Está en la página 1de 23

Universidad Autonoma de Manizales

Trabajo: inyeccion de plastico


Manizales - Colombia
2018- Segundo Corte

Procesos Industriales

Sebastian Hernandez Lozano


Jesus Alberto Castro Agudelo

PRESENTADO A:

Carlos Alberto Vargas Sánchez

1
contenido
Introduccion .................................................................................. 3

propiedades de la pieza................................................................. 4

Material ......................................................................................... 5

Introduction.....................................................................................

Homework ......................................................................................

Solution ............................................................................................

References........................................................................................

2
INTRODUCCION

Mediante la inyección de plástico podemos realizar la fabricación


de diferentes piezas, las cuales son diseñadas y creadas a
necesidad de los clientes. Este proceso consiste en inyectar un
polímero en un molde cerrado a presión por medio de un orificio
llamado boquilla el cual tiene unos ductos de repartición los
cuales llevan el material a la cavidad formando la pieza deseada.
La pieza y el molde en que se va a trabajar consiste en un alerón
para automóvil el cual es una pieza móvil ubicada en la parte
trasera del carro para darle un estilo único y deportivo.

3
PROPIEDADES FÍSICAS DE LA PIEZA
ALERON

DENSIDAD : 890.00 KG/M^3

MASA : 3.27 KG

VOLUMEN : 0.00368 M^3

AREA DE SUPERFICIE : 0.38220 M^2

4
MATERIAL A UTILIZAR:

El polipropileno (copolimero) es un material económico que


ofrece una combinación de excelentes propiedades físicas,
mecánicas, térmicas y eléctricas que no se encuentran en ningún
otro termoplástico. En comparación con el polietileno de baja o
alta densidad, tiene una menor resistencia al impacto, pero una
temperatura de trabajo superior y resistencia a la
tracción. Conocido por su excelente resistencia química en
ambientes corrosivos, el polipropileno proporciona una excelente
resistencia a solventes orgánicos, agentes desengrasantes y ataque
electrolítico. Es ligero, resistente a las manchas y tiene una baja
tasa de absorción de humedad.
Es muy utilizado para la inyección de autopartes ya que tiene una
gran fluidez obteniendo tiempos de ciclos más cortos.

5
MAQUINA INYECTORA

KRAUSS MAFFEI

 Tipo de cierre: horizontal


 Accionamiento: hidráulica
 Otras características: de dos platos
 Fuerza de cierre: Mín : 4000 kN Máx.: 9000 kN

Unidad de cierre de doble placa hidromecánica Gama de fuerza de


cierre: 4000 - 9000 kN Movimiento de cierre paralelo mediante
GuideX Unidad de plastificación con elevada estabilidad del peso
de inyección Amplias posibilidades de uso.

6
7
Summary
Elastic behavior of materials is characterized by many conditions, that
conditions are represented by notations that indicates the respective
values. Understanding the behavior of material involves understanding
of relations of values and notation of the most important parameters
that explain the phenomenon of linear elastic.

Notations

𝜖 : Strain
𝑆̿ : Compliance matrix,
𝜎 : Stress
𝜆 : Lame´s constant
𝐸 : Young´s modulus
𝜈 : Poisson´s ratio
𝐺 : Second Lame´s constant,
𝛿𝑖𝑗 : Kronecker Delta,
𝜖⃗
𝜎⃗

8
9
𝛿𝑖𝑗 is the Kronecker Delta, and 𝜆 and G are the first and second Lame´s
constants.
1. Show that the generalized Hooke´s law for linear isotropic elastic
solids can be expressed as

𝜎𝑖𝑗 = 𝜆𝜖𝑘𝑘 𝛿𝑖𝑗 + 2𝐺𝜖𝑖𝑗 (8)

2. As has been seen, eqs. (5) and (8) depend only on two independent
material parameters (Lame´s constants). This is valid for isotropic
materials. Then describe all independent material parameters in
function of two of them, v.g. k = f(E,ν),k = f(E,G), etc. and so on for
the other material parameters. In some cases you will have the term
√𝐸 2 + 9𝜆2 + 2𝐸𝜆, when occurs, replace that radical by R.

3. The following table gives values of the Young’s modulus and


Poisson’s ratio for seven materials.

