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LWT - Food Science and Technology 64 (2015) 1234e1242

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Comparative study between Serrano and Iberian dry-cured hams in

relation to the application of high hydrostatic pressure and temporal
sensory perceptions
vez, Jesús Ventanas, Sonia Ventanas*
Laura Lorido, Mario Este
ceres, Spain
Animal Production and Food Science Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Avd/Universidad s.n, Ca

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HPP) treatment on the
Received 27 April 2015 sensory characteristics of two different types of dry-cured hams (Iberian and Serrano) on the perception
Received in revised form of their sensory characteristics using static (quantitative descriptive analysis) and a dynamic (time
7 July 2015
eintensity) sensory methods. Differences in the temporal sensory perception of Iberian and Serrano dry-
Accepted 12 July 2015
cured hams were originally found. Significant differences in the appearance profile and temporal
Available online 14 July 2015
perception of flavour were detected between Iberian and Serrano dry-cured hams. The effect of the HHP
treatment was mainly observed on certain flavour attributes such as saltiness and cured flavour and
Sensory evaluation
texture attributes such as fibrousness and pastiness. The application of this technology on intact samples
Timeeintensity seems to alleviate the negative impact of HHP on the sensory properties of dry-cured ham.
High hydrostatic pressure © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dry-cured hams

1. Introduction appreciated sensory characteristics. As expected, the higher quality

of Iberian compared to Serrano dry-cured hams is also reflected in
During centuries, dry-cured hams have been elaborated in Spain the price of the final product (Ventanas et al., 2005).
and other Mediterranean countries as a method of pork meat High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment subjects foods to
preservation by means of salting and dehydration processes. pressures between 500 and 600 MPa for 1e5 min inactivating the
Nowadays, in Spain, two types of dry-cured hams are produced and microorganisms by affecting the molecular structure of chemical
consumed, Serrano and Iberian dry-cured hams. The main differ- compounds necessary for its metabolism (Rendueles et al., 2011).
ences between both types of dry-cured hams are i) the pig breed HHP offers several advantages since it could be applicable to many
(industrial genotypes for Serrano dry-cured hams and Iberian or different food matrices and it is not a thermal process (5e12  C). It
Iberian  Duroc pigs for Iberian dry-cured hams) (Reglamento (CE) has been widely applied in order to minimize microbiological risk
2419/99; BOE, Real Decreto 4/2014) and ii) the processing condi- as the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in “ready to eat”
vez, 2005). These differences
tions (Ventanas, Ventanas, Ruiz, & Este products (Rendueles et al., 2011). The effectiveness of the HHP has
in both the raw material and the process conditions lead to a sig- been demonstrated in the microbiological quality of sliced and
nificant difference in the length of production: a minimum of 210 packaged meat products such as dry-cured ham (Hereu, Bover-Cid,
days for Serrano dry-cured hams and 600 days for Iberian dry- Garriga, & Aymerich, 2012). Moreover, several authors have eval-
cured hams. Moreover, a high proportion of the Iberian dry-cured uated the impact of HHP on physico-chemical, nutritional and
hams are produced from pigs reared outdoors and fed on acorns, sensory properties of both Iberian and Serrano dry-cured hams
grass and natural resources during the final fattening period (60 (Fuentes, Ventanas, Morcuende, Este vez, & Ventanas, 2010;
days average) in the so called “montanera” system (Reglamento Clariana et al., 2011; Fulladosa, Sala, Gou, Garriga, & Arnau, 2012).
(CE) 2419/99; BOE, Real Decreto 4/2014). This rearing system al- Overall, results from these studies revealed a decrease in the lean
lows obtaining a derived dry-cured product with particular and colour intensity, pastiness and juiciness whereas hardness and
chewiness increased. It seems also that HPP potentiated the rancid
odour and saltiness of the evaluated dry-cured hams.
Dynamic sensory techniques as Time intensity (TI) have been
* Corresponding author. recently used to assess the sensory properties of meat products
E-mail address: (S. Ventanas).
0023-6438/© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
L. Lorido et al. / LWT - Food Science and Technology 64 (2015) 1234e1242 1235

