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Guide To Advanced Control

Systems

API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 557


FIRST EDITION, DECEMBER 2000

American
Petroleum
Institute

Helping You
Get The Job
Done Right?

COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute


Licensed by Information Handling Services
COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
Guide To Advanced Control
Systems

Downstream Segment

API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 557


FIRST EDITION, DECEMBER 2000

American
Petroleum
Institute

Helping You
Get The Job
Done Right.""

COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute


Licensed by Information Handling Services
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FOREWORD

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and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
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COPYRIGHT American Petroleum Institute
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CONTENTS

Page

1 GENERAL............................................................ 1
1.1 Introduction ...................................................... 1
1.2 Scope ........................................................... 1
1.3 Definitions ....................................................... 1

2 CONTROL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS AND TYPES ........................... 3


2.1 Regulatory Control System Functions ................................. 3
2.2 Model-Based Control Systems ....................................... 3
2.3 Optimizers ....................................................... 5
2.4 ExpertSystems.................................................... 6
2.5 Fuzzy Logic Systems............................................... 6
2.6 Batch and Sequence Systems ........................................ 6
2.7 BlendingSystems ................................................. 6
2.8 Oil Movement Systems ............................................. 6

3 OPPORTUNlTY IDENTIFICATION AND JUSTIFICATION .................. 6


3.1 Resource Requirements............................................. 6
3.2 The Economic Drivers.............................................. 6
3.3 Identification of Potential Applications................................. 7
3.4 Identification and Quantificationof Benefits-Feasibility Study............. 7

4 ADVANCED CONTROL PROJECTS .................................... 12


4.1 MasterPlan ..................................................... 12
4.2 Project Execution Plan............................................. 12
4.3 ImplementationIssues ............................................. 12
4.4 Personnel Commitments ........................................... 13
4.5 Schedule........................................................ 14
4.6 Application Documentation......................................... 16

5 TECHNOLOGY CONSIDERATIONS .................................... 17


5.1 HardwarePlatform................................................ 17
5.2 Software Platform ................................................ 18

6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS .......................................... 19


6.1 General Design Issues ............................................. 19
6.2 Plant Data Collection for Application Design........................... 20
6.3 Functional Considerations.......................................... 21
6.4 ManipulatedVariable Functions ..................................... 23
6.5 Operator Interface ................................................ 24
6.6 Application Tools ................................................. 25
6.7 Engineering Graphics ............................................. 25
6.8 Performance Monitoring ........................................... 26

7 APPLICATIONMAINTENANCE....................................... 26
7.1 Personnel Requirements ........................................... 27
7.2 Continuing Training............................................... 27
7.3 Change Control .................................................. 27
7.4 Performance Monitoring ........................................... 28
7.5 DocumentationMaintenance........................................ 28

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CONTENTS

Page

Figures
1.1 Refinery OperationFunctions .......................................... 2
2.1 Control and Automation Functions...................................... 4
2.2 Operating Conditions versus Constraints ................................. 5
3.1 Improvements from Reduced Variability ................................ 10
6.1 Advanced Control System/Regulatory Control System Interface ............. 24

Tables
3.1 Advanced Control Benefits ............................................ 8
3.2 Benefit Feasibility Study Steps ......................................... 9
4.1 Typical Advanced Control Project Tasks ................................ 14
4.2 Advanced Control System Training Program............................. 16

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Guide To Advanced Control Systems

1 General 1.2.4 Technology Considerations


The technical issues that should be considered in selecting
1. I INTRODUCTION
advancedcontrol system hardware and software are described
This recommended practice addresses the implementation in Section 5.
and ownership of advanced control systems for refìnery pur-
poses. The major sections of this recommended practice are 1.2.5 Design Considerations
described below.
Application design features needed to support control
Figure 1.1 illustrates the major functions involved in the
functions, operator interfaces and engineer interfaces are
efficient and economic operation of a refìnery and shows
described in Section 6.
where advanced control fits into this scheme. Advanced con-
trol systems form a fundamental building block on which
1.2.6 Application Maintenance
many of the other functions depend.
Ongoing maintenance recommended practices for
1.2 SCOPE advanced control system applications are described in
Section 7.
This recommended practice describes commonly used
practices for the opportunity identification, justification,
1.3 DEFINITIONS
project management, implementation and maintenance of
advanced control system applications in refinery services. The following are definitions of terms used in this recom-
This practice is not intended to spec@ the use or selection of mended practice. Also refer to API RP 554 for deñnitions of
any particular technique over another, nor is intended to related terms.
describe specific applications. It may be used as the basis for
defining the work processes and common functions required 1.3.1 Personnel
to defìne, implement and maintain advanced control system
applications. 1.3.1. I advanced control engineering specialist:
The practices described in this document are applicable to An individual trained and experienced in the design and
dl advanced control system applications. Users who are implementation of advanced control systems. This individual
experienced in advanced control may have developed their is knowledgeablein process engineering, process control the-
own equivalent practices. This document is not intended to ory and application and computer applications. An advanced
supersede user practices that have been found to be accept- control engineering specialist may be an employee of a refin-
able or to require that the practices described in this document ing company, an employee of a control systems manufacturer
be followed if they are not appropriate to the circumstance. or consultant,an independent consultant or other contractor.
Selection of a specific hardware platform, software plat- 1.3.1.2 advanced control support specialist: An
form or application software is not within the scope of this individual charged with monitoring and maintaining an exist-
recommended practice. ing advanced control application. This individual may be a
unit process engineer, a plant control system engineer or other
1.2.1 Control Systems Functions and Types individual who is knowledgeablein the specific application.
The functions and characteristics of commonly used 1.3.1.3 advanced control user: An individual who is
advanced control systems applications are described in Sec- the ultimate user of an advanced control system application.
tion 2. This individual may be a process operator or an engineer
charged with operation of the advanced control system appli-
1.2.2 Opportunity Identification and Justification cation.
General procedures for identification of advanced control 1.3.1.4 operator: A person or persons that is responsible
systems applications which may provide economic or opera- for day-to-day operation of a process unit and its advanced
tional benefit to a facility are described in Section 3. control applications.
1.3.1.5 project engineer: An individual responsible for
1.2.3 Advanced Control Projects
the execution of an advanced control project. This individual
General concepts for planning and management of an may have a variety of responsibilities depending on the nature
advanced control project are described in Section4. and scope of a particular project. Primary among these is
1

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2 PRACTICE557
API RECOMMENDED

Corporate management/Enterprise resource planning systems


I I

I
I
Facility management
I
I

Multi plant integration Product, intermediate and raw material


planning and operating objectives

Operation planning and optimization Maintenance,


process analysis on-line optimization engineering and
administration

Blending and oil movements

Field measurements, control elements and communications

Figure 1.I-Refinery Operation Functions

management of the project resources, budget and schedule. These types of applications are referred to by terms such as
On smaller projects, an advanced control engineering special- advancedprocess control (APC), model based predictive con-
ist may also perform the duties of the project engineer. trol (MPC), matrix control, multivariablecontrol (MVC) etc.
1.3.1.6 unit engineer: An engineer charged with engi- 1.3.2.2 controller:The collection of functions associated
neering tasks directly associated with the day to day opera- with either a regulatory control system or an advancedcontrol
tion of a process unit or area. In some cases, this engineer system. In the context of this document, controller used with-
may also be assigned the duties of an advanced control sup- out any other description is intended to mean an advanced
port specialist. control system.
1.3.2.3 manufacturing execution system: An appli-
1.3.2 ControllerTypes cation that is directed towards management of manufacturing
1.3.2.1 advanced control system application: Any operations. This includes issues such as manufacturing sched-
control system application that has functions beyond those uling, raw material management and resource planning.
commonly associated with regulatory control systems. An 1.3.2.4 optimization: A process control function that
advanced control systems application may be characterized determines the operating conditions that maximize the eco-
by any of the following: nomic benefit of an operation within a set of constraints. An
a. A control system that controls or manipulates multiple optimization scheme may address any number of objectives
variables in order to maintain one or more operating such as maximization of a particular product stream, minimi-
objectives. zation of operating cost or maximization of an equipment
b. A control system that performs calculations beyond those item’s operating life. Typically optimization programs are
that could normally be performed using standard algorithms executed at a frequency of hours to days and can take a few
available in DCS systems or multi-loop controllers. minutes to an hour to run.
c. A control system that may utilize a significant number 1.3.2.5 multivariable control: A form of an advanced
of DCS standard algorithms connected together in a com- control system application in which several control variables
plex manner. are maintained at desired values through a complex relation-
d. A control system that is executed in a higher level comput- ship. Several manipulated variables may be adjusted simulta-
ing resource such as a process control computer or neously in order to maintain an economic or other operating
implemented in a programming environment at lower control objective. Multivariablecontrollers typically execute at a fre-
levels, irrespective of the complexity of the computations. quency of one to five minutes.

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GUIDETO ADVANCED
CONTROL SYSTEMS 3

1.3.2.6 regulatory control: A control application in 1.3.3.9 service factor: A measure of the effectiveness of
which generally one controlled variable is maintained at a an advanced control system application. It is more than a
desired value by manipulation of one manipulated vari- measure of whether the application is on or off. This usually
able. Regulatory control may also include control applica- is a complex calculation that is based on the numbers and
tions that utilize common calculations or predictions. types of subfmctionswithin an application,the percentage of
Examples are steam drum level controls, combustion con- time that the functions are operating and the relative eco-
trols or mass flow calculations. nomic weighting of each subfunction.

1.3.3 ControllerTerminology 2 Control System Functions and Types


1.3.3.1 advanced control system: The combination This section describes functions common to advanced con-
of the hardware platform, software platform and applica- trol system applications and related systems. Figure 2.1 illus-
tion software necessary to implement an advanced control trates basic control system functions and how they relate to
system application. this and other recommended practices.
1.3.3.2 automatic shedding: A function by which an
2.1 REGULATORY CONTROL SYSTEM
advanced control system application fully or partially turns
FUNCTIONS
off and control is returned to the regulatory control scheme.
This may be a result of invalid input values, inability to Regulatory control systems provide fundamental control of
deliver controller outputs or inability of the controllerto meet process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, and
its objectives. level by manipulating fìnal control elements such as control
valves or electric motors. The standard control algorithm used
1.3.3.3 constraints: Limits in the process or equipment
in these systems is proportional-integral-derivative (PD),
that should not be exceeded. Constraints may take the form of
although alternate algorithms and calculations may also be
physical limits such as a design temperature or pressure or
used. The functions of regulatory control systems are covered
other pre-defìnedprocess limits such as a maximum feed rate,
in API RP 554.
composition or other value. Constraints may be either maxi-
Complex regulatory control systems typically combine a
mum values or minimum values such as flow pressure, tem-
number of functions used in regulatory control systems to
perature or process stream qualities.
meet a control objective. Typical applications include:
1.3.3.4 controlled variables: Process values that are Cascade control
maintained by the control system by making appropriate Dynamic compensation, e.g., filtering or time-shifting
adjustments to manipulated variables. of variables
Variable gain adaptive controllers or other non-linear
1.3.3.5 disturbance variables: Process input values
algorithms
associated with an advanced control system application that Calculated variables such as pressure and temperature
are measured but are not controlled by the application. An
compensation of flow or other simple computations
advanced control system application often takes control Override control using output selectors
actions to maintain the control objectives when disturbance
Ratio controllers
variables change. Examples are ambient temperature, feed
The regulatory control system must be configured to allow
from another unit, etc.
remote access to its setpoints so the advanced control system
1.3.3.6 linear programming: An algebraic computa- can write to them. It must also have a mechanism to automat-
tion optimization technique that uses two or more linear ically disable these remote setpoints or go to a pre-deter-
equations that relate process or economic variables. The mined status if the advanced control system has failed.
linear program solves the relationship to maximize or min-
imize the objective function that is usually an economic 2.2 MODEL-BASED CONTROL SYSTEMS
measure of operating efficiency.
Model-based control systems use a mathematical model of
1.3.3.7 manipulated variables: Process values that are the process to improve process performance. The model may
adjusted by the advanced control system application to meet be based on process engineering principles or may be are
operating targets and desired values of controlled variables. described below.
1.3.3.8 process variable: An indication of process
2.2.1 First Principle Model-BasedAdvanced
performance, which are directly measured using instru-
Control Systems
mentation sensors and transmitters, values that are com-
puted from these variables or values obtained from First principle models are derived from the fundamental
laboratory testing or other techniques. mass and energy balances, and associated thermodynamics,

