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Chapter I



Stress poses a great challenge to everyone – varying from a simple student to an assiduous

worker. It is almost impossible to live without it. Seeing that everyone is vulnerable to stress at

one time or another, government employees may be vulnerable and exposed to it twice or even

thrice as much. Working in an environment wherein you deal with different people is

strenuous enough. In view of this fact, students use different coping and defense mechanisms

to help them manage stress. There are a lot of different coping and defense mechanisms that

are being applied by everyone.

Theoretical Framework/ Conceptual Framework

There are multiple frameworks which apply directly to understanding stress and the

role that coping plays in managing stress. These theories can provide a basis for understanding

how methods of coping influence the level of stress an individual experiences when faced with

a potential stressor.

Two main categories of stress coping theories exist. The first category is trait based

theories, which focus on coping as a product of personality among all diverse life situations.

Many of these theories are based on Selye’s (2011) work in systemic stress, which related

stress to physiological responses. Examples of trait based theories include Byrne’s (2009)

measure of repression-sensitization which measures personality related to confrontive actions,

Gleser and Ihilevich’s (2009) Defense Mechanisms Inventory which assesses an individual’s

reference between five protective actions, and Goldstein’s (2011) measure of coping-avoiding,

which relates reactions to personality characteristics.

Although trait based coping has some relevance to determining an individual’s

preference for the use of specific coping mechanisms, research indicates that it has a low

predictive value in regard to the coping process, and may underestimate the complexity of the

coping process (Cohen & Lazarus, 2010; Kaloupek, White, & Wong, 2009).

The second category of stress coping theories looks at coping as a process and is well

defined by Lazarus’ (2010) theory which views coping as a process characterized by the

continuous appraisal and reappraisal of a person’s interaction with his/her environment

(Folkman et al., 2011). This theory is especially relevant to the research of coping mechanisms

used by agriculture teachers and serves as the framework for this study.

According to Lazarus (2010, coping is a process which is based on shifts in the way an

individual views a potential stressor. The way a person views the stressor is based on the

outcome he/she expects from the situation. This view of a stressor was originally called an

“appraisal” by Arnold (2009) and elaborated by Lazarus in regard to stress (2010). Shifts in

the way an individual views stress may come from the environment or situations outside of the

individual’s control, or they may come from efforts to manage the stress by the individual.

This theory suggests that research examining coping mechanisms related to a specific event,

rather than as generalized statements, will yield a more accurate appraisal of individual coping




1. Profile
1.1 Age
1.2 Gender
1.3 Position
1.4 Civil Status
1.5 No. Of yrs in Basis for Stress
service Management
2. Common
by the
2.1 Physical
2.2 Emotional
2.3 Intellectual
2.4 Social
2.5 Moral/

Fig. 1 The Input- Process-Output (IPO) Model of the Study

Statement of the Problem

This study, Stress and Work Performance of Government Employees of the Municipal

Government of Ternate: An Analysis aims to identify the stress factors and how they affect the

service rendered by the employees.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1.2.1 What is the profile of the respondents in terms of : Age Gender Position Civil Status Number of years in service with the government

1.2. 2 What are the common symptoms encountered by the respondents as to the following

aspects? Physical; Emotional; Intellectual; Social; and Moral/ Spiritual

1.2.3 Based on the common symptoms identified, what coping mechanism is/are employed by

the employees in terms of: Physical; Emotional; Intellectual; Social; and Moral/ Spiritual

It would encourage the Local Chief Executive to make a plan that will help the employees in dealing with their encountered symptoms/ stressors. . . Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study will focus on determining the identify the stress factors and how they affect the service rendered by the employees. the importance of conducting this research is to find out whether the coping mechanisms being used by the employees are effective in dealing with their common encountered symptoms. Employees. Municipal Government of Ternate . The results of this study will give them knowledge on how they can manage their stress. It covered 50 municipal employees of the Local Government of Ternate. Community. This study will help the community to understand more about the employees attitudes and behaviour. Cavite and the study was conducted through survey method wherein questionnaires were disseminated to the target population. percenmtile and Ranking. Data collected was interpreted using Weighted mean.Significance of the Study Mainly.

in this research. it cannot be solely confined in the environment itself or just as the result of personality characteristics. distinguished by anger and aggression.In this research.In this research. The second level can be seen as variables that act as a buffer against the negative effects of stress on individuals. Definition of Terms For purposes and clarification. it is described as the constructive type distinguished by emotions associated with emphatic concerns for others and positive striving that would benefit the community. appraisal and coping Appraisal .can be made in three different conditions: when we have experienced a stressor. The third level in the process consists of the outcomes of stress which can be positive or negative. The first level of stressors are come from external sources or specific occupational stressors. . Process of Coping . Eustress .In this research. Distress .involves two components.Hypothesis Stress has no significant effect on the work performance of the municipal employees. Process of Stress . it can be divided into three levels. It is also dependent on a particular kind of person-environment relationship and therefore the struggle to adapt to life may be termed stress. the following terms are defined according to how the researcher used them in the study: Psychological stress . it is described as the destructive type of.