from a temporal perspective (Ventanas, Puolanne, & Tuorila, 2010; the surface of all dry-cured hams using a Minolta chromameter CR-
vez, & Ventanas, 2014). We have to
Fuentes et al., 2010; Lorido, Este 300 (Minolta Camera Corp., Meter Division, Ramsey, NJ). All mea-
keep in mind that perception, mainly related with flavour and surements were made in triplicate on biceps femoris muscle. Three
texture attributes, is a dynamic phenomenon that is changing colour indices were obtained: L* (lightness), a* (redness) and b*
during the process of food consumption. Therefore all sensory (yellowness) values.
methods that provide information about variations in the percep-
tion of sensory attributes along the time are closer to the reality 2.3. Sensory evaluation
than static sensory methods which only provide information about
the perception of a sensory attribute in a point of time (Dijksterhuis 2.3.1. Assessors
& Piggott, 2001). Eleven trained panellists (six males and five females, range age:
In the present study, differences in the temporal perception of 26e54 years) with previous experience in sensory evaluation of
flavour and texture of Serrano and Iberian dry-cured hams are dry-cured hams, including TI technique, participated in the study.
originally reported. Moreover, the effect of high hydrostatic pres- All of them were staff at the University of Extremadura. The same
sure on this temporal perception is also evaluated. panel participated in the quantitative descriptive analysis and in
the Timeeintensity evaluations.
2. Material and methods
2.3.2. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA)
2.1. Experimental design QDA was carried out over eight consecutive sessions to evaluate
the descriptors related to appearance, odour and tactile texture of
Fifteen Iberian and fifteen Serrano dry-cured hams, from thirty dry-cured ham samples. First, panellist revised and confirmed a
different animals (50% Iberian  Duroc and 50% Large-white - previous list of attributes characterizing the dry-cured ham sam-
 Landrace, respectively), were produced at local processing plants ples according to previous studies carried out in similar samples
(Extremadura, Spain) in corresponding independent processing (Fuentes et al., 2010). After discussion the panel reached an
batches. Two alike samples of 450 g were obtained from each ham agreement and selected the following attributes for appearance: fat
and packaged under vacuum. One of the samples was pressurized colour intensity, fat brightness, red colour intensity, marbling and
at 600 MPa [pressurization time: 2.5 min; pressure holding time: lean brightness; for odour: overall, rancid and cured; and for tactile
6 min; pressure release time: nearly instantaneous (<2 s) and texture: hardness and fat fluidity. Their verbal anchors were from
temperature of the pressurization water: 21  C]. The high-pressure “less” to “more” for all attributes, except for fat colour intensity that
treatment was performed in a Wave 6000 equipment of 120 l (NC anchors were from “white” to “yellow”. Panellists were instructed
Hyperbaric, Burgos, Spain). The other twin sample was kept as to evaluate first the appearance attributes followed by odour and
control. The control and treated samples were stored under vac- finally the tactile texture on a slice of dry-cured ham. An unstruc-
uum packaging in refrigeration conditions (2e3  C) for 5 months tured scale of 10 cm was used for rating the intensity of the selected
until reception in our laboratory. attributes. Evaluation of the 15 Iberian dry-cured hams samples
and 15 Serrano dry-cured hams samples was performed in 10
2.2. Physico-chemical analysis sessions (three samples per session) with the serving order of the
samples randomised according to the Williams Latin Square design.
Fifteen dry-cured hams were analysed for chemical composition Samples (a portion of 5 cm2 approximately) were served on glass
in triplicate. Moisture content was determined by drying the plates with a glass of water and a piece of unsalted cracker to follow
sample at 102  C for 24 h (AOAC, 2000). Total protein content was the rinsing protocol between samples. Evaluations took place in
analysed using the Kjeldahl method (AOAC, 2000). Fat content was individual booths under white fluorescence light. Data were
determined according to the method developed by Folch, Lees, and collected using the FIZZ software, 2.20C version (Sensory Analysis
Sloane Stanley (1957) and chloride content was analysed using the and Computer Test Management) (Biosystemes, France, 2002).
Volhard method (AOAC, 2000).
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were prepared by acidic-trans- 2.3.3. Timeeintensity evaluations
esterification in the presence of sulphuric acid (5% sulphuric acid in The TI technique was used to evaluate the attributes related to
methanol) (Ventanas, Ventanas, Tovar, García, & Este vez, 2007). the temporal perception of flavour and oral texture. The studied
FAMEs were analysed by gas chromatography using a Hew- attributes were selected based on previous studies and were the
lettePackard HP-5890A gas chromatograph, equipped with an on- most common used attributes to describe sensory properties of dry
column injector and a flame ionization detector (FID), using a cured hams (Fuentes et al., 2010; Fuentes, Ventanas, Morcuende, &
polyethylene glycol capillary column (Supelcowax-10, Supelco, Ventanas, 2013). Preliminary sessions for selection, training and
Bellefonte, PA). validation (6 h) following the procedure described by Lorido et al.
Instrumental evaluation of dry-cured hams texture was per- (2014) with some modifications were carried out. The following
formed by the method described by Bourne (1978). The trial con- attributes were chosen for TI evaluation and grouped in flavour
sisted of compress four cubes portions of each sample (15 mm side) (overall flavour, saltiness, cured and rancid flavour) and texture
conditioned at 16  C for at least 60 min. They were compressed to (juiciness, hardness, fibrousness and pastiness) attributes. Panel-
40% of its original thickness by a cylindrical plunger of 5 cm in lists rated one attribute at a time and all attributes were evaluated
diameter at a 5 mm/s speed for two cycles, imitating mastication so for eleven panellists. Evaluation of the 15 Iberian dry-cured hams
that texture parameters are extracted from a forceetime curve. In a samples and 15 Serrano dry-cured hams samples was performed in
first movement cycle the plunger press and compresses the sample 10 sessions (three samples per session) with the serving order of
and then return to their initial position and then the process was the samples randomised according to the Williams Latin Square
repeated in a second movement. The determined parameters were: design. Protocol of samples evaluation by TI was previously
hardness (N/cm2), cohesiveness (dimensionless), adhesiveness described by Fuentes et al. (2013). Time to swallow was fixed at 10 s
(N  sec), elasticity (cm), chewiness (N  sec), gumminess (N/cm2) and the total time of evaluation was 120 s. Data were collected
and resilience (dimensionless). using the FIZZ software, 2.20C version (Sensory Analysis and
Instrumental colour (CIE L*, a*, b*; CIE, 1976) was measured on Computer Test Management) (Biosystemes, France, 2002).
1236 L. Lorido et al. / LWT - Food Science and Technology 64 (2015) 1234e1242

