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Page |1 PHILIPPINE HISTORY

LISTS of PHIL. PRESIDENTS: - first president elected through a national election


- first president under the Commonwealth
Aguinaldo-Quezon-Laurel-Osmeña-Roxas-Qurino-Magsaysay-
- created National Council of Education
Garcia-Macapagal-Marcos-Cory Aquino-Ramos-Estrada-
Arroyo-Noynoy Aquino-Duterte - initiated women’s suffrage in the Philippines during the
Commonwealth
PRESIDENTS OF THE PHILIPPINES: THEIR - approved Tagalog/Filipino as the national language of
ACHIEVEMENTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS the Philippines
- appears on the twenty-peso bill
1. Emilio Aguinaldo 1899-1901- One way to remember the
first president of the Philippines First Republic is to look at the - a province, a city, a bridge and a university in Manila
five peso coin. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's face used to grace the are named after him
five peso bill (which is not used anymore). The back of the bill - his body lies within the special monument on Quezon
shows him holding the Philippine flag at the celebration of the Memorial Circle
Philippine Independence Day. 3. José P. Laurel, 1943-1945- José P. Laurel's presidency is
Contributions and Achievements: controversial. He was officially the government's caretaker
during the Japanese occupation of World War II. Criticized as a
- first (and only) president of the First Republic (Malolo traitor by some, his indictment for treason was superseded
Republic) later by an amnesty proclamation in 1948.
- signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, creating a truce
Contributions and Achievements:
between the Spanish and Philippine revolutionaries
- known as the President of the Revolutionary - since the early 1960s, Laurel considered a legitimate
Government president of the Philippines
- led the Philippines in the Spanish-Philippine War and - organized KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa
the American-Philippine War Bagong Pilipinas, or Association for Service to the New
- youngest president, taking office at age 28 Philippines), a provisional government during Japanese
- longest-lived president, passing away at 94 occupation
- declared Martial Law and war between the Philippines
2. Manuel L. Quezon, 1935-1944- After 34 years of Insular
and the U.S./United Kingdom in 1944
Government under American rule, Philippine voters elected
- with his family, established the Lyceum of the Philippine
Manuel Luis Quezon first president of the Commonwealth of
the Philippines. He is known as the “Father of National 4. Sergio Osmeña, 1944-1946- Sergio Osmeña was the
Language” (Ama ng Wikang Pambansa). He died of tuberculosis second president of the Commonwealth. During his presidency,
in Saranac Lake, New York. the Philippines joined the International Monetary Fund.
Contributions and Achievements: Contributions and Achievements:
- first Senate president elected as President of the - became president at 65, making him the oldest person
Philippines to hold office
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- first Visayan to become president 7. Ramon Magsaysay, 1953-1957- Ramon Magsaysay was
- joined with U.S. Gen. Douglas McArthur in Leyte on born in Iba, Zambales. He was a military governor and an
October 20, 1944 to begin restoration of Philippine engineer. He died in an aircraft disaster while boarding the
freedom after Japanese occupation presidential plane.
- Philippine National Bank was rehabilitated and the
Contributions and Achievements:
country joined the International Monetary Fund during
his presidency - Hukbalahap movement quelled during his presidency
- Bell Trade Act was approved by the U.S. Congress - chairman of the Committee on Guerrilla Affairs
during his presidency - first president sworn into office wearing Barong Tagalog
- appears on the 50-peso bill during inauguration
- presidency referred to as the Philippines' "Golden Years"
5. Manuel Roxas, 1946-1948- Manuel Roxas was the fifth
for its lack of corruption
president of the Philippines: the third (and last) president
- Philippines was ranked second in Asia’s clean and well-
under the Commonwealth, and the first president of the Third
governed countries during his presidency
Republic of the Philippines. He held office for only one year, 10
months, and 18 days. - established National Resettlement and Rehabilitation
Administration (NARRA) among other agrarian reforms
Contributions and Achievements:
8. Carlos P. Garcia, 1957-1961- A lawyer, poet, and teacher,