Table 1
Material E (Gpa) ν
Aluminum 68.9 0.34

10
Concrete 27.6 0.20
Copper 89.6 0.34
Glass 68,9 0,25
Nylon 28,3 0,40
Rubber 0,0019 0,499
Steel 207 0,29

Using the results of problem 4, plot the following surfaces and mark the
point where each material should be located.
i) G= f (E,ν)
ii) G= f (E,λ)
iii) ν= f (E,λ)
iv) ν= f (G,k)
v) k= f (E,λ)
Be careful about the appropriate domain of Poisson’s ratio

Solution
1. In terms of the adjoint matrix, [1] the inverse matrix is expressed by

11
−1
Α∗
Α = (9)
det Α

WhereΑ∗ is defined as the transpose of the cofactor matrix as

Α∗ = [Α𝑐 ]𝑇 (10)
According (9), the inverse of matrix exists only if det A ≠ 0.

(2𝜈 3 + 3𝜈 2 − 1)
det(Α) = − (11)
𝐸3𝐺 3

Matrix 𝑆̿ in eq.(1) is defined as


1/𝐸 −𝜈/𝐸 −𝜈/𝐸 0 0 0
−𝜈/𝐸 1/𝐸 −𝜈/𝐸 0 0 0
−𝜈/𝐸 −𝜈/𝐸 1/𝐸 0 0 0
𝑠̿ = 0 0 0 1/𝐺 0 0
(12)
0 0 0 0 1/𝐺 0
[ 0 0 0 0 0 1/𝐺]

As det𝑆̿ ≠ 0 then the inverse matrix of 𝑆̿ exists, and is defined by

1−𝜈 𝜈 𝜈 0 0 0
𝜈 1−𝜈 𝜈 0 0 0
𝐸 𝜈 𝜈 1−𝜈 0 0 0
𝑆 ̿ −1 = (13)
(1 + 𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈) 0 0 0 𝐺 0 0
0 0 0 0 𝐺 0
[ 0 0 0 0 0 𝐺]

12
According eq. (9) and (11), eq. (1) can be expressed as

𝜎⃗ = 𝑆̿ −1 𝜖⃗ (14)
2. By a formal rearrangement of the equation (5), we may write for i=j
1 𝜆
𝜖𝑖𝑗 = (𝜎𝑖𝑗 − 𝜎 ) (15)
2𝐺 3𝜆 + 2𝐺 𝑘𝑘
Where

𝜎𝑘𝑘 = 𝜎11 + 𝜎22 + 𝜎33 (16)


We may write the equation (5) for i≠j as
1
𝜖𝑖𝑗 = (𝜎 ) (17)
2𝐺 𝑖𝑗
Expanding equation (15) we obtain the following forms for 𝜖11,𝜖22 and
𝜖33
1 𝜆𝜎11 𝜆𝜎22
𝜖11 = (𝜎11 − −
2𝐺 3𝜆 + 2𝐺 3𝜆 + 2𝐺
𝜆𝜎33
− )
3𝜆 + 2𝐺
(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)𝜎11 − 𝜆𝜎11 𝜆𝜎22
𝜖11 = [ −
2𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺) 2𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)
𝜆𝜎33
− ]
2𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)

13
𝜎11 ((3𝜆 + 2𝐺) − 𝜆) 𝜆𝜎22
𝜖11 = [ −
2𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺) 2𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)
𝜆𝜎33
− ]
2𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)

𝜎11(2𝜆+2𝐺) 𝜆𝜎22
𝜖11 = [ −
2𝐺 (3𝜆 + 2𝐺 ) 2𝐺 (3𝜆 + 2𝐺 )
𝜆𝜎33
− ]
2𝐺 (3𝜆 + 2𝐺 )
𝜎11(𝜆+𝐺) 𝜆𝜎22
𝜖11 = [ −
𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺) 2𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)
𝜆𝜎33 (18)
− ]
2𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)

The terms 𝜎11 , 𝜎22 and 𝜎33 are the variables of the equation (18)
and analyzing the coefficients term by term of this equation we
obtain the equation corresponding to𝜖11 as follows:

𝜆+𝐺
(19)
𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)

And because:

14
𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)
𝐸= (20)
𝜆+𝐺

The equation (19) can be expressed as:


1/𝐸,
which is the coefficient corresponding to first term of 𝜖11 in the
generalized Hooke’s law for linear isotropic elastic solids presented in
matrix of eq. (12).
Analyzing coefficient of the second term of eq. (18) as follows:

𝜆
− (21)
2𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)

And because:

𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺)
𝐸= (22)
𝜆+𝐺

Rearranging terms:

𝐸(𝜆 + 𝐺) = 𝐺(3𝜆 + 2𝐺) (23)


Replacing eq. (23) in (21) to yield

𝜆
− (24)
2𝐸(𝜆 + 𝐺)

Remembering that

15
𝜆
𝜈= (25)
2(𝜆 + 𝐺)

We obtain that the equation (21) can be expressed as


𝜈
− (26)
𝐸

Which is the second coefficient corresponding to second term of 𝜖11


presented in matrix of eq. (12).The third coefficient is equals to second
term.