2.3.4. Data analysis was significantly higher in Iberian samples than in the Serrano
Data from chemical composition, instrumental texture and counterparts while no significant differences were found for rancid
sensory analysis (QDA and TI) of Iberian and Serrano dry-cured and cured odours. Finally, tactile texture evaluation of fat samples
hams was analysed by two-way ANOVA using the effect of the showed that Iberian fat was significantly more fluid and less hard
product (Iberian and Serrano) and the high hydrostatic pressure compared to Serrano fat.
treatment (Control, HHP) as main factors. Also a t-student test was Results of dynamic sensory evaluation (Timeeintensity) of
performed to evaluate the effect of HHP within each batch of dry- flavour and texture are presented in Table 3 and Figs. 3e8.
cured ham, Serrano and Iberian. Regarding flavour attributes, Iberian samples displayed a significant
Data from individual TI curves of the evaluated attributes (11 higher duration of the maximum Intensity (DurPl) of overall flavour
assessors  3 repetitions ¼ 33 curves analysed) were analysed and compared to Serrano dry-cured hams although the total persis-
average TI- curves were computed for each attribute over eleven tence of this attribute (Tend) was significantly higher in Serrano
assessors using FIZZ software. Four TI parameters were extracted ones. These samples also displayed a higher intensity perception
from TI curves: maximum intensity (Imax), standardized duration (AreaTse) and persistence (Tend) of cured flavour (Fig. 5). For salt-
of the phase plate (DurPI), area under the curve (AreaTse) and iness, Serrano samples were significantly rated by panellist as more
standardized final time (Tend). Imax and AreaTse parameters were salty (higher Imax and AreaTse) and with a more persistent salti-
extracted in order to evaluate the intensity of the attributes and the ness (Tend) compared to Iberian samples (Fig. 4). Dynamic evalu-
DurPl and Tend parameters in order to evaluate de persistence of ation of texture attributes revealed that Iberian samples were
the intensity. juicier (Imax and AreaTse) than Serrano ones. The persistence of the
A principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out with data maximum intensity (DurPl) of juiciness and fibrousness were also
obtained from sensory analysis, physico-chemical analysis, fatty longer in Iberian dry-cured hams. Regarding hardness, although
acid profile and instrumental texture and colour. It was conducted panellist rated Serrano samples with higher Imax scores, the
using the software XLSTAT 2014 for Windows. plateau phase (DurPl) was longer in Iberian ones.

3. Results 3.2. Impact of HHP treatment

3.1. Iberian vs. Serrano dry-cured hams Results revealed that the application of the HHP had no signif-
icant effect on any of the physico-chemical, fatty acid profile or
Table 1 shows the chemical composition of the four groups of sensory properties evaluated by the static techniques (AQD)
dry-cured hams. As expected, there were significant differences (Tables 1e3). However, the instrumental colour of both Iberian and
(p < 0.001) in moisture, intramuscular fat (IMF) and protein content Serrano dry-cured hams was affected by the HHP treatment,
between products (Iberian and Serrano dry-cured hams). Moreover, increasing the parameters L* and b*. Regarding the b* values, this
significant differences (p < 0.01) were found in the fatty acid profile effect was only found in Serrano samples to a significant extent
(Table 1). (p < 0.05).
Similarly, analysis of instrumental texture (Table 2) revealed The application of dynamic sensory techniques revealed the
significant differences between types of dry-cured ham, with influence of HHP treatment particularly on flavour attributes
Serrano samples displaying the highest values for adhesiveness, (Table 3 and Figs. 3e5). The overall flavour was perceived as more
springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience intense (Imax) in treated dry-cured hams. Persistence (Tend) of this
(p < 0.001). Regarding the results of instrumental colour (Table 2), attribute was also significantly longer in treated samples at least for
Iberian dry-cured hams showed higher values for a* parameter, Serrano dry-cured ones (p < 0.01). Moreover, HPP significantly
whereas Serrano dry-cured hams displayed higher values for L* and potentiated saltiness intensity perception and persistence as the
b* parameters. Imax and Tend parameters were significantly higher in treated
Interesting results were obtained for the appearance (Fig. 1), compared to control dry-cured ham samples regardless the type of
odour and tactile texture (Fig. 2) profiles of dry-cured hams ob- dry-cured ham evaluated (Table 3 and Fig. 4). Similar results to
tained using the QDA. Visible fat of samples from Iberian dry-cured saltiness were found for dynamic perception of cured flavour
hams was significantly rated yellower and brighter compared to fat particularly for Serrano dry-cured hams as treated samples dis-
from Serrano samples. Moreover, Iberian samples displayed a lean played a longer and higher intensity perception for this attribute
with a significantly more intense red colour, brightness and compared to control ones (p < 0.05). Regarding texture attributes,
marbling. Regarding odour attributes, the intensity of overall odour no significant effect of HPP treatment was found on dynamic