- inaugurated as the first president of the new Republic Carlos P. Garcia also served as a guerrilla leader during the
after World War II Pacific War. Born in Bohol, Garcia serviced as vice president
- reconstruction from war damage and life without foreign under Ramon Magsaysay and as secretary of Foreign Affairs for
rule began during his presidency four years. He became president when Magsaysay died in
- under his term, the Philippine Rehabilitation Act and 1957.
Philippine Trade Act laws were accepted by Congress
Contributions and Achievements:
- appears on the 100-peso bill
- known for “Filipino First Policy,” which favored Filipino
6. Elpidio Quirino, 1948-1953- Elpidio Quirino served as vice
businesses over foreign investors
president under Manuel Roxas. When Roxas died in 1948,
- established the Austerity Program focusing on Filipino
Quirino became president.
trade and commerce
Contributions and Achievements: - known as the “Prince of Visayan Poets” and the “Bard
from Bohol”
- Hukbalahap guerrilla movement active during his
- cultural arts was revived during his term
presidency
- was the first president to have his remains buried at the
- created Social Security Commission
Libingan ng mga Bayani
- created Integrity Board to monitor graft and corruption
- Quezon City became capital of the Philippines in 1948 9. Diosdado Macapagal, 1961-1965- Born in Lubao,
Pampanga, Diosdado Macapagal was a lawyer and professor.
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His daughter Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was the 14th, and an Asian country, Corazon Aquino was born in Paniqui, Tarlac.
second female, president of the Philippines. She was a prominent figure in the People Power Revolution
that brought down Ferdinand Marcos' dictatorship. Her
Contributions and Achievements:
husband, Benigno Aquino Jr., was a senator during the
- established the first Land Reform Law, allowing for the Marcos regime and its strongest critic. He was assassinated
purchase of private farmland to be distributed in while Marcos was still in power.
inexpensive, small lots to the landless Contributions and Achievements:
- placed the Philippine peso on the currency exchange
market - first woman to be president of the Philippines or any
- declared June 12, 1898 to be Philippines’ Independence Asian country
Day - restored democracy
- signed the Minimum Wage Law - abolished the 1973 Marcos Constitution and ushered in
- created the Philippine Veteran’s Bank the new Constitution of the Philippines
- reorganized the structure of the executive branch of
10. Ferdinand Marcos, 1965-1986- Born in Sarrat, Ilocos government
Norte, Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was a lawyer and Senate
- signed the Family Code of 1987, a major civil law
President for three years. He was president for 21 years. He
reform, and 1191 Local Government Code, which
ruled under martial law and his dictatorship was known for its
reorganized the structure of the executive branch of
corruption and brutality. Marcos was removed from office after
government
the People Power Revolution.
- initiated charitable and social activities helping the poor
Contributions and Achievements: and the needy
- named “Woman of the Year” in 1986 by Time magazine
- first president to win a second term - on the new 500-peso bill together with her husband
- declared Martial Law on Sept. 22, 1972 Benigno Aquino
- increased the size of Philippine military and armed
forces Received honors and awards including:
- by 1980 the Philippine GNP was four times greater than
- 100 Women Who Shaped World History
1972
- 20 Most Influential Asians of the 20th Century
- by 1986 the Philippines was one of the most indebted
- 65 Great Asian Heroes
countries in Asia
- J. William Fulbright Prize for International
- built more schools, roads, bridges, hospitals, and other
Understanding
infrastructure than all former presidents combined
- the only president whose remains are interred inside a 12. Fidel V. Ramos, 1992-1998- Fidel V. Ramos was the
refrigerated crypt chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines before he
became president. He was also a civil engineer. As president,
11. Corazon Aquino, 1986-1992- The first woman president
he restored economic growth and stability in the country, even
of the Philippines and the first woman to become president of
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during the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997. He is the first, and 14. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, 2001-2010- Gloria Macapagal