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4 PRACTICE557
API RECOMMENDED

Plant wide planning and optimization

Plant business network

Unit optimizers

Plant control network - RP 554


I I

ANSVISA S84.01/RP 554 movement controls

Process transmission systems - RP 552


1 Tank gauge and
valve comm

Figure 2.1-Control and Automation Functions

equilibrium and reaction kinetic relationships. These models b. The model is generally used to predict the effects of con-
can be used to improve control system accuracy or range trol moves and determine the proper actions.
when the characteristics of the process are well understood. c. The controllerhandles constraints.
Typical applications are: d. The controllercan optimize performancewithin the defini-
Computation of heat and material balances or reactor tions available in the process model.
yields and conversions
Computation of inferred process variables that are not The system model allows the controllers to relate multiple
measured manipulated variables (h4Vs) which the controlleradjusts and
Improvement of control system operating range by multiple disturbance variables (DVs) which the controller
cannot adjust to multiple control variables (CVs). It simulta-
including non-linear effects
neously adjusts all MV’s to drive all CV’s to their “best”
First principal models typically are steady state relation-
operating points.
ships and become difficult to apply in processes that exhibit
The process models determine the “best” operating
complex or variable dynamic behavior.
point based on user-defined constraints and process eco-
nomic information. Typically, the best operating point is
2.2.2 System Response Based Advanced Control
where the maximum number of system constraints possi-
Systems
ble is reached. Figure 2.2 shows the general relationships
System response models are based on observations of of operating points and constraints. This is a simplified
actual system dynamic performance.They are usually applied presentation, as in most real applications, multiple operat-
when a process is too complex to use first principal models or ing values and constraints exist.
when multiple interactingvariables must be controlled. Com-
mon characteristicsare: 2.2.2.1 Multivariable,Matrix Based Systems
a. The control system is capable of performing multivariable These systems use empirical models obtained by testing the
control. process to iden@ its characteristics and interrelationships.

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GUIDETO ADVANCED
CONTROL SYSTEMS 5

Operating raige wlo


range WIO
advanced controls
r
I Cooling
constraint

Controlled variable

Figure 2.2-Operating Conditions versus Constraints

Matrix controllers use linear models to relate MVs and DVs to 2.3 OPTIMIZERS
CVs. They may also incorporatetransformationsof inputs and
outputs to handle process nonlinearities. Some versions of ûptimizers provide a computation method to determine the
“best” operating point based on user-definedeconomic objec-
these controllershave been extended to use non-linear models.
These controllers have been used in the refining industry for tives and a model of the process. The outputs of optimizers
several years and have evolved considerably. are usually steady state objectives for other controllers such
as multivariablecontrollers that handle dynamic control.
ûptimizers may operate in an off-line or on-line mode. In
2.2.2.2 Neural Net Systems
the off-line mode the model is not receiving dynamic data
Neural networks are capable of providing similar fmction- from the process. In the on-line mode key real-time process
ality as matrix controllers. The fundamental difference data is connected to the model.
between neural net and matrix controllersis a learning engine An on-line mode application may be on-line open loop or
that develops the process model based on observations. The on-line closed loop. In on-line closed-loop mode the outputs
learning engine behaves somewhat like an optimizer that are automatically passed to the dynamic controls. In on-line
combines observations and user-supplied rules to generate a open-loop mode, the optimizer outputs are presented to the
process model. operator, and the operator is responsible for passing changes
Neural net controllers require substantial historical data to the dynamic control.
from which the model is created. If such data is not available, In on-line applications,significant data validation and rec-
an extended data acquisition period may be required. In some onciliation are necessary. It may also be necessary that steady
applications step testing is done to “train” the neural net. operations exist when the optimizer is run.Some more pow-
erfiil optimizers may not require this.
Neural net controllers can produce non-linear models and
can adapt the model to process changes without requiring for-
mal process testing. Typically, these adaptations are per- 2.3.1 Imbedded Linear Programs
formed off-line using parameters generated by the on-line Many multi-variable controllers contain an imbedded lin-
neural net application. ear program to solve an optimization problem. The imbedded
Neural net controllers are a recent development and do not LPs are based on linear relationships between CVs and costs.
yet have the same experience or success base as matnx-based Typically, these applications address a small number of pro-
controllers. cess variables, usually less than 20 variables.

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6 PRACTICE557
API RECOMMENDED

2.3.2 Unit Level On-Line Optimizers 2.7 BLENDING SYSTEMS


Unit level optimizers may be used to compute operating Component blending is used in various fuel production
targets for one or more unit multi-variable controllers. These complexes. These systems are comprised of blend ratio regu-
optimizers typicaiiy use a much larger number of variables latory control elements, property estimators and optimizers
and may have thermodynamic, equilibrium or kinetic rela- that adjust recipes to meet final property specifications. The
tionships built into them. They usuaiiy require functions for control systems used include advanced strategies as described
data validation, reconciliation and parameter estimation. Unit in this document, but blending practices are not within the
level optimizers typicaiiy are able to access economic data scope of this recommended practice.
from external sources. Unit optimizers may use more rigor-
ous non-linear models to identify optimum operating condi- 2.8 OIL MOVEMENT SYSTEMS
tions for the overall unit.
oil movement systems use heuristic rule-based systems
2.3.3 PlantWide Optimizers and are not within the scope of this recommended practice.
Linking several unit level optimizers allows the system to
locate a global optimum for the entire plant. In practice this is 3 Opportunity Identification and
an extremely complex undertaking. This type of optimization Justification
requires rigorous models to ensure accurate results. Data rec-
onciliation with overd material balances and yield account- 3.1 RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
ing systems is a critical requirement for plant level The identification of improved control opportunities is a
optimizers. For example, as the product slate from one unit is multi-disciplinary task with operations planning, operations,
the feed to the next, a smaii error introduced due to a poor process and control application knowledge and experience
model or conflicting data will propagate throughout the entire
playing the most significant roles. Refiners’experiences have
optimizer, which can provide an inferior result.
demonstrated that the essential element of success in imple-
Use of these optimizershas often been limited by the accu-
menting advanced control projects is the engineers’ knowl-
racy of the unit optimizerswhen applied to very large systems.
edge, experience and ability. While appropriate technology is
The computing load for these optimizers and the volume of
an important factor, it cannot make up for lack of skill or
input data can be immense. Some success has been obtained
using off-line linear program models of a number of plants. experience in the personnel implementing the application.
A benefits feasibility study for a single process advanced
2.4 EXPERT SYSTEMS control application can be handled by a suitably skilled indi-
vidual relying on specialist support where required. However,
Rule based systems are used in refìnery applications where as the scope of the study increases, particularly when study-
predeterminedevents exist. They are well suited for providing
ing a complete refìnery, a small mixed discipline team
detailed information to operations based on events that have
approach is recommended. The team should include repre-
occurred in the process. Typically, these systems are used in
sentation from site process/planning, operations and control
an advisory capacity and are not directly connected to a con-
trol system. Abnormal Situation Management is an emerging system engineering.
application of expert systems. Benefit identification requires both technical and inter-per-
sonal communication skills. Identification and realization of
2.5 FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEMS benefits requires:
Fuzzy logic is used when the rules followed are inexact. It a. Understanding the economic driving forces for the
is a technique which can transform graded or qualified rules, processes.
such as if a “temperature gets too hot then slowly increase the b. Understandinghow the processes work and interact.
cooling water”, into specific actions. Fuzzy controllers are a c. Understanding the process’s real limitations and con-
developing technology in the process industries. Fuzzy con- straints .
trollers may be imbedded in equipment controllers provided d. Obtaining buy-in for the benefits and solutions from the
with packages. Some DCS systems provide fuzzy control advanced control users and support specialists.
blocks as part of their algorithm set.

2.6 BATCH AND SEQUENCE SYSTEMS 3.2 THE ECONOMIC DRIVERS

These control strategies are used for operations that have Long and short-range business plans should be the
finite steps executed in a predetermined order. Examples are basis for evaluating potential benefits. These plans must
reformer regeneration, water treating, coke handling, etc. reflect the impact of a number of typical economic driv-
These operations are described in detail in ISA S88.01 and ers. Not all of them will be applicable to a particular mar-
are not within the scope of this recommended practice. ket or refinery, but they are indicative of the forces that

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GUIDETO ADVANCED
CONTROL SYSTEMS 7

determine refining economics. Examples of economic overall methodology is outlined in Table 3.2. For existing
drivers that must be considered are: plants, data can be obtained based on observed operation. For
Business Management Drivers new plants, these data could be obtained from assessment of
Financial objectives equivalent data from similar operations or process models.
Environmentaland safety objectives
Process unit turnaround schedules 3.4.1 Application Objectives
Local Plant Drivers The first step in the feasibility study is to identify the
Crude and other feed stocks and finished product pricing objectives of the proposed control application. This can be
Volume and shipping methods for crude and other feed achievedthough a series of discussions with the site represen-
stock tatives from the planning, technical and operations functions.
Demand and shipping method of finished products It is important that process constraints/iimits and production
Product margins targets/specificationsare examined and challenged. Identified
Utility usage and prices constraints should be considered for testing and data collec-
tion, as they may be perceived rather than real.
Local Economy Issues It is also important to iden@ the effects that proposed
Seasonal variations in product demand, quality and control improvementsmay have on other units or utilities. For
supply example, an increase in an intermediate product stream rate
The economy in which the plant operates, e.g., open or may exceed the capabilities of downstream equipment. How-
closed market economic operation ever, the benefits of selling any excess intermediate should be
Governmentinfluence and requirements considered.

3.3 IDENTIFICATIONOF POTENTIAL 3.4.2 Data Collection and Validation


APPLICATIONS
3.4.2.1 Data Requirements
Most opportunities are identified during discussions with
site personnel from the process, planning and operations The objective of this step is to iden@ all the necessary
functions and a preliminary assessment of the process perfor- data and information which will quan@ the actual perfor-
mance data. The following are useful guidelines for this pre- mance of the process relative to its operating targets and the
liminary assessment: control objectives.
The following types of data should be collected in suffi-
a. Review actual plant performance against production/oper- cient quantity to be statistically significant and consistent:
ating targets.
b. Review plant performance against best of class or other a. Operating targets-such as product qualities, rates, yields.
benchmarks. b. Actual values achieved-feed and product rates, yields
c. Review the economic drivers added value potentials. and laboratory and on-line analyzer results.
d. Consider any anticipated process plant changes. c. Process operating constraints and limits, reasons and val-
e. Ident@ improvementsthat have been realized by existing ues-this could include throughputs; pressure/ flow/
advanced control system applications. temperature limits, valve position and equipment capacity
f. Ident@ opportunities for control improvementsusing rig- limits, limitations imposed by other processes or planning
orous plant steady state models that have been tuned to restrictions,environmentalrestrictions or safety restrictions.
correlate with actual plant data. d. Availability of process (stream days) and reasons for out-
ages or restricted operation.
A number of improvement areas which may be considered e. Measurement availability- analyzers, flows, etc., includ-
are listed in Table 3.1. ing accuracy, repeatability and reliability.
The outcome of this preliminary assessment is a list of f. Discrete events such as coke drum sequencing, dryer
potential applications and their benefits. This list should be switches, etc.
reviewed with appropriate personnel to rank the potential g. Control system performanceindicators such as poorly per-
benefits and identify those which appear to have high poten- forming control loops, control valves, etc.
tial and which should be further studied. h. Future plans and timing for process modifications and
their potential impact.
3.4 IDENTIFICATIONAND QUANTIFICATIONOF
i. Production operating target changes which may be
BENEFITS-FEASIBILITY STUDY
planned.
Each of the top ranked items identified from examination j. Future operational flexibility requirements.
of the potential benefits should be considered in detail. The k. Economic driver data and long-term plan. See Section 3.2.