Table 1
Main effect of HHP treatment (T) and product (P) on the physico-chemical composition and the fatty acid profile ( SFA: percentage of saturated fatty acids, MUFA: per-
centage of monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA: percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids) of Iberian (control: CT and treated: HP) and Serrano (control: CT and treated: HP)
dry-cured hams.

Iberian pt* Serrano pt* T P TxP


Moisture 38.96 ± 1.97 38.97 ± 1.88 n.s. 46.68 ± 2.59 46.70 ± 2.20 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
IMF 12.35 ± 2.23 12.33 ± 2.29 n.s. 6.39 ± 2.14 6.54 ± 2.18 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
Proteins 39.59 ± 0.97 39.60 ± 0.94 n.s. 42.14 ± 2.37 42.11 ± 1.82 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
Salt 4.47 ± 0.49 4.44 ± 0.51 n.s. 4.34 ± 0.82 4.43 ± 0.83 n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
SFA 41.40 ± 2.51 41.73 ± 2.64 n.s 39.74 ± 1.44 39.29 ± 1.35 n.s n.s. ** n.s.
MUFA 51.11 ± 2.13 51.31 ± 2.41 n.s 44.62 ± 2.62 44.89 ± 2.59 n.s n.s. *** n.s.
PUFA 7.48 ± 1.02 6.95 ± 1.19 n.s 15.86 ± 3.53 16.00 ± 3.60 n.s n.s. *** n.s.

CT (Control samples), HP (High Hydrostatic pressure treatment samples). IMF (Intramuscular Fat Content). SFA (saturated fatty acids), MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acid),
PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid). Significance level for HHP treatment effect (T), product effect (P) and T*P interaction: n.s.: non-significant, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
Pt*: significance level for treatment effect within each group of dry-cured hams (Iberian or Serrano).
L. Lorido et al. / LWT - Food Science and Technology 64 (2015) 1234e1242 1237

Table 2
Main effect of product (P) and HHP treatment (T) on the instrumental texture and colour of Iberian (control: CT and treated: HP) and Serrano (control: CT and treated: HP) dry-
cured hams.

Iberian pt* Serrano pt* T P TxP


Hardness (N) 22.91 ± 6.21 24.78 ± 5.80 n.s. 26.17 ± 7.60 25.84 ± 7.45 n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
Adhesiviness (kg/s) 0.06 ± 0.02 0.08 ± 0.03 n.s. 0.04 ± 0.02 0.04 ± 0.01 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
Springiness 0.57 ± 0.08 0.55 ± 0.10 n.s. 0.66 ± 0.06 0.63 ± 0.06 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
Cohesiviness 0.43 ± 0.05 0.42 ± 0.06 n.s. 0.52 ± 0.03 0.50 ± 0.04 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
Gumminess (kg) 0.97 ± 0.26 1.04 ± 0.24 n.s. 1.36 ± 0.40 1.31 ± 0.42 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
Chewiness (kg) 0.55 ± 0.17 0.61 ± 0.21 n.s. 0.92 ± 0.30 0.85 ± 0.29 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
Resilience 0.13 ± 0.03 0.14 ± 0.02 n.s. 0.16 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.03 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
L 34.22 ± 1.39 36.04 ± 1.38 ** 43.21 ± 1.91 48.03 ± 2.89 *** *** *** **
a 13.68 ± 1.28 13.88 ± 1.11 n.s. 11.49 ± 1.57 11.16 ± 1.48 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
b 5.27 ± 0.83 5.75 ± 0.83 n.s. 11.95 ± 1.51 13.31 ± 1.82 * ** *** n.s.

CT (Control samples), HP (High Hydrostatic pressure treatment samples). Significance level for HHP treatment effect (T), product effect (P) and T*P interaction: n.s.: non-
significant, *p < 0.05,**p < 0.01,***p < 0.001. Pt*: significance level for treatment effect within each group of dry-cured hams (Iberian or Serrano).

