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, Dimensional Analysis)
Many times, you will be able to know what calculation needs to be done based on the units of the values given and the missing value from an equation. First, you need to have the basic rules of operating with units:
Rule #1: You can NOT add two numbers that have DIFFERENT units. Rule #2: You can NOT subtract two numbers that have DIFFERENT units. Rule #3: Whatever you do with units (multiply, divide, raise to a power), you MUST do to the numbers. Rule #4: When you have a fraction with a fraction in the bottom, you have to flip the bottom and bring it to the top. (Easier done than said!!).
Consider these examples: 4 m + 3 s = ?. Answer: 12 kg – 3 m = ? Answer: 12 kg x 2 m = ? Answer: 3m/1s= Answer: 12 g / (3 g/mol) = Answer:
4 m + 3 s, because of Rule #1 12 kg – 3 m because of Rule #2 24 kg m. Rule #3. Multiply numbers and units separately. 3 m/s (velocity!) because of Rule #3. 4 mol because of Rule #3 and #4 (see the fraction in the bottom?)
Next knowing some memory tricks will help you know what value needs to be calculated when you are given two (or more values). The first step is to recognize the units and make the connection to the missing value to be calculated. Reviewing the TAKS reference sheet (back of Periodic Table) will help familiarize yourself with the equations.
Dimensional Analysis Practice
Values Given Show Calculation for Correct Value Values Given Show Calculation for Correct Value
33.5 cm3, 14.1 g Sodium, 2.25 mol 12.3 cm, 1.45 cm 48.35 g, Calcium 42.16 g/cm3, 48.32 g
14.1 s, 33.5 m 12.5 m/s2, 35 kg 7.50 $/hr, 450 $ 48.35 g, Gold 42.16 g/cm3, 48.32 g
A 90-kg man on a snow sled is traveling 15 m/s when he hits a snow bank. What is the momentum transferred to the snow bank? If you have 14.3 g of Be (Avg. Atomic Mass = 9.012 g/mol), what amount of Be is present? If your vehicle gets 24 miles per gallon of gas, how many gallons of gas will it take to travel 650 miles?
5 m s = time m = length missing = velocity 12. what amount of Be is present? Need amount (mol).35/196.1 g cm3 = volume g = mass missing = density Sodium.5 m/s2.45) cm2 (450/7. atomic mass = g/mol mol = amount missing = mass 12.97) mol (48. 35 kg m/s2 = acceleration kg = mass missing = force 7. atomic mass = g/mol missing = amount 42.25 mol element = avg. .3 cm.10 g/cm3.5) g/cm 3 22.16) cm3 (48.16 g/cm3. Then Amount = (14. Atomic Mass = 9.0 kg x 15 m/s = (90 x 15) kg m/s If you have 14.5) kg m/s2 (12.08) mol (48.30 g g/cm3 = density g = mass missing = volume Show Calculation for Correct Value Values Given 14. 33. 450 $ $/hr = pay rate $ = money missing = time 48.97) g/g/mol = (48.35/196.25) g (35 x 12.3 g of Be (Avg.Answers Values Given 33. 48.Dimensional Analysis Practice .25 mol = (22. 2.99 g/mol x 2.35 g.35/40.35 g.30/36. 1.012) mol If your vehicle gets 24 miles per gallon of gas.3 x 1.50) hr (48. 14.012 g/mol). Calcium g = mass element = avg. so g divided by g/mol will give mol. atomic mass = g/mol missing = amount 36.3/9.45 cm cm = length cm = length missing = area 48.5 cm3.99 x 2.50 $/hr.30 g g/cm3 = density g = mass missing = volume Show Calculation for Correct Value (33.1) m/s Density = (14.5/14.10) cm3 A 90-kg man on a snow sled is traveling 15 m/s when he hits a snow bank.32/42. Gold g = mass element = avg. how many gallons of gas will it take to travel 650 miles? (650/24) miles/miles/gallon = (650/24) gal.1 s. 48.1/33. What is the momentum transferred to the snow bank? Momentum = mass x velocity = 90.