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 Reactivity of Hydrocarbons
 The reactivity of hydrocarbons in the smog formation process is an
important consideration in understanding the process and in developing
control strategies.
 It is useful to know which the most reactive hydrocarbons are so that their
release can be minimized.
 Less reactive hydrocarbons, of which propane is a good example, may
cause smog formations far downwind from the point of release.
 Two major classes of inorganic products from smog are:
 Sulfates
 Nitrates
 Oxidation of SO2 and H2S
 Relatively slow in a clean atmosphere, it is much faster under smoggy
 During severe photochemical smog conditions, oxidation rates of 5-10% per
may occur, as compared to only a fraction of a percent per hour under
normal atmosphere. Thus, sulfur dioxide exposed to smog can produce very
high local concentration of sulphate, which can aggravate already had
atmospheric conditions.
 Oxidants species in smog that can oxidize SO2
 molecular species: O3, NO3, N2O3
 Reactive radical species: HO, HOO, O, RO and ROO
 Formation of nitrates and nitric acid
 Among the important reactions forming nitric acid are the reaction of NO
with water and the addition of hydroxyl radical to NO. The oxidation of NO
or NO to nitrate species may occur after absorption of gas by an aerosol
droplet. Nitric acid formed by these reactions reacts with ammonia in the
atmosphere to form ammonium nitrate:
 NH2 + HNO3 NH3NO3
 Nitric acid and nitrates are among the more damaging end products of
smog. In addition to possible effects on plants and animals, they can cause
severe corrosion problems.

Lung disease 2.  Effects on human health 1. Nitrogen oxides : a. form ozone 4. Irritate respiratory tract b. Impair ability of lungs to exchange gasses 3. Nitrates or Peroxyacetyl Nitrates (PAN)  PAN has been described as highly oxidized unstable organic compound which has been found to be a constituent of polluted atmospheres. global warming-methane b. bronchitis.benzene c. and asthma. Ground-level ozone. Eye and respiratory system irritants b. nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are especially harmful for senior citizens. Sulfur dioxides and particulate material: a. and people with heart and lung conditions such as emphysema. . sulphur dioxide. children. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) a.  EFFECTS OF PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG  Smog is a serious problem in many cities and continues to harm human health. carcinogenic.

and nitric acid (HNO3). sulphuric acid. for example.level ozone can irritate the eyes. plastics. clothing. and chest discomfort b. concrete. Greater health threat to children than adults c. . coughing. rubber and plastic is directly related to contaminants in the air. Ozone. diversity and population of some fresh water species will be reduced  Effects on vegetation materials:  Vegetation is easily harmed main agents of damage. Damage to metals. ozone (photochemical smog). The enhanced greenhouse effect the pollutants emitted into atmosphere are implicated in numerous environmental problems. which is predicted to lead to global climate change. Because of the toxic and irritating properties which nitrates has been shown to human beings. Children who live in high ozone areas are more likely to develop asthma f. As a result. As smog increases. The typical culprits are sulfur dioxide. it can trigger more serious health problems. it also contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect. is not only a major component of smog. Damage to crops and materials alone amounts to roughly $10 billion dollars a year. paints and dyes. Children breathe more often than adults e. stone. Air pollution can restrict lung development d. It was postulated that the presence of PAN in the polluted photochemical atmosphere of large areas of California could contribute to a detrimental effect upon the cardio respiratory efficiency of human being.  Effects on materials:  Smog can also accelerate the deterioration of rubber.  Ozone  Effects on human health: Low concentrations of ground. nose and throat. Causes burning eyes. including: a.