4. Discussion

4.1. Appearance

Consumers purchasing decision of dry-cured hams is mostly

affected by appearance attributes particularly when they are pur-
chased as a sliced and vacuum-packed product. As previously re-
ported, appearance profile showed marked differences between
Iberian and Serrano dry-cured hams. These differences may be
partly explained by differences in the chemical composition and
fatty acid profile. The higher IMF content of Iberian dry-cured ham
would explain the higher scores for marbling in these samples.
Similarly, Fuentes et al. (2013) also reported a positive relationship
between IMF content of dry-cured ham and appearance traits such
as lean brightness and marbling. Moreover, the brightness of both
the fat and the lean of dry-cured ham samples are dependent on
Fig. 1. Appearance profile of Iberian (control: IB-CT and treated: IB-HP) and Serrano the fatty acid profile and particularly of the proportion of MUFA:
(control: SE-CT and treated: SE-HP) dry-cured hams. the higher the MUFA proportion, the higher the brightness (Ruiz,
Ventanas, Cava, Andre s, & García, 2000). Accordingly, in the pre-
sent study, Iberian dry-cured samples showed a significant higher
MUFA proportion compared to Serrano ones, agreeing with the
higher scores for the related attributes found in these samples. On
the other hand, the more intense yellow colour of the fat in Iberian
dry-cured hams may be related to the length of processing that
allows the formation of polymeric coloured products derived from
oxidative and Maillard reactions (Carrapiso & García, 2005).
HHP is known to modify the colour properties of muscle
foods due to modifications of meat pigments and muscle struc-
ture (Serra, Grebol, Gu ardia, Guerrero, Gou, & Masoliver, 2007).
Several authors have described a decrease in the lean colour
intensity and the brightness of sliced dry-cured ham subjected to
HPP treatment (Fuentes et al., 2010; Clariana et al., 2011;
Fulladosa et al., 2012) However, in the present study, no signif-
icant effect of HPP treatment on sensory results related to
appearance was observed in these samples. In the present study,
samples were whole intact pieces of dry-cured ham of 450 g
with 5 months of storage and were sliced just before the sensory
Fig. 2. Odour and tactile texture profile of Iberian (control: IB-CT and treated: IB-HP) evaluation which could have minimized the potential effect of
and Serrano (control: SE-CT and treated: SE-HP) dry-cured hams.
HHP on appearance properties.
Regarding the results of the instrumental colour, HPP caused
perception of juiciness and hardness in any of the dry-cured hams changes in lightness (CIE L*-value) and yellowness (CIE b*-value).
evaluated. Only fibrousness seemed to be affected by this tech- The significant increase in lightness in Iberian and Serrano dry-
nology as the persistence of the Imax (DurPl) was longer in treated cured hams (Table 2) could be explained by changes in the myofi-
samples compared to control ones regardless the type of dry-cured brillar component leading to an increase in reflection of light
ham. Moreover, HPP significantly decreased the intensity of pasti- (Fulladosa et all., 2012). In contrast, no significant changes were
ness (AreaTse) in Serrano dry-cured hams (p < 0.01). observed in redness (CIE a*-value). The protective action of nitric
oxide on myoglobin in cured meat products facilitates the
1238 L. Lorido et al. / LWT - Food Science and Technology 64 (2015) 1234e1242

Table 3
Time intensity parameters of flavour (a) and texture (b) attributes of profile of Iberian (control: CT and treated: HP) and Serrano (control: CT and treated: HP) dry-cured hams
(means ± SD): maximum intensity (Imax), final time (Tend), duration of the plateau phase (DurPI) and total area under the curve (AreaTse).