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8 PRACTICE557
API RECOMMENDED

Table 3.1-Advanced Control Benefits


Improvement Area Potential Benefits
Yield Product upgrading
Reduced variability
Reduced quality give-away on intermediate or final product
2ontrol closer to targets
Stability Reduced product downgrading
Reduced energy usage
Production closer to constraintsfor better control
Throughput Higher production by better operation against process equipment constraintsand limitssuch as:
rray vaporhquid loading
2ondensedreboilerduty
Pump/control valve capacity
Heater/vessel temperatures
Pressures/flowsilevels
2ompressor parameters
Minimization of unwanted material in feedstock (i.e. nC4 in alkylation feed)
Reactors improved reactor performance by better control of:
Weighted average inlet temperature
Weighted average bed temperature
Hydrogen to feedrecycle
Reactant and other key process variables
Energy Usage Reduce total energy costs by better control of:
Reflux ratios
Pressure minimization,
Reduced stripping steam
Pumparound heat recovery
Heaters Improved efficiency of heater operation through:
Swing fuel firing control to maximize usage of lower value or variable fuel
Injection steam ratio control where appropriate
Multi-user control strategy @.e.,Hot Oil Systems)
Pass outlet temperature balance control
Miscellaneous Enhanced understanding of the process for better management of all site functions
improved equipment reliability due to more stable operation at intended conditions
Sharing of best practices from other applications

Assumptions will have to be made where necessary data Data from several periods during the operational run of a
and information are unavailable. Assumptions relative to unit may be required. This will account for effects such as
missing data and the impact on the confidence of eco- seasonal changes to plans and targets, ambient conditions or
nomic predictions should be discussed with and accepted start-of-run to end-of-run conditions that may have a signifi-
by site personnel. cant impact on potential benefits.
The representative period(s) will be used for pro-rating the
3.4.2.2 Representative Period of Operation potential benefit to an annual basis using an agreed on stream
It is important that one or more representative periods of days per year. Stream days vary between processes and sites.
operation be selected and agreed on as the basis for benefit Three-hundred-and-fiftystream days per year are often used
identification. These should reflect ‘normal’ operation of the as a default when no specific information is available.
process-no shutdowns, processing deficiencies nor unusual Failure to identify and agree on realistic representative
planning/production requirements. Any variation due to periods can lead to misleading and erroneous benefit pre-
weather or day/night operation should be included. One dictions. For example, the actual and audited benefits of a
month minimum is recommended, particularly when infre- crude unit application were $900,000 for the summer
quent (once per day) laboratory data will be used in the analy- months and only $100,000 for the winter months. The
sis. The data analyzed must be statistically significant and original feasibility study had been based on summer oper-
consistent. ation only ($1.8MM/year). Benefits were therefore over-
predicted by $800,000 per year.

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CONTROL SYSTEMS 9

Table 3.2-Benefit Feasibility Study Steps process rates, improved product quality, reduced giveaway or
similar economic benefits.
1. Identify applicationobjectives .
Another valuable analysis is to compare operations vari-
2. Identify representative period of operation. ability among operating crews. Often significant benefits can
I 3. Collect and validate process data . I be quantified by comparing “best” operation vs. average
I 4. ~nalyzedata for performance againsttargets. I operation within the site.
Skill is required in selecting which prediction method to
I 5. Identify control applicationimprovement. I employ. Limitations in information or current capability
6. Analyze control infrastructureperformance and requirements. may indicate one method when in fact another is more
7. Apply appropriate economics. appropriate. As discussed above, it is also necessary to
8. Categorizebenefits on a confidence basis. consider the time weighted average of control targets when
those targets are changing.
I 9. Review and agree benefits analysiswith site. I The prediction of reduced variability may then affect the
I 10. Set-up post-applicationbenefit audit basis. I overall process yield, feed rate or energy usage. Economic
factors for these effects should be readily available from the
3.4.2.3 Performance DataValidation site. The same data can be obtained from a rigorous steady
state process model and appropriate pricing information.
Collected data must be validated before it is used in
Such a model can also be used to assess the impact of the pre-
benefits computations. Typical steps taken to validate the
dicted change(s) on other process parameters to confìrm that
data include:
the change is realistic and viable with respect to known pro-
a. Filter out any obvious bad process data, including data cess operating limits/constraints.
from identified ‘non-normal’ operation in the representative Where no acceptable analysis technique exists, it may
period(s). be possible to infer benefit information from similar
b. Carry out a simple statistical mean and standard deviation applications. However, this will impact on the confidence
analysis of the absolute actual values of targets and con- of the prediction.
straints as appropriate.
3.4.3.2 Practical Considerations
c. Compare to site-wide data reconciliation.
One hundred percent of an identified benefit is rarely
Note: Frequently the statistics vary as a function of the targets set
and often reflect the non-linear response of the process. In these
achievable in practice. Perfect control is not possible and
cases, it is more meaningful to perform the statistical average and some small, but positive, give-away will generally be required
standard deviation on the difference between the target and actual to ensure that market product specificationsare not exceeded.
values and to calculate a time weighted average for the actual value. The existing control performance affects both the benefits
prediction and the ability to realize the benefit with the
3.4.3 Control Improvement Prediction intended control application. Additional measurement and
control capabilitiesmay be required and their availability and
3.4.3.1 Analysis Techniques utilization affect the realizable benefit. The use of on-line
An important method in analyzing potential control analyzers, either physical or inferential, may be required to
improvement benefits is statistical analysis. Reducing the realize a significant part of the benefit. Analyzer availability
standard deviation of controlled variables (targets, set- must be pro-rated into the prediction.
points) and moving operation closer to constraints is well Process constraintsand plant limitationsprovide limits to a
accepted in practice as a basis for predicting the improve- benefit. However, actual constraintsor limits should be estab-
ment achievable. Often a 50% reduction is assumed, but lished on an objective basis as limits may be more perceived
the current value of the standard deviation should be con- than real or could be relaxed by improved control or minor
sidered and evaluated before assuming a reduction. Often, physical modification.
a 50% reduction, can be somewhat conservative as shown Significant product yield pattern changes are often a result
by actual audits of control applications. of these evaluations. However, the prediction must reflect the
present and future market situation. Predicted benefits will
It should also be noted that the improvementin stability of
have to show up in the bottom line of the site’s operation.
the controlled variables is often achieved by more frequent
adjustments of the manipulated variables. However, the net
3.4.3.3 Synergystic Effects
effect is a reduction in variability of the controlled variables.
Figure 3.1 illustrates how reduction in variability results in The realization of a predicted benefit can have synergys-
the ability to operate closer to process constraints,which gen- tic effects. These can either increase or decrease the ulti-
erally translates into tangible benefits related to increased mate benefits.

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Operation after
advanced control

Controlled Variable

Figure 3.1-Improvements from Reduced Variability

Examples of effects that may increase benefits include: recovery of additional butanebutene components for *la-
tion feed can add unwanted n-butane and n-pentane which in
a. Reductions in stripping steam usage by implementing
turn adversely affect yield, quality and heat requirements in
ratio control results in a reduced sour water stripper pro-
the aklyation unit.
cess load.
b. The reduction in the furfural wash ratio in a lube oil plant e. Some predictions can only be taken for part of the time. As
to minimize quality give-away and improve raffìnate yield an example, the control objective of butane recovery in a deb-
also produces a throughput increase for some feeds and fur- utanizer is a function of seasonal changes in demand,
fural recovery section heat demand reductions for all feeds. operational constraints and quality specifications. For exam-
ple, summer-to-winterchange in gasoline specifications limit
Examples of effects that may decrease benefits include: the amount of butane that gasoline can contain, plus summer-
a. Increase in a product recovery that cannot be handled by a time demand for LPG components is generally low.
downstreamunit or sold at a profit. Therefore, summer pricing of butane may not justify addi-
b. Improved controls on an upstream unit reduce potential tional recovery.
of a downstream unit compared to a stand-alone look at
the downstream unit. For example, stabilizing an upstream 3.4.3.4 Existing Control Performance
unit may reduce variability in a downstream unit, thus
shifting potential benefits for the downstream unit to the The performance of an advanced control system appli-
upstream unit. cation can be limited by the performance of the basic regu-
c. An existing control infrastructuremay not be able to sup- latory controls and infrastructure with which it interfaces.
port the proposed control application fully. Examples include It is imperative to review this infrastructure and make the
low on-line analyzer availability and poor basic control improvements required to support the advanced control
performance. system application.
d. Changes in the yield of upstream units may adversely The review must be undertaken with the knowledge of the
affect the performance of downstreamunits. For example, the objectives and requirements of the proposed Advanced Con-

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CONTROL SYSTEMS 11

trol System Applications. Examples of the areas which improvements may reduce the increment benefits
should be addressed include: attributable to the advanced control application.
a. On-line analyzers-current performance and availabil-
3.4.4 Economic Prediction
ity -Is improvement required? What additional analyzers or
analyzer modifications are required? The final economic benefits predictions require combining
b. Regulatory controls-current performance- Are modi- the identified control improvementsand operating economics
fications or loop tuning required? Is a major upgrade discussed above.
prerequisite to implementation of the advanced control Where possible the predicted benefits should be con-
applications? firmed against production performance monitoring. For
c. Control facilities maintenance-Is field equipment reli- example, performance monitoring should indicate similar
ability high enough to support an Advanced Control System magnitudes from assessment of product give-away or loss.
Application? Where available plant wide LP models can also help back
d. Control valve performance problems-Are valves appro- check predicted benefits.
priate to the service or are improvements in valve dynamics
or precision required? 3.4.5 Benefits Assessment
e. Additional required measurements- Are additional flow,
Predicted benefits should be assessed to identify probabili-
column dBerential pressures, levels, etc. measurements
ties of realizing the benefits. Idenming benefits in terms of
needed to support the advanced control applications?
confidence can be very helpful in supporting financial cases
f. Are inferential models required because analyzers are not
for applications and quanming of economic risk. Generally,
reusable or because the cycle time is long or results are not
benefits fall into three areas:
frequent enough for the control.
g. New or upgraded control facilities-Often existing a. Benefits which can be rigorously quantified.
regulatory control schemes must be improved or modi- b. Benefits which can be positively identified in a qualitative
fied. Occasionally equipment cannot be operated in the sense but less rigorously quantified.
manner intended and the control objectives must be modi- c. Benefits which are less tangible. These benefits cannot be
fied. Examples are: readily quantified, but are generally recognized in the indus-
- Heaters-A control objective may be to improve try. The quantification of these benefits may be somewhat
efficiency by air trim control, but the basic require- subjective. These benefits tend to be those derived from the
ments of box pressure and emissions compliance improved knowledge of the process, better operator inter-
must also be met. faces, improved efficiencies such as better operator
- Local Controllers-Many sidestream strippers have
utilization,reduced maintenance and faster troubleshooting.
local pneumatic level controllers with perhaps an
indication in the control room. Often the level con- 3.4.6 Benefits ReportinglFunctionalSpecification
trol valve position is identified as a constraint. This An advanced control feasibility report should be prepared.
requires relocating the controller to the DCS or mak- This document should address the following items:
ing the control valve position available to the
advanced control system. a. An overview of the process.
- Measurements/Control Loops-Stability improve- b. Current and future operating objectives.
ment may require upgrade of existing regulatory c. Economics used for the benefits prediction.
controls. For example, existing level and tempera- d. Benefits prediction analysis, including assumptions made
ture control loops may need to be modified to and references to all data sources.
include cascade flow control. New measurements e. Functional specification and scope definition of
may be necessary for identified constraints. Often, application:
side streams are not flow controlled, but the - Description of control objectives.
advanced control scheme may require it. In this - List of control UO.
instance a flow measurement element and flow con- - Implementationplatform requirements.
troller may need to be added. - List controllmeasurementupgrades required.
- Pre-Control Project Improvements-The feasibly - Control infrastructureupgrade requirements.
study invariably results in identification of any num- f. Preliminary estimates of implementation costs, including
ber of improvements.For example, loop tuning, con- the following:
trol valve sizing and performance,improved sensors, - Application hardware and software including licence
etc., can be made without implementing the fees.
advanced control application. The benefits of these - Engineering and project management.