when we anticipate a stressor and when we experience a chance for mastery or gain Coping .It refers to a process that we as individuals employ every day. whereas emotion-focused coping is active. It is an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control over behavior or gives psychological comfort. Coping Styles . adapted to or acted upon. acceptance and venting of emotions. Emotion-focused Coping .It is focused on ignoring a stressor and is therefore passive. It can also can be described as the sum total of ways in which we deal with minor to major stress trauma. Emotion-focused coping and Avoidant coping.It can also be described as cognitive and behavioural efforts directed towards minimizing. resolving conflict. . denying or ignoring dealing with a stressful situation. Problem-focused Coping . planning and making decisions.involves altering or managing the problem that is causing the stress and is highly action focused. Coping Mechanisms .are ways to which external or internal stress is managed. This involves a number of strategies such as gathering information.It is Action-orientated that can take a range of forms such as seeking social support.Employed by people when attempting to resolve or remove a stressor: There are three styles: Problem-focused coping. Avoidant Coping .

.Is used in this research as a psychological factor and a common feature in almost every kind of work. condition or issue that is unresolved or undesired. Stress .I this study.Common Encountered Symptoms . It is a situation.

coping resources. trauma. distinguished by anger and aggression . 4 and emotional distress (Lazarus 2010 ).e. Related Literature The Coping and Stress Profile is a unique. depression. i. The level of satisfaction in their personal and work life. Those found helpful were used in the development and presented in this study. Other words that have been used in the past as a substitute for stress are: conflict. He acknowledges that it is dependent on a particular kind of person-environment relationship and therefore the struggle to adapt to life may be termed stress. Hans Selye (2011 divided stress into two types. distress and eustress. anomie. self-directed learning instrument that provides personalized feedback on an individual’s responses to the stress and coping resources they have. and overall satisfaction. Distress is described as the destructive type of. frustration. Coping resources that can be used to decrease stress. alienation. anxiety. An action plan to reduce stress and increase satisfaction Psychological stress. according to Lazarus (2010) cannot besolely confined in the environment itself or just as the result of personality characteristics. The relationship among stress. The profile uses an engaging process of personal learning that helps individuals uncover and explore: Stressors in their personal and professional life. Chapter II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURES The researcher reviewed and analyzed several related literature's and studies to obtain a better perspectives of the problems presented in Chapter II.

The process of coping involves two components. as well as challenge. either choosing to master it. threat. In the first level there are stressors that come from external sources.2010). These three types are coped with differently and have different psycho physiological and performance outcomes. Once we appraise a stressful situation we must decide how we will respond or ‘cope’ with the stressor. the process of stress can be divided into three levels.while eustress is described as the constructive type distinguished by emotions associated with emphatic concerns for others and positive striving that would benefit the community. appraisal and coping (Lazarus. Appraisal can be made in three different conditions: when we have experienced a stressor. a lack of resources and lack of support from supervisors and colleagues – these are specific occupational stressors. Lazarus (2010) does not believe this is an adequate description and suggests something further by distinguishing three types of psychological stress namely harm/loss. The coping style we engage in is ultimately determined by whether we believe we have the resources to resolve the stressor (Lazarus. Coping is a process that we as individuals employ every day. 2010). high job demands. 2010).We engage in coping when we feel under stress or want to manage a taxing situation. The third level in the process consists of the outcomes of stress which can be positive or negative.g. . when we anticipate a stressor and when we experience a chance for mastery or gain (Lazarus. The second level can be seen as variables that act as a buffer against the negative effects of stress on individuals. Threat then focuses on harm or loss that has not yet occurred but is likely to in the near future. these difficulties may be overcome. Challenge sees that although difficulties may be encountered when something needs to be gained. reduce it or tolerate it. According to Carson and Kuipers (2009). In harm/loss it is recognized that the damage or loss has already taken place. e. Appraisal is the act of perceiving a stressor and analyzing one's own ability to deal with the stressor.