Iberian pt* Serrano pt* T P TxP


Imax 6.44 ± 0.72 6.70 ± 0.65 n.s. 6.48 ± 0.82 6.88 ± 0.64 n.s. * n.s. n.s.
Tend 23.02 ± 4.45 23.32 ± 3.59 n.s. 28.21 ± 4.27 34.14 ± 3.64 n.s. n.s. ** n.s.
DurPl 9.18 ± 1.91 9.34 ± 1.64 n.s. 7.14 ± 3.66 8.44 ± 3.79 n.s. n.s. * n.s.
AreaTse 104.12 ± 26.89 107.36 ± 18.92 n.s. 107.42 ± 32.66 119.40 ± 32.99 n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
Imax 6.00 ± 0.69 6.11 ± 0.76 n.s. 6.33 ± 0.78 7.01 ± 0.90 ** * *** n.s.
Tend 20.64 ± 3.47 22.29 ± 3.88 n.s. 25.08 ± 3.31 28.04 ± 3.56 ** ** *** n.s.
DurPl 8.47 ± 1.83 9.14 ± 1.98 n.s. 7.01 ± 3.79 9.19 ± 4.21 n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
AreaTse 86.40 ± 23.70 96.36 ± 22.80 n.s. 108.24 ± 23.08 137.04 ± 30.92 ** n.s. *** n.s.
Imax 5.78 ± 0.48 6.02 ± 0.48 n.s. 6.06 ± 0.75 6.17 ± 0.57 n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
Tend 21.88 ± 3.18 21.76 ± 3.21 n.s. 25.90 ± 3.72 29.63 ± 4.49 n.s. n.s. *** n.s.
DurPl 8.84 ± 1.45 8.34 ± 1.51 n.s. 7.89 ± 3.33 9.03 ± 3.69 n.s. * n.s. n.s.
AreaTse 88.76 ± 15.66 88.36 ± 15.53 n.s. 106.28 ± 26.58 111.68 ± 25.41 n.s. *** *** n.s.
Imax 3.50 ± 0.84 3.73 ± 0.95 n.s e e
Tend 19.10 ± 3.45 20.06 ± 2.96 n.s e e
DurPl 7.41 ± 1.78 7.57 ± 2.29 n.s. e e
AreaTse 46.50 ± 20.33 51.23 ± 18.51 n.s. e e
Imax 6.18 ± 0.62 5.85 ± 0.82 n.s. 5.24 ± 0.76 5.10 ± 1.01 n.s. n.s *** n.s
Tend 15.02 ± 1.04 15.55 ± 1.50 n.s. 15.50 ± 1.75 16.00 ± 2.21 n.s. n.s n.s n.s
DurPl 6.91 ± 1.50 7.09 ± 1.29 n.s. 4.52 ± 1.89 4.91 ± 2.15 n.s. n.s *** n.s
AreaTse 67.20 ± 11.92 65.24 ± 14.51 n.s. 54.32 ± 12.41 55.28 ± 18.68 n.s. n.s *** n.s
Imax 3.04 ± 0.93 3.13 ± 0.83 n.s. 3.37 ± 1.09 3.80 ± 0.79 n.s. n.s ** n.s
Tend 13.23 ± 1.39 12.76 ± 1.04 n.s. 12.90 ± 2.01 13.99 ± 4.89 n.s. n.s n.s n.s
DurPl 5.66 ± 1.45 5.73 ± 1.02 n.s. 3.86 ± 2.31 4.04 ± 2.13 n.s. n.s *** n.s
AreaTse 29.04 ± 10.68 28.44 ± 8.73 n.s. 27.80 ± 12.00 32.08 ± 9.49 n.s. n.s n.s n.s
Imax 3.06 ± 0.73 3.61 ± 0.88 * 3.24 ± 0.71 3.93 ± 0.86 ** *** n.s n.s
Tend 12.60 ± 1.29 13.05 ± 0.97 n.s. 12.97 ± 1.96 13.25 ± 1.52 n.s. n.s n.s n.s
DurPl 4.78 ± 1.35 5.29 ± 1.44 n.s. 3.86 ± 2.11 4.26 ± 1.96 n.s. n.s ** n.s
AreaTse 26.28 ± 9.43 33.32 ± 10.84 * 27.32 ± 9.31 36.00 ± 12.72 ** *** n.s n.s
Imax e e 4.10 ± 1.34 3.61 ± 0.83 n.s.
Tend e e 14.10 ± 2.90 13.48 ± 2.05 n.s.
DurPl e e 4.56 ± 2.82 3.95 ± 2.38 n.s.
AreaTse e e 43.13 ± 9.97 34.24 ± 7.45 **

Significance level for HHP treatment effect (T), product effect (P) and T*P interaction: n.s.: non-significant, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. Pt*: significance level for
treatment effect within each group of dry-cured hams (Iberian or Serrano).

Fig. 3. Average timeeintensity curves for overall flavour of Iberian (control: IB-CT and Fig. 4. Average time intensity curves for saltiness of Iberian (control: IB-CT and
treated: IB-HP) and Serrano (control: SE-CT and treated: SE-HP) dry-cured hams. treated: IB-HP) and Serrano (control: SE-CT and treated: SE-HP) dry-cured hams.
L. Lorido et al. / LWT - Food Science and Technology 64 (2015) 1234e1242 1239

Fig. 5. Average time intensity curves for cured flavour of Iberian (control: IB-CT and
treated: IB-HP) and Serrano (control: SE-CT and treated: SE-HP) dry-cured hams.
Fig. 8. Average time intensity curves for fibrousness of Iberian (control: IB-CT and
treated: IB-HP) and Serrano (control: SE-CT and treated: SE-HP) dry-cured hams.

