . in addition to altering the Conclusion incorporation of calcium from bones and cause similar damage to parakeratosis.6 ppm and pure cocoa 9. Ixtaina V. found in the oil. Fatty Acid Composition. Bárzana E.. 93-102. this is an deficiency is manifested in a reduced ability to do tasks that essential element involved in vital functions in metabolism. and in the seed. about 2 to 2. Martínez M.X. (2005). (2003).25 based on the data obtained in this research bioelements only a fraction of these were found in the oil. interacts with the metabolism of calcium and magnesium. Kang J.125 ppm of iron were found in chia seeds. of these bio elements in oil. November (2017) Int.supflu. prostate.. 3. 228 ppm were quantified AP (ed): Nutrition and Fitness: Mental Health. as it is necessary to convert vitamin D to its active form19. Aging. Zinc is the second most abundant metal in organisms.06. With black chia seed is an excellent source of iron. World Rev Nutr Diet. and Tecante A.8 ppm of this Acknowledgments metal chia is a good source of this bio element (Table-1).. Tomás M. rice bran 12. Salvia hispanica women elevate serum levels of 17-β-estradiol and testosterone20. Waanders J.W. 6. Karger. Res.. promotes the biochemical actions of vitamin D.. it has been L. Nolasco S. Ward L. B. Vega A.C.. 4 g of this metal are distributed throughout the human body.. 55.. Zn. #Balance of Omega–6/Omega–3 Calcium is essential for all organisms as it is a structural Essential Fatty Acids Is Important for Health. it has been also is important to rescue the consumption of this prehispanic seed reported that the level of tolerable upper intake is 1 mg in and incorporate it into various foods. (2009). can also alter the metabolism of zinc.Y. 58(7). The requirements of nickel in calcium to the bone. serves to fix calcium23. #The Seed´s Protein and Oil Content. Basel. as well as reduction in iron absorption leading to anemia.. because it is important in optimization.Y. so it humans are less than 500 micrograms/kg18. transaminases and especially alpha-amylase bioelements Ni.K. 57(4).

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