so far the only, non-Catholic president of the Philippines. Arroyo was the 14th, president of the Philippines (and the
second female president). The Oakwood Mutiny occurred
Contributions and Achievements:
during her term. Arroyo oversaw road and infrastructure
- oversaw Philippine economic growth improvements and higher economic growth that presidents
- presided over celebrations of Philippine Independence before her, but there was also controversy. The so-called "Hello
Centennial in 1998 Garci" controversy involved recordings that allegedly captured
- received British Knighthood from the United Kingdom by Arroyo ordering the rigging of the election that put her in office.
Queen Elizabeth II (Knight Grand Cross of the Order of In 2005 Arroyo faced impeachment proceedings related to the
St. Michael and St. George) recordings but the impeachment failed. After she had left office
- hosted the fourth Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Arroyo faced additional charges of election fraud and misuse of
Leader's Summit in the Philippines in 1996 state funds.
- Philippine Stock Exchange became an international Contributions and Achievements:
favorite during his presidency
- death penalty reinstated while he was in office - second female president of the country
- signed peace agreement with the rebel Moro National - first and only female vice-president of the Philippines so
Liberation Front far
- first president to take oath outside Luzon
13. Joseph Estrada, 1998-2001- Known as Erap, Joseph - former Economics professor at the Ateneo de Manila
Estrada was the first president who had been a famous film University, where current president Benigno Aquino III
actor. His presidency was controversial. During his years in was one of her students
office economic growth was slow and he faced impeachment - ex-classmate of former U.S. President Bill Clinton at
proceedings. He was ousted from the presidency in 2001. He Georgetown University’s Walsh School of Foreign
was later convicted of stealing from the government but was Service, where she maintained Dean’s list status
pardoned. He ran unsuccessfully for president in 2010. - oversaw higher economic growth than the past three
Contributions and Achievements: presidents before her
- peso became the best-performing currency of the year in
- during his presidency Moro Islamic Liberation Front Asia in 2007
headquarters and camps were captured - eVAT Law implemented under her term was
- joined other leaders and politicians to try to amend the - currently on the 200-peso bill
1987 Constitution
- cited as one of the Three Outstanding Senators in 1989 15. Benigno Aquino III, 2010-2015?- Benigno Aquino III
- among the “Magnificent 12” who voted to terminate the joined the House of Representatives and the Senate before his
agreement that allows for U.S. control of Clark Airbase presidency. He is the first president who is a bachelor; he is
and Subic Naval Base unmarried and has no children.
Contributions and Achievements:
Page |5 PHILIPPINE HISTORY
- created the no "wang-wang" (street siren) policy
- appointed statesman Jesse Robredo to serve as
secretary of Interior and Local Government in 2010,
where Robredo served until his death in 2012
- initiated K-12 education in the Philippines
- renamed the Office of the Press Secretary to Presidential
Communications Operations Office and appointed new
officers
- suspended allowances and bonuses to Government
Owed and Controlled Corporation and Government
Financial Institution board members
- oversaw 7.1% growth of the Philippine economy in 2012

16. Rodrigo Duterte- Duterte has had significant


achievements within his first 117 days of office that the need to
be recognized. In as much as there have been so many critics
of the president, what he has done is commendable.

Achievements of President Rodrigo Duterte in His First 117


Days

1. Has visited 14 military camps in just a month, including


installations that no sitting president has ever laid eyes
before. He also visited military hospitals and has invited
wounded soldiers for a dinner get together in
Malacanang. He was also able to conduct an actual
command conference in Basilan.
2. Has initiated peace talks with the left with the hope on
ending a long standing armed struggle. Established
goodwill by freeing prominent leftists leaders. Also
pursuing peace talks with muslim secessionists.
3. Has managed to negotiate for the release of foreigners
held hostage by armed bandits in the south.
4. Has handled a terrorist crisis well (Davao bombing)