For 𝜖22 and 𝜖33 the same procedure is followed.

3. Expanding equation (8) and according index notation kk we can


obtain

𝜈𝐸
(𝜖 + 𝜖22 + 𝜖33 ) + 2𝐺𝜖11 (27)
(1 + 𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈) 11

𝜈𝐸
(𝜖 + 𝜖22 + 𝜖33 ) + 2𝐺𝜖11 (27)
(1 + 𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈) 11
If we define,

𝐸
2𝐺 = (28)
(1 + 𝜈)
By a formal rearrangement of equation (27) we may write,

16
𝜈𝐸 + 𝐸 (1 − 2𝜈)
𝜖
(1 + 𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈) 11 (29)
𝜈𝐸 𝜈𝐸
+ 𝜖22+ 𝜖
(1 + 𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈) (1 + 𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈) 33

The terms 𝜖11 , 𝜖22 and 𝜖33 are the variables of the equation (29)
and analyzing the coefficients term by term of this equation we
obtain the equation corresponding to 𝜎11 as follows:
𝜈𝐸 + 𝐸(1 − 2𝜈) 𝐸(1 − 𝜈)
= (30)
(1 + 𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈) (1 + 𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈)

The term (31) is a common factor en eq. (30) and hence of the eq.
(29)

𝐸
(31)
(1 + 𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈)

Because of the above the coefficients of eq. (29) are follows

(1 − 𝜈),
𝜈
𝜈

These terms coincide with those of the stress matrix given by eq.
(3), where C is

17
1−𝜈 𝜈 𝜈 0 0 0
𝜈 1−𝜈 𝜈 0 0 0
𝜈 𝜈 1−𝜈 0 0 0
1
(1 − 2𝜈) 0 0
0 0 0
2 (32)
1
0 0 0 0 (1 − 2𝜈) 0
0 0 0 2
1
[ 0 0 (1 − 2𝜈)]
2

For 𝜎22 and 𝜎33 the same procedure is followed.

4. The table 2 and 3 show the relations between two variables and
other material parameters.

Table 2
λ G E
f(λ,ν) 𝜆(1 − 2𝜐) 𝜆(1 + 𝜐)(1 − 2𝜐)
2𝜐 𝜐
f(G,E) 𝐺(2𝐺 − 𝐸)
𝐸 − 3𝐺
f(E,ν) 𝜐𝐸 𝐸
(1 − 𝜐)(1 − 2𝜐) 2(1 + 𝜐)
f(E,k) 3𝑘(3𝑘 − 𝐸) 3𝑘𝐸
(9𝑘 − 𝐸) 9𝑘 − 𝐸

18
f(ν,k) 3𝑘𝜐 3𝑘(1 − 2𝜐) 3𝑘(1 − 2𝜐)
1+𝜐 2(1 + 𝜐)

Table 3
ν k
f(λ,G) 𝜆 3𝜆 + 2𝐺
2(𝜆 + 𝐺) 3
f(λ,E) √(𝐸 − 3𝜆)2 + 8𝜆2 √𝑅
−(𝐸 − 2𝜆) + (3𝜆 + 𝐸) +
4𝜆 6
f(G,E) 𝐸 − 2𝐺 𝐺𝐸
2𝐺 3(3𝐺 − 𝐸)
f(G,k) 3𝑘 − 2𝐺
2(3𝑘 − 𝐺)
f(E,ν) 𝐸
3(1 − 2𝜐)

5. According problem 4 and table 1 the following plots show the point
where each material should be located respect of G parameter as
f(E,ν)

19
20
21
References

[1] Thomas Mase, Ronald E. Smelser, y George E. Mase,


Continuum Mechanics for Engineers, 3a ed. Boca Raton
FL.: CRC Press, 2010.

22
23