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- Owners costs, support, training, documentation. d. Identification of existing and planned control networks
- Measurement additions and upgrades. and an expansion path or evolution plan for those networks.
- Regulatory control upgrades. e. Definition of process control implementation standards
- Contract services. and practices for the facility.
- Travel and living expenses. f. Identification of critical timing issues with respect to unit
g. Preliminary schedule. turnarounds or other shutdownsthat may be opportunities for
h. Plans for post application audit. control and instrumentation system modifications, upgrades
or improvements.
3.4.7 Benefit Post-Application Audit Planning g. Milestones or schedule for review and update of the plan.
h. Identification of resources required to provide ongoing
Experience has demonstrated that post-implementation
application maintenance after implementationis complete.
audits are only as good as the quality of the pre-implementa-
tion (base case) information. The base case must be devel-
4.2 PROJECT EXECUTION PLAN
oped prior to implementation as this is the only time that the
correct base data exists. Prior to commencement of an advanced control project, a
The information and data produced for a benefits predic- project execution plan should be prepared as a guide to how
tion study provides a very sound basis (base case) for car- the objectives of an advanced control project will be realized.
rying out a subsequent post-application audit. The The plan should build on the information in the feasibility
application implementation will always be in the future. report and master plan. It should address the following:
Hence, it is important that the impact of any intervening Timing of the project
changes, both non control (process modifications,catalyst/ Functional specification
target changes etc.) and control are evaluated to check the Resource requirements
validity of the base case. Project benefits
Benefit validation plan
4 Advanced Control Projects Training plan
This section addresses aspects of project management Design plant testing and implementationplan
and execution that are unique to advanced control projects. Commissioningplan
This section is not intended to describe general project Post commissioningeconomic performance plan
execution issues such as budget, schedule and contracting, Ongoing application support and maintenance
but is intended to address those issues unique to advanced
control projects. 4.3 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
An advanced control project may consist of implemen-
Advanced control projects have a number of implementa-
tation of one or more applications. The scope may also
tion issues that are not normally associated with projects of
include infrastructure scope items such as field instrumen-
other types. The project engineer should be fully cognizant of
tation and measurements, and regulatory control enhance-
the requirements of the facility master plan and be prepared to
ments in addition to the applications and their associated
execute the project within the guidelines of this plan
hardware and software.
Common issues associated with implementation of
advanced control applications are:
4.1 MASTER PLAN
a. Advanced control projects often involve upgrades of exist-
Prior to embarking on any advanced control projects, the
ing control systems.This may range from wholesale upgrades
facility should have a defined Master Plan for Automation.
of obsolete instrumentation systems with modern DCS sys-
This plan should have the full support of facility management
tems to incremental upgrades of existing systems.
and have considered the strategic business impacts. The con-
b. Most advanced control projects will involve addition or
tent of an automation master plan will vary from facility to
upgrade of process measurements. Some of these measure-
facility, but should contain the following elements:
ments may not be accessible during normal operation and
a. Definition of the long-term objective of the master plan design of the control system may have to recognize delayed
and division of the work into phases. availability of certain measurements. Some of these measure-
b. Identification of benefits to be realized from each phase of ments may involve the use of on-line analyzers. Typically
the plan. analyzers must be installed and have a demonstrated perfor-
c. Definition of the control and computing equipment and mance history before the advanced control application can
software platforms that the facility will use. This may include use the measurement. The project budget and schedule must
definition of dowed applications for various hardware and recognize the costs and timing associated with new or
software alternatives. upgraded measurements.

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CONTROL SYSTEMS 13

c. New construction projects often involve implementation of the project. Attempting to implement a project without
of an advanced control system. Usually this implementation adequately skilled personnel will likely result in failure.
cannot proceed to any extent until after the construction has As compared to many other types of desigdconstruction
been completed and operating data are available. projects, advanced control projects require that a substantially
d. New construction projects may also involve modification higher percentage of total project costs be devoted to engi-
of existing units, which may also have existing advanced con- neering. Advanced control applications also require contin-
trol systems. The scope of new construction may be such that ued maintenance if a continuous benefit stream is to be
the process equipment, operating conditions or operating realized. Process facility management must recognize the
characteristicswill be differentthan those on which the exist- personnel commitments required and consider them with
ing advancedcontrol system was based. This may require that respect to benefits when making staffingdecisions.
the existing advanced control system be redesigned or modi-
fied before it can be recommissioned. 4.4.1 General Skill Set
e. Many advanced control projects are dependent on having a Personnel assigned to advanced control projects should be
unit shutdownto install measurementsthat may not be acces- familiar with the specific practices and techniques associated
sible during operation. Until these measurements are with such projects. This includes knowledge and experience
available, it may not be possible to completely perform pro- in process control engineering, control system hardware and
cess testing or control system implementation tasks. This software and general process engineering.
shutdown may also be required to implement control system
replacements or upgrades. Many times the turnaround or 4.4.2 Project Management Skills
shutdown schedule will determine the overall advanced con-
trol project schedule. Project management skills are an important factor in
f. Process safety management regulations usually require advanced control project execution. However, the manage-
that process hazard analysis be performed on the advanced ment methodology must recognize the unique characteris-
control system. This may require implementation of a tics of advanced control projects. This includes issues such
as critical path schedule items often being unit shutdown
management of change procedure to assure that develop-
driven, extended periods where little or no apparent
ments in system design are properly reviewed before they
progress is made due to these restrictions, and the often
are implemented.
extended implementation, testing and validation periods
g. An advanced control system’s design may be based on a associated with such projects.
number of different techniques. Among these are steady state
and dynamic process modeling to iden@ relationships 4.4.3 Specialist Support
among key operating variables and on stream testing of exist-
ing systems to derive empirical relationships. If significant Participation of specialists skilled in such areas as process
process modifications are being made in parallel with the engineering, computer implementation or analytical methods
advanced control project, some of this work may not be com- is a critical component of an advanced control project. These
pleted until the modificationshave been completed. individuals may be on the owner’s staff or may be contract or
h. An advanced control system project may require integra- manufacturer/vendoremployees. In any case, these individu-
tion of multiple software packages, possibly from more than als may need to devote a significant amount of time to the
one supplier. An integration plan, including identification of effort.
the organization and individuals responsible for ensuring that
all software works as intended. The use of a single “suite” of 4.4.4 Vendor or Consultant Support
software versus several applications from different sources In many cases, an owner may not have sufficient staff
should be evaluated. Not all applications in a suite of software with the requisite skills available. In these cases, use of
may be the best fit for a project, but this should be weighed manufacturer, vendor or consultant personnel can be
against the cost of implementing and maintaining software applied to leverage existing staff and realize the benefits of
integration among several vendor’s offerings. the applications. Should use of such personnel be neces-
sary, the owner should ensure that the personnel have the
4.4 PERSONNEL COMMITMENTS requisite skills and training.
Successful execution of an advanced control project
4.4.5 Plant Operations and Maintenance Support
requires commitment of an appropriate number of personnel
with the appropriate skill sets. As mentioned above, availabil- A key component of any successful advanced control
ity of personnel with the knowledge, experience and ability to project is the support and participation of plant operations and
undertake advanced control projects is critical to the success maintenance personnel. Operations input is a key factor in

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defining advanced control objectives and strategies and in 4.5 SCHEDULE


implementation, execution and maintenance of the control
Advanced control projects have scheduling characteristics
scheme, operator interfaces and backup and fallback strate-
that are unique to these types of projects. These characteris-
gies. It is highly recommended that a skilled operator be
tics often result in high activity periods separated by substan-
assigned to the project team.
tial periods of little or no apparent activity.
Maintenance input is necessary to identify requirements
Prior to starting an advanced control project, all significant
for the advanced control system to handle routine or
tasks and their expected duration must be deñned. All sched-
unscheduled maintenance of sensors, transmitters, control
ule constraints imposed by resource availability and opera-
elements and control equipment and engineering oriented
tions should be identified. Table 4.1 shows a list of typical
changes such as loop tuning, configuration changes, etc.
tasks associated with an advanced control project. The actual
These issues must be addressed as an integral part of the
tasks, duration and lead time may vary substantially depend-
advanced control system design.
ing on the scope of the application, plant operations and the
prior experience of the engineering, operations and mainte-
nance staff.

Task Typical Timing


Facility Master Automation Plan 12 to 60 months prior to project initiation
I Feasibility Study and Project Identification I 6 to 18 months prior to project initiation
I Project Implementation plan I At initiationof project
I Functional Specification I Start of project scope definition
Regulatory Control and Measurement Design 6- 12 months prior toprior to commissioning
Design Specification With Regulatory Control and Measurement Design
I Advanced Control Software Purchase I 6-12 months prior to commissioning
I Hardware Platform Purchase I 6-12 months prior to commissioning
I Model Identification Testing I 3-6 months prior to commissioning
Model Identification and Implementation 2-4 months prior to commissioning
Engineer Training Initial at software purchase. General training 4-6 months prior to
commissioning
Operator and Engineering Graphics Implementation 2-4 months prior to commissioning
Advanced Control Hardware and Software Installation 2-4 months prior to commissioning
Regulatory Control and Measurement Installation As allowed by operation and scope of design. Minimum 2-4 months
prior to commissioning
I Install,Test and Simulate Advanced Control Applications I 2-4 months prior to commissioning
Operator and Maintenance Training 1 month prior to commissioning and during commissioning
Commissioning 1 to 2 months-Subject to operations schedule-reference point for
other tasks
Initial Advanced Control System Operation Commissioning and 2-4 months after commissioning
Full Time Advanced Control System Operation 2-4 months after commissioning
Close-out Documentation 1-4 months after commissioning
I Post Commissioning Economics Audit I 3-6 months after commissioning
I Advanced Control System Adjustments and Modifications I 2-6 months after commissioning
I Life Cycle support I Ongoing
Note: These tasks are generalized and not all tasks may be applicable to all types of control technologies. Depending on the technology used,
additional or modified tasks may be necessary.