evaluate the texture of samples. Differences in the IMF and mois-

ture content between Iberian and Serrano dry-cured hams would
explain the texture results particularly for those related to juiciness
and hardness. Sensory evaluation of hardness regardless the tech-
nique applied, static or dynamic, revealed that Iberian dry-cured
hams was perceived as less hard compared to Serrano ones.
Similar results were obtained for juiciness using TI. Several studies
in Iberian dry-cured hams have found a marked correlation be-
tween the IMF content and the juiciness and hardness of samples
(Ruiz et al., 2000; Ventanas et al., 2005). In the present study,
application of TI allowed showing that not only the intensity but
also the persistence of these attributes (DurPl) were different
depending of the type of dry-cured ham evaluated. Although Ibe-
rian dry-cured samples were perceived as juicier and less hard
compared to Serrano ones, the persistence of the maximum in-
Fig. 6. Average time intensity curves for juiciness of Iberian (control: IB-CT and tensity (DurPl) for both attributes was longer in Iberian samples.
treated: IB-HP) and Serrano (control: SE-CT and treated: SE-HP) dry-cured hams.
Not only the IMF but also the moisture content can contribute to
texture perception (Ventanas et al., 2005) particularly for hardness
and fibrousness. In fact, the Imax for both attributes was lower
compared to the Imax obtained for juiciness and thus it is probable
that the lower moisture content in Iberian samples have contrib-
uted to the longer persistence of hardness and fibrousness in these
samples compared to Serrano ones.
Previous studies devoted to the effect of HHP on sensory quality
of both sliced Iberian and Serrano dry-cured hams described that
this treatment increases the hardness and chewiness perception
but decreases the pastiness and the juiciness (Fuentes et al., 2010;
Clariana et al., 2011; Fulladosa et al., 2012). In the present study,
hardness and juiciness were not significantly affected by HPP
treatment while fibrousness intensity increased (Imax and AreaTse)
and pastiness decreased (AreaTse). In the reported studies, samples
subjected to HHP treatment were sliced dry-cured hams whereas in
the present study pieces of 450 g of dry-cured ham were used and
thus the potential effect of HPP could have been minimized. No
previous studies have reported similar results. The pastiness was
Fig. 7. Average time intensity curves for hardness of Iberian (control: IB-CT and also evaluated in Serrano dry-cured hams. Application of HHP
treated: IB-HP) and Serrano (control: SE-CT and treated: SE-HP) dry-cured hams. treatment resulted in a decrease of pastiness (AreaTse) (p  0.01)
which has previously been reported by Fulladosa et al. (2012) but
not from a dynamic perspective as in the present study. According
preservation of the colour of these products (Carlez, Veciana-
to Cheftel and Culioli (1997) the changes in protein conformation
Nogues, & Cheftel, 1995; Farkas et al., 2002).
caused by HPP lead to changes in the distances of weak intra- and
intermolecular interactions, which include proteinewater in-
4.2. Texture teractions. Fulladosa et al. (2012) reported that this rearrangement
was responsible for the increase in hardness and as a result a
In the present study, different techniques have been applied to
1240 L. Lorido et al. / LWT - Food Science and Technology 64 (2015) 1234e1242