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CONTROL SYSTEMS 15

4.5.1 Resource AvailabiIity control application engineers during initial testing and com-
missioning. This training may occur over several weeks. The
Personnel with the skills required for implementation of an
training plan should include plans for on-process training of
advanced control project are in limited availability.As part of
shift operators and post commissioning training to update
the scheduling process, the types of skills and number of per-
personnel on changes that were made during commissioning.
sonnel required must be defined. The availability of such per-
In the event that the advanced controls are not operating,
sonnel may determine the project schedule.
the unit operator must be able to assume safe control of the
unit. The effectiveness and reliability of modern DCS and
4.5.2 Impact of Ongoing Operations
advanced control systems has resulted in much more stable
Implementation of advanced control projects is often operation of process units. As a result, operators have far less
dependent on ongoing operations. Shutdowns or turnarounds exposure to upset operation, or operation without the
may be required to add or modi3 process measurements or advanced control applications running. Additional training is
final control elements. required to assure that the operators are capable of handling
Process testing to develop process models or other relation- upset and degraded control conditions.
ships is usually required for any advanced control system. Process simulators are an effective means to provide this
This testing often can consume several weeks and may be training. The advances in computer technology have made
interrupted by unstable operations or operations at conditions implementation of high fidelity dynamic simulators an effec-
different than those contemplated by the advanced control tive and economical tool for training. These simulators can
system. It is also not unusual that after initial process testing accurately represent the behavior of a process, its control sys-
is completed, changes in operating conditions or objectives tems and the operator interface. Routine refresher training of
require additional testing. operators using dynamic simulators is becoming a viable and
effective means of maintaining operator skills.
4.5.3 Training
Training programs for operations,engineering and mainte- 4.5.4 Testing and Commissioning
nance personnel must be developed. Depending on the Relative to many other types of projects, the testing and
responsibilities and prior knowledge of the personnel to be commissioning processes for an advanced control systems
trained, the content and timing of this training will vary. Table are extended activities. Advanced control systems are usu-
5.1 shows an example of an overall training program. ally complex and require that a large number of variables
The training program must address initial training, and possibly several different operating conditions be
refresher training for existing personnel, training for new per- tested and monitored.
sonnel and training in operations without the advanced con- Testing for an advanced control application consists of off-
trol application in service. The training program should have line or simulated operation during which the performance of
provisions for tracking an individual’s training history. Based the application is checked for correct operation. Some of the
on local regulations, it may be necessary that operators be test objectives are to:
certified to operate the process and its control systems.
a. Ve@ input and output connections.
4.5.3.1 TrainingTools b. Ve@ bad value behavior and control application shed-
ding and degradation performance.
At a minimum, training manuals shall be prepared for c. Ve@ watchdog timer function for communication and
operator and maintenance technician training. The manual application program failure.
should describe: d. Ve@ that intermediate calculations produce expected
a. The application and its implementation. results.
b. All operator interfaces and reports. e. Ve@ that application predictions and control outputs are
c. A list of inputs and outputs associated with the application as expected.
and any requirements for their maintenance. f. Develop preliminary tuning.
d. Instructions on how to put the application on control and g. Exercise all operator, engineering and maintenance
take it off of control. interfaces.
e. Operations in degraded control modes-e.g., partial shed-
Commissioningconsists of placing the application on pro-
ding, operation with substituted values, etc.
cess and observing and adjusting its performance for a long
f. Application maintenance requirements and procedures.
enough period to demonstrate acceptable operation.
Initial classroom training can familiarizethe operators with Often initial commissioning is done on a limited basis
the general application. This formal training must be supple- with the advanced control scheme being operated during
mented with on-console training and support by the advanced day shifts or when a key operating crew is on shift. During

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Table 4.2-Advanced Control System Training Program


Organization Personnel Content Location Timing Method
Operations Console Operator1 Detailed Commis- Vendor facility or At functionaldesign Classroom, detailed
Liaison with APC sioning, Operation plant training facility wl continuation dur- simulators, on pro-
project w-wlo Controls ing implementation cess
and at commission-
ing
Other Operators Operation w-wlo On-site Prior to commission- Classroom, on con-
Controls ing and continuation sole & simulator
during commission-
ing
Operation Supervi- Overview of func- Office Prior to commission- Presentation
sion tions and objectives "g
Engineering Control Engineer Objectives, Process, Vendor facility & Prior to project and Classroom, simulator
Control Technolo- office during functional
gies and Detailed design
Application
Process Engineer Objectives, Applica- Vendor facility or Prior to commission- Presentation and
tion Details, Com- plant training facility ing Classroom
missioning,
Operation w-wlo
Controls
Project Engineer Objectives and Office At start of project Presentation
Scope
Maintenance Application Support Control Technolo- Plant training facili- During design Classroom, simula-
Specialist gies and Detailed ties tor, actual system
Application Mainte-
nance
Instrument and DCS
Technicians I Maintenance Proce-
dures w-wlo Con- I on-site
Prior to commission-
ing and continuation
Classroom, on pro-
cess

I during commission-
ing

this period, substantial specialist support is necessary to operations, maintenance and engineering groups. A docu-
monitor the control system performance and identify any mentation package should be produced for each application.
necessary modifications to the application. Larger applica- This documentation package typically contains items
tions, or applications which are difficult to turn on and off described below.
may require that the control application operate around the In addition to these documents, there will be a number of
clock and that commissioning application support also be project oriented documents that may be retained in historical
available around the clock. files. Some of these items are records of feasibility studies,
scope definitions and estimates,project execution records and
4.5.5 Economic Performance Audit other records that are not identified as being required for turn
over. Description of these files is not part of this scope.
Prior to close out of an advanced control project, an eco-
nomic performance audit of the advanced control system
should be performed. This audit serves to validate the ben- 4.6.1 Functional Specification
efits identified during project development and provides A functional specification for the advanced control appli-
the base line for use in monitoring ongoing performance. cation should be prepared and maintained during implemen-
The methods used in performing this audit should be the tation. This specificationwill be an update of the specification
same as those described above under Identification and developed for the feasibility study.
Quantificationof Benefits.
4.6 APPLICATION DOCUMENTATION 4.6.2 Design Specification
Each advanced control project shall produce a complete The design specification addresses detailed require-
and accurate set of documentation for turn over to the plant ments to implement the application described in the func-

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CONTROL SYSTEMS 17

tional specification. Examples of the items that this 4.6.3.5 Maintenance Procedures
document addresses are:
Copies of maintenance procedures, records and manuals
a. Description of the application objectives and functions. shall be maintained.
b. Definition of control technology and communications
methods. 5 Technology Considerations
c. Scope of DCS, regulatory control and measurement
5.1 HARDWARE PLATFORM
improvements.
d. U 0 requirements. The hardware platform used for an advanced control appli-
e. Model details. cation usually has a fundamental impact on the feasibility,
- Expected M v s , CVs, and DVs. economics, and the ultimate success of the application. The
- Estimated response time for each controller. available options should be evaluated, and a choice of plat-
f. Operator, engineer and maintenance interfaces. form should be made, as early in the implementation as prac-
g. Requirements for turning the application on and off, and ticable. Often, this may have been determined during
shedding or control degradation behaviors. development of the master plan. Control engineers and com-
h. Data base contents and structure. puter hardware systems specialists should be consulted when
making this choice.
i. Maintenance requirements.
If the application software can run on multiple platforms,
j. Training requirements.
the relative advantages and disadvantages of each should be
Section 6 describes a number of issues that should be con- studied carefully. Typically, the choice will be between run-
sidered while developing this specification. ning the application on standard distributed control system
@CS) equipment or on general-purposecomputer hardware.
4.6.3 Ongoing Documentation If the application is run on general-purpose computer hard-
ware, often the choice will be between a workstation and a
The following types of documents represent the actual personal computer (PC) type platform. As DCS equipment
installationin the field and shall be kept current. migrates toward using more general-purpose hardware, and
as PCs and workstations evolve to have similar capabilities
4.6.3.1 Applications Configuration Data Base and pricing, the distinctions between hardware platforms are
A description of the contents and structure of the applica- becoming increasingly difficult to discern.
tions configuration data base shall be maintained. Backup There are trade-offs between locating applications on
copies of the data base shall be made at regular intervals. DCS platforms versus general-purpose computers. For
example, running an application on DCS equipment may
4.6.3.2 Graphics and Reports have the advantages of close coupling to the underlying
regulatory controls, use of the familiar DCS operator inter-
The primary documentation for graphics is a hard copy of face console, and for many applications, may require no
each graphic in the system, preferably in color, and a listing new hardware. Disadvantages may be lack of portability of
of code or configuration associated with the behaviors of all the application to other systems, less “friendly” implemen-
active graphic elements. Similar information shall be docu- tation and maintenance tools, and if required, hardware
mented for all configured reports. Electronic backups of all that is more expensive.
graphics and report fìles shall be made at regular intervals. System security and maintainability are major consider-
ations. Any computer running an advanced control system
4.6.3.3 Program Listings should be dedicated to advanced control functions and not be
shared with non-related functions. It generally is permissible
Up-to-date listings of all application programs should
to run advanced control applications on the same computer
be kept in backed up electronic form, and if desired, in
that is running a historian, but should not be shared with
hard copy. It is also suggested that the listings be accom-
applications such as accounting, personal computing servers
panied by descriptive material defining the purpose and
or similar applications. It is good practice to segregate appli-
function of all programs and the inputs and outputs used
cations so that loss of a single computer will have limited
by the application. Program flow diagrams should be
impact. Consideration must also be given to computer load-
included where appropriate.
ing so that applications will execute in the time required.
4.6.3.4 Training Documents and Procedures The recent history and likely future for a hardware plat-
form should be analyzed carefully against the require-
Copies of training procedures, records and manuals shall ments for the application. The computer hardware and
be maintained. operating system environmentis volatile and consideration

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18 PRACTICE557
API RECOMMENDED

should be given to migration paths available. The condi- ing disruption in any other, unrelated application. This
tions and the hardware support infrastructure at the site requirement shall be clearly specified and communicated
should be evaluated carefully. This is especially true if the to the people who will be doing the programming and con-
hardware platform will be completely new to the plant site figuration of the control applications.
requiring additional training or new support personnel.
Contract hardware support with the hardware vendor may 5.2.3 Security
be an attractive alternative.
The software platform shall provide security from unau-
Involving knowledgeable specialists from diverse back-
thorized access to the control applications and security from
grounds often can prove beneficial in hardware selection.
inadvertent and unauthorized changes to the basic process
The capabilities of general-purpose computer hardware
control system.
and DCS systems are continuously changing. Proper selec-
Security from unauthorized access usually is accomplished
tion of hardware requires the input of specialists who are
by some combination of password and keylock access. Sys-
aware of the existing and developing capabilities of vari-
tem administration and security procedures should be estab-
ous hardware platforms.
lished as early in the project as practicable. A person
often the advanced control application supplier, the under-
knowledgeablein computer security administration and asso-
lying DCS hardware restrictions, or a previous choice of user
ciated issues should be used when setting up the system.
company standard hardware may dictate the choice of hard-
Security from inadvertent changes shall be evaluated thor-
ware. Such a dictated choice should be evaluated to assure
oughly when choosing the software platform. Any software
that the selection is appropriate.
platform used in process control must provide very robust,
hard-to-bypass protection against accidental or unauthorized
5.2 SOFMIARE PLATFORM
changes to the basic process control system. A computer spe-
The software platform consists of the operating system, the cialist familiar with the software platform, how it communi-
control application development package, and data collec- cates, and possible protections should be used when choosing
tiodarchiving packages with associated database systems. the software platform.
Issues which should be considered when selecting a software Some plants adhere to strict security, such as using pass-
platform are discussed below. words, to limit DCS access to certain usage levels. For exam-
ple, process operators are allowed access to all operating
5.2.1 Data Flow levels required to control the process, shift supervisors might
have additional access to production schedules, and plant
Data flow requirements for control applications can have a engineers would be able to access everything, including con-
major inñuence on the selection of a software (and hardware) figuring the system. Access to controller tuning parameters is
platform. The data flow requirements of each control applica- generally restricted to the plant engineers and instrument peo-
tion should be analyzed when choosing the software plat- ple. ûtherwise, a troublesome control loop might be "re-
form. The real time aspects of control applications require tuned" by each shift.
that data flow in a deterministic manner at regular intervals,
and that this data come from or go to a permanently assigned 5.2.4 Communications with Regulatory Control
location. Some software platforms can present a major prob- System
lem for some control applications, for example:
Communicationswith the regulatory control system are a
a. The platform depends on exception-baseddata reporting. fundamental requirement for any advanced control system
b. The platform uses relational database structures. application. The quantity and frequency of data communi-
c. The platform cannot process data frequently enough. cated between the advanced control application and the pro-
cess system should be determined as early in a project as
Control engineers familiar with the dynamic data require-
practicable. Communicationfunctions between the advanced
ments of the control application should be involved in data
control platform and the regulatory control system must be
flow evaluations.
verified.
Typically, DCS systems provide a mechanism for restrict-
5.2.2 Application Separation
ing the ability for a remote application to write data to the
Individual control applications running on a common DCS. The security set up of the DCS system shall be evalu-
software platform shall be separate and distinct from each ated to ensure that unauthorized data writes from a remote
other. Any control application shall not depend on any part application do not occur.
of any other unrelated control application for its proper Communication limitations could have a major influ-
functioning. Control applications shall be capable of being ence on the feasibility of a given advanced control applica-
turned on and off and otherwise manipulated without caus- tion. Control engineers familiar with the quantity and

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GUIDETO ADVANCED
CONTROL SYSTEMS 19

frequency of data communicationrequired by a given con- those computers and personnel who are authorized and
trol application should be consulted when choosing a soft- ensure that actions and communicationsfrom other networks
warehardware platform. do not impact control system performance and security. Refer
to API RP 554 for information on network isolation practices.
5.2.5 Communications with Historian
The software platform should be capable of communicat- 6 Design Considerations
ing with a historical database system. Usually the advanced 6.1 GENERAL DESIGN ISSUES
control application is required to keep data on its past perfor-
mance. The application may also require historical data to 6.1. I Regulatory Control System
perform its functions.
Performance of the underlying regulatory control loops is
Many control applications generate a set of future
an essential part of advanced control success. Many advanced
moves that the control system plans to make. It is desirable
control performance problems can be tracked to poor regula-
to be able to store the forecast moves and display them to
tory control performance. Regulatory controller performance
the operator in either tabular or graphic format. Such capa-
should be reviewed to veri3 that measurement accuracy and
bilities should be included in either the historian or control
reliability, controller tuning, PV range selection and control
application package.
valve performance are adequate for advanced control func-
Historical data requirements will have an inñuence on soft-
tions. If regulatory control performance is unacceptable,
ware (and hardware) platform choice. Frequency of historical
upgrades of the regulatory controls will be required prior to
data collection,retention time for this data, and where histori-
the advanced controls can be commissioned.
cal data will reside should be determined at the outset of an
advanced control project. Any special uses of historical data, The design of an advanced control application may also
such as statistical calculations, can be heavily inñuenced by require that the basic regulatory scheme be reorganized. A
data archiving techniques. key step in the overall design is determining which regulatory
control loops should be connected to the advanced control
5.2.6 Open Systems and Software Standards
system application.

Many of the open systems and software standards that are 6.1.2 Acceptance and Support
being developed for business information systems are being
applied to process control applications. Methods for applica- A successful advanced control application is accepted and
tion of these standards to process control are evolving and are supported by the process facility operating and technical peo-
not yet mature. Use of these standards offers the potential for: ple. It stabilizes operations and is robust. It is easily operated
and monitored.
a. Significant reduction in the implementation and mainte- Acceptance and support of the application requires the
nance costs associated with advanced control applications. following:
b. Applications that are flexible, reusable and portable.
Applications programs can be developed using the concepts a. Make process facility operations and maintenance person-
of object oriented and modular programming. The applica- nel part of the project team.
tions may then be connected to many DCS systems or b. Charge the process facility representatives with soliciting
hardware platforms through vendor supplied open systems input from the rest of the process facility and representing
interface. their requirements to the project team.
c. Significantimprovementin the ability to support and mon- c. Require that the project team conduct design reviews with
itor applications from remote locations through the use of the remaining process facility personnel. The design reviews
dialup connections, intranets and internet access. should address the functions of the application, the status of
These benefits must be balanced with the significant secu- work and outstanding issues.
rity and reliability concerns associated with the use of open d. Involvement from the economics and planning personnel
systems. Applications personnel must approach use of infor- is critical to ensure that the application meets the overall
mation systems standards with care. The security and reliabil- requirements of the facility. It is also important that the
ity requirements of process control applications are much changes in the operation of the plant (e.g., product yields and
higher than those required of many business applications. capacities) realized from the applications are communicated
Designs must recognize these requirements and provide for back to these groups.
isolation of control system from other networks. The security e. Involve all of the facility operations and maintenance peo-
system must also restrict access to the control systems to ple during the installationand testing phases.

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API RECOMMENDED

An advanced control application that stabilizes operations state operations. If this is the case, involvement and consent
and is robust will: of the operating personnel shall be sought well in advance.
The extent and magnitude of the disturbances should be
a. Handle normal process disturbances with little or no oper-
clearly understood and agreed to. Procedures for the testing
ator attention.
should be in place and understood prior to testing begins.
b. Handle major disturbances and bring the facility back into Prior to commencementof testing, the calibration of all mea-
a normal operating range within an acceptable time frame. suring instruments and review of the performance of all con-
The magnitude and duration of disturbances that the control trol valves shall be performed.A qualified and knowledgeable
system should handle must be developedwith the facility per- control engineer shall be present during all testing.
sonnel. This is often a trade off between model complexity Disturbance testing may take the form of a series of step
and willingness to accept some loss of the application on tests using either set point or control valve position step
stream time. changes. Advances in analysis of test data have allowed use
c. Incorporate techniques that allow the application to tol- of other types of disturbance testing such as use of impulses.
erate failures and degradation of control without upsetting Disturbance testing may last over a period of days to weeks.
the process. See Application Shutdown, Shedding and For some facilities, disturbances to normal operations
Degradation (6.4.3.2). could have major consequences; however, some advanced
d. Run reliably without internal application program faults control applications require disturbance testing. In this case,
causing the application software to shut down. compromises shall be explored with the relevant operations
An advanced control application that is easily operated and and technical people. If compromise is not possible, an alter-
monitored will allow the operator to quickly and accurately native advanced control application may be required, or the
determine the status of the application, determine the values application may not be feasible at all. The feasibility of per-
of important measurements, and make appropriate changes forming necessary plant testing shall be established during
when necessary. This is discussed in 6.3. the scope definition of the project.

6.1.3 Focus and Simplicity 6.2.2 Plant Historian

The project team should carefdy examine the options often, data collected from the plant historical database,can
available in the selected advanced control software and use be used in designing the advanced control application. This is
only those functionsrequired. Successful control applications especially applicable if neural net controllersare being imple-
are those that are only as complex as necessary to perform the mented. If the application has special requirements for type,
required functions and do not include unneeded options and frequency, and time period the data collected, these require-
features. Direct, easy to understand implementations should ments should be communicatedto those responsible for oper-
be used even if they result in slightly less efficient program ating and maintaining the plant historian. If the requirements
operation. Implementations that use tricks or complex func- for the application data collectioncannot be met, then alterna-
tions make applications more difficult to maintain or modify tives and compromises should be explored and agreed to.
and result in lower application usage. Historical data should be analyzed carefully to make sure
that it is providing useful information for the control applica-
tion. Often historical data collection schemes, such as averag-
6.2 PLANT DATA COLLECTION FOR
ing, compression, or exception reporting can distort the
APPLICATION DESIGN
dynamic or statistical behavior of the process to be con-
Most advanced control applications require the collec- trolled, and make the historical data of limited value for con-
tion of significant plant data in order to complete the troller design purposes.
design. The type of data needed, the quantity needed, and If the process contains a regulatory controller that will not
how it will be collected should be determined early in a be present in the final advanced control application, the his-
project. The type of data required will vary based on the torical data may not be valid for the affected variables and
type of control application. For example, multivariable additional testing or data analysis may be necessary. For
matrix controls require plant testing. Neural Net control- example, the original control strategy may contain a tempera-
lers often require evaluation of historical data, while fuzzy ture cascade that would not be used in the advanced control
logic or expert systems often require development of rules application. The behavior of this cascade can affect the valid-
based on operating or process knowledge. ity of historical data for use in developing the model for the
advanced control application.
6.2.1 Step DisturbanceTesting
often an advanced control application will require data
collected during disturbances to the process facility steady

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CONTROL SYSTEMS 21

6.2.3 DataValidation controller performance monitoring or other accessories and


tools.
Any data collected, massaged, and used to design the con-
In addition to technical decisions such as selecting control-
trol application should be validated with the real operation
ler type. control objectives and design of the core control
and behavior of the process facility. During data collection,
functions, controller design also consists of providing the
the reasonableness of the data should be evaluated. Criteria to
support functionsnecessary for day to day operation. Some of
evaluate data reasonableness are:
the functions that need to be considered are:
a. Do flows add up to satis3 material balances? a. Input data validation and controller response to detection
b. Are energy balances correct? (e.g., Does a stream being of bad data.
heated have higher temperature leaving the exchanger than b. Operator interfaces, including simple methods to turn the
entering and does the heated stream absorb as much energy as controller on and off.
the cooled stream gives up?)
c. Controller size and complexity versus issues of ease of
c. The dynamic nature of the data should be analyzed care- operation and reliability.
fully, especially where modeling is being done. (e.g., Is this d. Means to monitor controllerperformance.
truly a response to a process disturbance or is it noise?)
e. Means to adjust controller operating parameters and
d. The state of the process facility at the time of data collec- tuning.
tion should be accounted for. (e.g., Was everything “normd”, f. Use of inferentialcalculations in place of physical devices,
or was the facility in the middle of major transition?) such as temperature sensors and analyzers.
e. Any output resulting from the data should be analyzed
carefully to make sure that it is reflective of actual conditions. 6.3.2 Application Maintenance
(e.g., Does this dynamic model really show what happens?)
f. Has an measured disturbance occurred during the data The application package should be designed to readily sup-
collection?If such a disturbance occurs during a test run, that port modification of the advanced control application. These
data must be discarded. modificationscan be of several differentforms:

Data analysis and reconciliation has a major influence on a. Modifications due to normally anticipated changes in
successful advanced control application design. Sufficient operating modes. Depending on the nature or frequency of
time to do a thorough job should be allowed for in the project these changes, it may be advisable to incorporate these capa-
schedule. This activity requires a well trained, thoroughly bilities directly in the base design. For example, an
experienced control engineer. application may have to accommodatehighAow severity, start
In some cases, use of on-line data reconciliation may be or end of run conditions or winter/summer operations.
necessary. This is a function of how much analysis or manip- b. Modifications due to changes in process requirements or
ulation of test data is required. The need for on-line reconcili- process economics that were not anticipated at the time the
ation should be identified early in a project, as this can require application was designed. Examples here may be changes in
substantial amounts of planning and programming. equipment, changes in product slates or substantial changes
in economics.
6.2.4 Data Collection for Fuzzy Logic or Expert c. Modifications that result from changes in control technol-
Systems ogy, platform technology changes, application package
upgrades, etc. For example a new controller algorithm may
Fuzzy logic and expert systems use a set of rules or knowl- become available or a change in control platform or operating
edge about a system to generate their control decisions. Col- system may be necessary.
lection of data for these systems usually amounts to
accumulating knowledge from personnel who are familiar The evaluation of control packages should also consider
with the operation of the process, from which rules that the the vendor’s base structure and their technology migration
controller should follow are generated. philosophy. For example, does the vendor provide modular
structure which allows for incremental upgrades and ease of
6.3 FUNCTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS change without having to do significant work to reimplement
the users control applications.
6.3.1 Control Design Criteria
6.3.3 InputValue Validation and Value Substitution
Controller design is based to some extent on the experience
of the control engineer and the features provided by commer- Any control system relies on the quality of the data
cial controller vendors. Packages available from various received from sensors, transmitters, analyzers or other input
sources may have differing features and tools. Some may devices. In regulatory control applications, it is usually easy
contain support for data input validation, operator interfaces, to assess the quality of the input, or an input failure generally