decrease in pastiness in their studied hams. However in this study increase in the salt content, since no differences in salt content with
we only observed a decrease in pastiness in Serrano dry-cured HPP were found (Table 1). This increase in saltiness was higher in
hams. Serrano hams probably due to their lower IMF content which may
have allowed the interaction between Na þ ions and the taste buds.
4.3. Odour and flavour In fact, negative and significant correlations between TI parameters
related to saltiness intensity and IMF content (Pearson coefficient
Different routes of generation of volatile compounds contrib- for Imax saltiness*IMF ¼ 0.40, p < 0.05; for Area
uting to odour and flavour of dry-cured hams have been proposed. saltines*IMF ¼ 0.40, p < 0.05) and saltiness persistence and IMF
Some compounds are directly accumulated into the pig fat depots content (Pearson coefficient for Tend saltiness*IMF ¼ 0.52,
from the feeding. However, most of them arise during the ripening p < 0.05) were obtained. Previous studies also reported an increase
process. The main reactions resulting in aroma volatiles are the in saltiness perception in dry-cured ham pressurized at 600 MPa
oxidation of fatty acids and the Maillard reactions between com- (Saccani, Parolari, Tanzi, & Rabbuti, 2004; Fulladosa et al., 2012).
pounds from lipid oxidation and nitrogen compounds (Ruiz, Muriel, The increase in saltiness due to the application of HPP treatment
& Ventanas, 2002). Microbial formation of volatile aroma com- could be beneficial in salt-reduced products because it makes them
pounds in dry-cured hams should also be considered particularly in more similar to traditional ones.
Iberian hams since the mould and yeast population is considerably
higher than in Serrano ones (Toldra  & Flores, 1998). 4.4. Principal component analysis
In the present study, the static sensory technique (AQD) was
used to evaluate odour perception whereas perception of flavour PCA was carried out using the data obtained from sensory
attributes was evaluated by TI. Among the odour attributes evalu- evaluation (QDA and TI) which showed a significant effect by
ated, overall odour received significantly higher scores in Iberian product and/or HPP treatment and the proximal chemical compo-
compared to Serrano dry-cured hams. A higher intensity of odour is sition, fatty acid profile and instrumental texture and colour of all
often found in long-aged meat products such as Iberian ham (600 evaluated dry-cured ham samples (Fig. 9). The first two principal
days) compared to Serrano dry-cured hams with a relatively short components accounted the 39.69% of the total variance (30.73% for
ripening period (210 days). the PC1 and 8.96% for the PC2) (Fig. 9). Instrumental texture pa-
No significant effect of HPP treatment was observed on odour rameters (hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness,
attributes. However, Clariana et al. (2011) found that sliced Serrano gumminess, chewiness and resilience) and TI parameters related to
dry-cured hams treated with 600 MPa for 6 min underwent a the intensity of perception and persistence of overall flavour (Imax
decrease in odour intensity. Nevertheless, after 50 days of settling, and Tend), saltiness (Imax, AreaTse and Tend), cured flavour
the samples showed a better retention of aroma compounds in the (AreaTse, Tend) and fibrousness (Imax and AreaTse) were located in
sensory analysis. Therefore, as previously reported, the fact that the the right upper quadrant of the PCA (Fig. 9a). TI parameters of
samples from the present study were not sliced, would explain the saltiness and hardness were defined with higher loadings for PC1
limited effect of HPP on the perception on certain odour attributes compared to PC2. However cured flavour and juiciness were
as rancid and cured compared to the results described in similar defined with higher loadings for PC2 compared to PC1. Regarding
studies. appearance and odour attributes (fat colour, fat brightness, fat
In general, dynamic sensory evaluation of flavour attributes fluidity, tactile hardness, lean colour, marbling, lean brightness and
revealed that Serrano dry-cured hams showed a higher persistence overall odour) were located in the upper left quadrant of the PCA
and intensity perception of overall flavour, saltiness and cured (Fig. 9a). Fat colour, brightness and fluidity, lean colour and
flavour. These results could be explained by the differences in brightness, marbling, and overall odour showed higher loadings for
chemical composition between both types of dry-cured hams, PC2 compared to PC1. Moreover, all evaluated attributes related to
particularly in the IMF content. Among the components of food, fat fat (colour, brightness and fluidity) were located close to IMF con-
is an essential part of the food matrix and therefore its content tent and MUFA proportion. Samples plot (Fig. 9b) showed a clear
affects both the sensory characteristics and the overall palatability discrimination between Iberian and Serrano dry-cured samples,
and acceptability (Ventanas et al., 2005). The mobility of the with Iberian ones mainly located at the left side and Serrano
compounds responsible for the flavour and taste is influenced by samples at the right side of PC1. Serrano samples were the saltiest
the composition and structure of food matrix and the diffusion (AreaTse and Imax) and displayed the higher intensity (AreaTse) for
coefficient of these compounds decreases with the fat content cured flavour. Moreover these samples exhibited a longer percep-
(Panouille, Saint-Eve, Loubens, De  le
ris, & Souchon, 2011). More- tion (Tend) for the evaluated flavour attributes. Iberian samples
over, the fat forms a film around the oral mucosa (tongue and were associated with a high intensity (AreaTse, Imax) and persis-
palate) limiting contact between flavour compounds and their re- tence (DurPl) of juiciness. Finally, as expected, IMF and MUFA
ceptors and that leads, in turn, to a lower perception of flavour and characterized Iberian samples whereas Serrano ones are defined by
taste (Lynch, Liu, Mela, & MacFie, 1993). Therefore, the lower IMF PUFA and moisture content.
content of Serrano samples compared to Iberian ones would have
contributed to the marked differences in the dynamic flavour 5. Conclusions
perception found in the present study.
On the other hand, the perceived intensity of overall flavour, High-pressure is a post-process technology commonly applied
saltiness and cured flavour and also the persistence of saltiness to dry-cured ham. However, undesirable consequences on sensory
were promoted by the HHP treatment. Several studies have re- traits have been reported particularly on sliced dry-cured ham. The
ported that HPP treatment enhances lipid and protein oxidative treatment of intact vacuum samples (450 g) by HPP (600 MPa)
reactions and thus the formation of derived volatile compounds seems to minimize the impact of this technology on appearance,
contributing to flavour perception, particularly overall and rancid odour and texture attributes. The occurrence of pastiness in dry-
attributes. Moreover, HPP could induce changes in the interaction cured hams, particularly on Serrano ones, is a common defect
between Na þ ions and proteins leaving these ions more accessible associated to salt reduction. In the present study, application of HPP
which would lead to an increase of saltiness (Clariana et al., 2011). revealed an enhancer effect on dynamic perception of saltiness
The increase in saltiness perception with HPP was not related to an whereas pastiness perception decreased. Therefore, HPP treatment
L. Lorido et al. / LWT - Food Science and Technology 64 (2015) 1234e1242 1241

Fig. 9. Principal component analysis (PCA) of sensory analysis (QDA and TI parameters), physic-chemical analysis (moisture, IMF, proteins and salt), fatty acid profile ( SFA,
MUFA and PUFA) and instrumental texture (hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, resilience) and colour (L*, a* and b* values). Parameter
loadings (a) and factor scores (b) plots for the two first principal components.

could be considered as an alternative strategy to reduce pastiness in Bourne, M. C. (1978). Texture profile analysis. Food Technology, 33, 62e66.
Carlez, A., Veciana-Nogues, T., & Cheftel, J. C. (1995). Changes in colour and
salt reduced dry-cured hams in order to obtain healthier food
myoglobin of minced beef meat due to high pressure processing. Lebensmittel-
products with a high consumer acceptance. Wissenschaft und Technologie, 28(5), 528e538.
Cheftel, J. C., & Culioli, J. (1997). Effects of high pressure on meat: a review. Meat
Science, 46, 211e236.
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