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API RECOMMENDED

has limited impact. In advanced control systems, numerous Use of inferred value computations that can be used for
control outputs may be affected by failure of one input. Provi- short periods of time if the analyzer fails. These may
sions shall be made to validate the input and to provide means less accurate than an analyzer, but suitable for short
of running with alternatedata. term use. The inferred calculation can also be used to
There are three general classes of input failure: validate analyzer inputs.
Use of inferred value computations which are corrected
a. The input signal has failed.
by the analyzer output, but which may be used for short
b. A sensor or transmitter needs to be taken off-line for main-
time periods without correction from the analyzer. This
tenance, calibration,etc.
may allow the inferred value computation to be much
c. The input signal appears to be good, but is inaccurate, simpler than a stand alone algorithm, but still allow for
unstable, frozen, etc. short term operation without an analyzer. For example,
When an input signal goes bad while in service, the control this method will allow one analyzer to be used for sev-
application must be able to recognize this event and take eral streams where normally cycle times would be
appropriate actions. Validation of input signals can be han- unacceptable.
dled in a number of ways depending on the importance of the
input and how it is used. 6.3.4 Application Controls
If an input is to a single regulatory controller,the controller
6.3.4.1 Initialization,Startup and Restart
may be placed in manual mode while the input is being
repaired. Many DCS regulatory controllers have functions For an advanced control application to be put into service,
that automatically place the controller into a standby mode if it is necessary for all underlying controls to be capable of
its input is determined to be bad. If the input goes to a multi- accepting the application outputs and for all inputs used by
variable controller,it may be permissible to substitute a man- the application to be available.Advanced control applications
ual value, the last good value or drop it from the multivariable can be started up in a “cold start’’ or “warm start” mode. A
controller calculations. If the value is a critical value, mecha- “cold start” of an application is necessary when it is first
nisms may need to be in place to automatically shut down the implemented, has been totaiiy shut down, the computer has
multivariablecontroller. been restarted, etc. A “warm restart” occurs after partial shed-
The most common way of determining if a input is valid is ding or degradation as described below.
to compare it with other process data. For example, a temper-
A cold startup of an advanced control application requires
ature may be compared with other temperatures or against a
that all underlying regulatory controllers be in the mode
computed heat duty to determine if its value is reasonable. If
required by the advanced control application and that
the measured and computed variables do not agree within
required inputs be available. Any inferred property calcula-
some limit, the variable can be declared bad.
tions and process models used by the application should be
Another method to validate input data is to use a statistical
functional. The advanced control application should track or
software package. The statisticalpackage can monitor a large
initialize all appropriate internal values and set points so that
number of inputs of various types. It automatically and con-
the application startup is bumpless. It may also be necessary
tinually calculates on-line the mean, standard deviation, and
median value for each monitored input. These values can be for the advanced control application to initialize internal cal-
used to assess the quality of a given piece of data. This culations, tables and matrices, or perform other calculations
method tends to be quite computation intensive and normally necessary to start the application.
is not used for Advanced Control Applications. The more A warm restart may not require that all of these actions be
common application of this technique is for use in optimizer performed. Examples of what may be necessary for a warm
data reconciliation. restart are validation that a previously failed value is now
Analyzers are a good example of the kind of input good or placing a controller back into the proper mode in
where input validation and value substitution are needed. order to resume operation of the application.
Analyzers often provide key inputs to an advanced control An advanced control application is usually put on-line
application, but are the most complex and least reliable of manually by the process operator. Advanced control appli-
inputs. For this reason, the inputs must be checked for cations should have start-up utilities that will either auto-
absolute and relative accuracy. Analyzer results should be matically perform all start-up steps when commanded or
routinely checked against laboratory analysis. Analyzer which step an operator through a commissioning proce-
status alarms and flags must be checked to verify that the dure. A warm restart will likely have fewer operations that
analyzer is performing properly. must be performed. The operator interface should be
Some techniques that are used to compensate for loss of an designed so the startup process can be initiated and moni-
analyzer are: tored by a single operator.

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GUIDETO ADVANCED
CONTROL SYSTEMS 23

6.3.4.2 Application Shutdown, Shedding and a regulatory controller. If the value is a critical input, part or
Degradation all of the application may need to be stopped during mainte-
nance. It is recommended that field instruments associated
Advanced control applications require a means of both
with advanced control applications be identified as such by
manually and automatically turning off all or part of the
field labeling and maintenance of lists or displays of all inputs
application. This may be characterized by any of the fol-
used by an advanced control application.
lowing:
Maintenanceof control valves usually require that an entire
a. Total shutdown of the control application and return to control loop be taken out of service, and it may require that
regulatory control operation. This is defined as application all or part of an advanced control application also be taken
shutdown or total shedding. out of service. This should be done manually before the loop
b. Shutdown of part of the application with some of the is released for service.
advancedcontrol applications functioning, but with other por- Maintenance practices must also address the effect on reg-
tions not operating. This is deñned as partial shedding. ulatory controls. This is beyond the scope of this document.
c. Continued operation of the advanced control application
using last good values or substituted values for one or more 6.4 MANIPULATEDVARIABLE FUNCTIONS
input variables. This is defined as application degradation.
6.4.1 Set Point Control
Automatic application shutdownmay be the result of
a. Failure of a key input variable. Set point control is a mode of control where an
advanced control application’s outputs are the set points of
b. Decision by the control application that it cannot maintain
regulatory controllers. The regulatory controllers perform
the control objectives.
the task of maintaining an advanced control system’s
c. Operation outside of the valid control range.
manipulated variables at the values required. Figure 6.1
d. The control application cannot write its outputs due to
illustrates this relationship.
incorrect regulatory control modes.
A well-designed, well-tuned regulatory control scheme is
Depending on the nature of a problem, automatic shut- critical to the success of any advanced control system. If key
down may shut down all or part of the application. The opera- regulatory controllers are in manual or cannot maintain their
tor may initiate manual shutdown at any time. set points, the advanced control application may have to auto-
Automatic or manual application shutdown should return matically shed.
control to the regulatory control system without disturbing Set point control requires that the advanced control system
the process or requiring additional intervention by the opera- be aware of the operating mode for the controller and be able
tor. All application shutdowns, sheds or degradation should to read the regulatory controller set points. During operations
be alarmed or logged, depending on the severity or criticality when the advanced control system is not determining the set
of the event. point of the regulatory controllers, the advanced control
Any regulatory controllers having parameters adjusted by application should be able to adjust its internal values to track
the advanced control application should be returned to auto- the current setpoints and be ready for bumpless transfer. If
matic or cascade modes. The user will have to decide if auto- automatic application startup is part of the system design, the
matic shutdown should establish cascade loops that are advanced control system must also be able to command and
broken when the advanced control system application is oper- verify mode changes in the target regulatory controllers.
ating. Any regulatory controllersthat might have been placed It is possible to independently set regulatory control limits
in direct digital control by the advanced control application (e.g., set point minimudmaximum and set point rate of
should be automaticallyplaced back into operation. change) in both the advanced control application and the
DCS. It is important to consider these issues and set standards
6.3.4.3 Instrument Maintenance and Calibration for the implementation.The clear problem to avoid is having
When a signal is being maintained or calibrated,it must be limits set in the DCS that are unknown to the advanced con-
taken out of service as far as the advanced control application trol system (e.g., set point rate of change limits in the DCS).
is concerned. This requires that facilities be provided to allow This can introduce model error when the advanced control
the operator to tell the application that a value should not be system performs its control calculations.
used, or that a substituted value should be used. The operator The advanced control application must be made aware if
interface should be designed to indicate the status of all val- there is any limitation in the regulatory control loop that
ues used by the application. Provisions should be made to would prevent the set point to the regulatory controller from
detect bad values and shed control as described above. being realized. Typical examples are controller windup or set
A manual input may be used in place of the live signal if point/valve clamping logic in the regulatory control system.
the signal is noncritical, typically stable, and is not the PV to This communication typically takes the form of a discrete

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24 PRACTICE557
API RECOMMENDED

Manual
Operator Objectives Economics Constraint inputs Historian

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Figure 6.I-Advanced Control System/Regulatory Control System Interface

flag informing the Advanced Control application that set 6.5 OPERATOR INTERFACE
point changes are only dowable in ce& directions (up,
6.5.1 Operator Graphics
down, or neither direction).
Operator graphics can range from tabular data to very
6.4.2 Direct Digital Control (DDC) sophisticated pictorial displays. Graphic fields can display
fixed data, and dynamic data whose attributes can change the
DDC is a form of control in which the output signal from
color of process values, vessels, pipes, etc.
an advanced control application goes directly to a valve rather
Advanced control applications should be provided with
than to a set point of a regulatory controller. In most imple-
adequate graphic displays to d o w operators to understand
mentations, DDC control bypasses a regulatory controller. If
and control the operating state of the application. Generally,
the advanced control application is turned off or automati-
overview information and access to detail graphics are
c d y sheds, the regulatory controller takes over control of the
included on normal operating graphics. Detailed graphics dis-
valve. This practice is no longer as common as it once was
play comprehensivedata and provide the means for interfac-
and is not recommended.
ing with the advanced control application. Detailed advanced
If DDC is used, the advanced control system must be able
control graphics provide the operator and engineer with suffi-
to read the current values of the regulatory controller set point
cient information to d o w for monitoring and manipulation of
and output and be able to track those values for bumpless
the application. Detailed graphics provide information such
transfer. The regulatory controller must also be conñgured to
as the following:
track the performance of the advanced control system and be
able to bumplessly transfer control back to the regulatory a. The state of each control function within the advanced
controllerwhen required. control system.
b. Values and status of inputs and outputs.
c. Predicted values for manipulated and controlled variables.

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d. Indication of active or predicted constraints. should also provide methods for evaluating the data and
e. Interface for starting and stopping the application or por- converting it to a control model.
tions of this application. c. Application and model building and editing. The applica-
f. Functions to command the bypass or substitution of input tion and model building tools should provide the means to
variables. interface the plant model to the basic control system and to
g. Instructions on startup and shutdown procedures. set up all parameters required for the controller and model.
d. Model and controller simulation and testing. These tools
Engineering detail graphics provide information on the allow the engineer to simulate, test and debug the controller
function of the application, intermediate results, performance without having to operate the controller on the process. Simu-
statisticsand tuning parameters. These are discussed below. lators can also be used to provide training to engineering
personnel.
6.5.2 On-Line Instructions And Help
Note: The simulator functions available as an engineering tool gen-
On line instructions and help should be provided with any erally may not be sufficient for operator training.
advanced control application. On-line instructionsare used to e. Application perjGomumce monitoring and historimtion.
instruct the operator how to perform a particular task when a The application tool set should provide functions that allow
certain process event occurs or to provide background infor- for monitoring of the performance of the advanced control
mation on the application. On-line instructionshelp may application. This tool should allow the user to monitor on-
appear as tabular or written text on a graphic or they may control time, time operating against constraints, controller
appear as single line text in a dedicated field on the graphic. If errors and degraded performance time, and to define the eco-
available, on-line help should be context sensitive. If the com- nomic performance of the controller. The monitoring tool
puter or DCS system being used supports a multi-window should be able to historize the performanceresults of the con-
environment, help instructions may be contained in pop-up troller for periods specified by the user, typically for 2 to 5
windows. More sophisticated systems may support on-line years. If alternate history tools are available, these may used
access to the application instruction manuals. to satis3 this function.
f. Application tuning. The tuning tools should provide a
6.5.3 Engineering Interface means for the engineer to adjust the tuning parameters associ-
An effective engineering interface is required to allow ated with the advanced controller to provide the desired
engineering personnel to develop and maintain applications, dynamic response.
monitor performance and tune and adjust the system. g. Engineering displays. An application’s software set may
Depending on specific system design, the engineering inter- provide a number of standard displays and graphics that facil-
face may be integrated with the DCS or be implemented on a itate all of the above functions. These graphics may be fixed
separate computer or PC platform. or may be customizable by the user depending on the specific
Access to engineering functions should be restricted to control technology and supplier. They may reside on a PC, a
authorized personnel by some type of security system. Workstation or on the DCS. (See 6.7)
The ultimate application tool is the control system archi-
6.6 APPLICATION TOOLS tecture itself. When deciding on a new process control system
The proprietary software package and the hardware plat- several systems may be considered. In many cases, existing
form used for a particular application define application tools. plant infrastructuremay dictate the system to be used.
These engineering tools provide the following functions. An important consideration in assessing application tools
is to identify the means by which the advanced control sys-
a. Application installation. Software should be provided tem will interface with the underlying regulatory control sys-
to install the application and tools on the application plat- tem. Additional hardware and software may be required, See
form. This software should be designed such that the “Technology Considerations”.
applications can be installed without interruption to any
ongoing operations. 6.7 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
b. Data acquisition and analysis. These tools should per-
Engineering graphics are those displays used by the Engi-
form or enable data acquisition for purposes of model or
neer to install, starnip, monitor and adjust the application.
control engine identification. Depending on the applica-
This information is normally viewed by technical personnel.
tion, data acquisition may be direct or utilize an existing
Examples include:
plant data historian. The analysis tools should allow for
designation of good and bad data. Tools should be avail- a. Intermediate calculations.
able for evaluation of the data for purposes of validating b. Special tuning parameters.
the data collected. (See section 6.2.3). The analysis tools c. Unit performance calculations.

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d. Cost and profitability data. indicate the economic performance of the unit. Examples of
e. Production schedule. performance metrics that are commonly used include:

These displays should be comprehensive, easy to use and a. Measurement of the cost of production per unit of feed or
under tight security (See 5.2.3). Engineering data that is of product.
relevance to an operator should be replicated on the opera- b. Measurement of energy use per unit of feed or product.
tor’s graphics (See 6.5.1). c. Total throughput.
d. Product yields.
6.8 PERFORMANCE MONITORING e. Product quality and variability relative to specifications.
Monitoring is necessary to quantify the effectiveness and Economic performance metrics should be evaluated at
economic performance of an advanced control application. multiple points during the life of an advanced control applica-
There are two kinds of performance monitoring. The first is tion. A baseline operation should be determined for pre-
the functioning of the control model and algorithms as com- project operation.A second evaluation is determined during a
pared to their design intent. The second is monitoring of the post-project audit. This second value normally becomes the
economic performance of the process with the control appli- baseline for values that are calculated at regular intervals as a
cation in service. measure of continuous improvement.
Some vendors offer proprietary packages that provide The baseline performance metrics may require re-evalua-
monitoring of advanced process control applications and ben- tion as modifications are made to plant equipment or operat-
efits. These packages provide automatic reporting of benefits ing objectives.
and functionality.
6.8.3 Performance Information for the Operator
6.8.1 Control Function Performance
The advanced control application should have functions
The application monitoring system should be able to quan- that compute and display key monitoring factors. Notification
tify the following information relative to the function of the to alert the operator that the control application is not per-
control model and algorithms: forming as expected should be provided. This may consist of
a. The percentage of time that each controlled variable was alarms, messages, or flags. Examples include:
in service. a. Indication that the advanced control application is on and
b. The percentage of time that the advanced control system functioning normally. Notification should be provided to
was on-line and controlling the process. warn that the application or parts of it have been turned off
c. The percentage of time that each manipulated variable either manually or automatically.
(regulatory control loop) was in cascade mode and receiving b. Indication that the status of inputs and the underlying reg-
its set point from the advanced control application. ulatory control is normal. Alarms should be provided to warn
d. The percentage of time that the controller was operating that the advanced control application function has been
against constraintsand what those constraintswere. degraded due to loss of connection to the regulatory controls
e. The number of moves, sizes of moves and direction of or due to bad inputs.
moves made by the control application. c. The advanced control service factor.
f. The times when the control system had to shed due to d. Computed economic metrics and the current delta from
input or output errors and the cause of the errors. the baseline.
g. The times when the control system was turned off or on by e. When control against constraintsis a control objective, the
the operator. status of which constraints are active and the percentage of
h. A measure of the controller model prediction compared time at which the application has operated against constraints
with actud process response. This is a measure of the pro- should be indicated. In larger applications, prioritization of
cess/model mismatch. constraintsmay be necessary.
i. A measure of the dynamic behavior of the controller
(under-damped, over-damped,oscillatory). This is a measure 7 Application Maintenance
of the controllertuning.
Advanced control systems support requirementsdo not end
6.8.2 Economic Performance with completion of the implementation project, but continue
for the life cycle of the application.Advanced control applica-
The primary measure of success of any advanced control tions typically are designed around a very specific set of oper-
application is its economic performance. Economic perfor- ating conditions and economics. Changes in business
mance metrics should be as simple as possible and directly requirements, operating objectives, operating conditions or

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CONTROL SYSTEMS 27

plant physical design can adversely affect the benefits that This training should address training for all aspects of appli-
can be obtained from a specific design. cation maintenance including:
a. Maintenance of field instrumentation associated with the
7.1 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS application.
Life Cycle support requirements must also address person- b. Application maintenance including backups of program
nel issues such as turnover, changing work assignments, and files and data, and modification of application performance
promotions. Personnel involved in the original design may be parameters and tuning.
working on new applications and may unavailable for exist- c. System platform maintenance, including computer hard-
ing application maintenance. ware and operating systems.
Industry experience has shown that the long term success
7.3 CHANGE CONTROL
of advanced control applications is directly related to the
quality of ongoing application support. Dedicated staff will Change control refers to procedures to ensure that modifi-
be necessary to perform maintenance activities. Usually this cations are made in an approved manner and are properly
takes the form of advanced control support engineers and executed, tested and documented. Typically processing facil-
technicians directly available to operations, preferably ity management establishes overall Management of Change
located in close proximity to the operating areas. (MOC) policies and procedures. Change control functions for
Depending on the size of the applications it may be advancedcontrol applications should adhere to those policies.
desirable to outsource application support to a control ven- These MOC policies usually deal with equipment issues, so
dor or local specialized engineering house. Many control specific advanced control change procedures will need to be
vendors also offer remote maintenance and diagnostic ser- defined. Areas which should be addressed by MOC for
vices via a secure remote network connection or dialup advanced control applications are discussed below.
phone connection.
7.3.1 Tuning and Parameters
7.2 CONTINUINGTRAINING Changes to tuning constants or operational parameters,
Training is a key activity during implementation of an such as input ranges, constraints, targets, alarm limits etc.
advanced control application, and it is also a key on-going should be restricted to authorized personnel. A list of parame-
activity during the life of the application. Refresher courses ters that should have controlled access shall be prepared for
each application.
and new personnel training should parallel the training pro-
gram developed for the original application training. Any changes to restricted parameters should be logged or
historized. Any advanced control applications that automati-
cally change parameters must be clearly documented and a
7.2.1 OperationsTraining
means for tracking the changes shall be available.
Experience has shown that well-designed advanced control
applications result in substantialimprovementsin the stability 7.3.2 Control Objective modifications
of unit operations. This has also reduced the amount of opera- Sometimes a control application must be modified to
tor intervention required on a day-to-day basis. On-going accommodate a change in the control objective. Changes of
operations training is necessary to maintain the skill set this type should go through the facility’s MOC process.
required to operate the unit with and without the advanced Depending on the type and magnitude of change, additional
control system in service. This training should include: engineering and validation testing may be necessary.
a. Refresher training in the application for experienced
operators. 7.3.3 Process Modifications
b. Application training for new operators. Changes in processes usually affect advanced control
c. Training and drills to retain the skills required to operate applications associated with them. Any modifications
the unit without the advanced control application in service required to the advanced control applications as a result of
and during abnormal situations. process changes should be handled under the MOC for the
process change.
7.2.2 MaintenanceTraining The control engineer must be consulted early in the process
design phase so that he can analyze the impact on existing
Ongoing application maintenance training parallels opera- control hardware and applications. Additional control hard-
tions training. Existing personnel need refresher training on ware required, control system processor capacity, and the
the application and new personnel require new user training. impact on existing applications must be considered and

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defined. Careiül planning and scheduling is required for the trol support specialists. The following are common perfor-
installation,testing, and commissioningof any new hardware mance problems and examples of corrective measures:
and applications. Some process modifications may require
a. On-line time is unacceptable. This may be due to input
that work be done during a plant shutdown. Control system
variables that are not reliable, the controller may need tun-
scheduling considerations must be integrated into the master
ing, the model may need re-identification, the objectives
project schedule.
may need correction or additional operator training may be
necessary.
7.3.4 Infrastructure Modifications
b. Benefits may not be as expected or may be declining. This
Modification or upgrade (e.g., a new version) of existing may be due to a low on-line time factor, inappropriateobjec-
software or hardware, or addition of new software or hard- tives, changes in the process or unreliable input data.
ware requires administration under MOC procedures. Proce- c. The controllermay be operating against a constraintwhich
dures shall be established for testing and validation of the limits potential benefits.Values assigned to constraints should
modification and records must be maintained. be evaluated periodically to determine if they can be relaxed.
d. The controller may be operating against an unexpected
7.3.5 Control Technology Advances process limitation. If this is the case, the control objectives
may need adjustment, the model may need to be updated or
Advances in control or computer technologies may make constraintsmay need to be re-identified.
reimplementationof an existing application using a new tech- e. The controller may be making too many or too large of
nology or platform desirable. The magnitude of the reimple- moves or be cycling. This may be indicative of a need for
mentation scope usually will require that the work be retuning or re-identification of the model.
managed under a project structure. The project organization f. Inputs may not be valid or substituted values are being
will still be required to follow MOC procedures. used. This is indicative that maintenance of field instrumenta-
tion or analyzers may be required.
7.4 PERFORMANCE MONITORING g. Controller functions may be limited by underlying reg-
Performance monitoring of the advanced control applica- ulatory control loops not being in cascade, or are not
tion is necessary to track the benefits realized by the applica- performing acceptably. Tuning or maintenance of those
tion and the control function performance. Procedures and loops may be required.
standards for applications performance monitoring should be
established and followed.A log of system deficiencies should 7.5 DOCUMENTATION MAINTENANCE
be maintained. Severaltypes of supportingdocumentationfor an advanced
control application must be maintained and kept up to date. In
7.4.1 Data Collection and Archiving addition to hard copies of these documents, regular backups
of software and data bases should be made and kept in a
Advanced control system applications typically have a sig-
secure location.
nificant amount of performance data collected by the plant or
application historian. The data captured by the historian a. Functional and detailed design specifications
should be reviewed periodically to veri3 that the data is b. Application configuration database and source code
being collected, archived, and backed up properly. listings
C. Graphics and reports
7.4.2 Performance Evaluation d. Operations instruction and training manuals
e.
f. Training and certification records
Performance monitoring functions were described earlier
MOC change control records
in this document. The performance of an advanced control
application is monitored by the operators and advanced con-

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