2011). adapted to or acted upon. & Wubbels. Emotion-focused coping can take a range of forms such as seeking social support. 2011. The third main coping style is avoidant coping.. planning and making decisions (Lazarus & Folkman. Avoidant coping is focused on ignoring a stressor and is therefore passive. tools and knowledge) necessary to deal with the stressor. It can be described as the sum total of ways in which we deal with minor to major stress trauma. Korthagen. whereas emotion-focused coping is active (Admiraal et al. emotion- focused coping and avoidant coping. Problem-focused coping involves altering or managing the problem that is causing the stress and is highly action focused. Brennan. Individuals engaging in problem-focused coping focus their attention on gathering the required resources (i.e. Moos. 2009. denying or ignoring dealing with a stressful situation (Holahan. Coping mechanisms are ways to which external or internal stress is managed. others are learned behavior and still . skills. thus emotion-focused coping is action-orientated (Admiraal. 2009. It is an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control over behavior or gives psychological comfort. resolving conflict. 2009).. This involves a number of strategies such as gathering information. Holahan et al.. Folkman & Lazarus. 2010). 2010). Although some researchers group avoidant coping with emotion- focused coping the styles are conceptually distinct. & Schutte. Some of these processes are unconscious ones. Although emotion- focused coping styles are quite varied they all seek to lessen the negative emotions associated with the stressor. Holahan. acceptance and venting of emotions etc (Carver et al.employ when attempting to resolve or remove a stressor: problem-focused coping. Avoidant coping can be described as cognitive and behavioural efforts directed towards minimizing.

Managing stress is all about taking charge: of your thoughts. emotions. and Cope with Stress It may seem that there’s nothing you can do about stress.others are skills we consciously master in order to reduce stress or other intense emotions like depression. your body releases hormones that activate your “fight or flight” response. Stress and coping are complicated constructs to define. literature exploring Erikson’s (2008). Given this. Prevent. But you have more control than you might think. Stress in a normal reaction when your brain recognizes a threat. there will never be more hours in the day. Foreign Literature Stress Management How to Reduce. In this literature review these topics will be explored. When the threat is perceived. This fight or flight response is not . and your career and family responsibilities will always be demanding. schedule. the simple realization that you’re in control of your life is the foundation of stress management. the conditions that shape an individual's ability to manage and cope with various stress experiences will be presented as well as Stewart’s (2010) three stages that a graduate student experiences during their tenure in school. This experience is also defined by the coping mechanisms that a person has developed. In fact. and the way you deal with problems STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress is defined as a response to a demand that is placed upon you. The bills won’t stop coming. eight developmental stages which detail. According to Crotty (2009) the ultimate definition of stress and coping lies within the experience of the individual.

Stressors are anything that cause or increase stress. behavioral or even psychological effects. Psychologist Richard S. Stress has also been known to play a part in anxiety and depression. . prolonged stress increases the tension that is put on the arteries. Psychological – the response to stress may decrease your ability to work or interact effectively with other people. to perceiving a threat. Below are a few examples: 1. Stress has been tied to heart disease. Stress may cause you to have physiological. blood pressure. 3. It also affects your immune system which is why cold and flu illness usually show up during exams. or overuse either the television or the computer. and sweating. and be less able to make good decisions. Dating – relationship problems may add to the pressure/stress of academics. neglect exercise or proper nutrition. excitable.” For most people. is triggered when we encounter unexpected events. slow moving traffic. Academics – by far the biggest stressor for college students: the pressure of not failing. They increase heart rate. stress is a negative experience. or even irritable. Lazarus best described stress as “a condition or feeling that a person experiences when they perceive that the demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. trying to find a parking spot. Behavioral – it may cause you to be jumpy. The effects of stress may cause some people to drink or smoke heavily. Physiological – hormone release triggers your fight or flight response. Environment – certain environments can bring about stress such as discussing/viewing heated topics. but in less severe cases. These hormones help you to either fight harder or run faster. Because of the increase in heart rate and blood pressure. 2.

Stop smoking. even parents can become stressors. Choose non-competitive exercise . the next step is to learn techniques that can help you cope with stress while fighting heart disease. Time Management – one of the biggest stressors is not knowing how to plan and execute daily activities such as class. It's OK to say "no.4. Some of which you can learn yourself. Some common techniques for coping with stress include: Eat and drink sensibly. being assertive allows you to stand up for your rights and beliefs while respecting those of others. especially pressure that is negatively influenced. study time. 6. Pressure from parents to succeed is a great stressor. Money – some student find themselves thinking more about money than they do anything else. 8. Money is a huge stressor that college students face. After you've identified the cause of stress in your life. Assert yourself. but it actually adds to it. Parents – yes. Peers – peer pressure is a major stressor. Aside from the obvious health risks of cigarettes. while other techniques may require the guidance of a trained therapist. nicotine acts as a stimulant and brings on more stress symptoms. You do not have to meet others' expectations or demands.Exercise regularly. extracurricular activities. Abusing alcohol and food may seem to reduce stress. and time alone." Remember. 7. work. There are many techniques you can use to manage stress. 5. Extracurricular – some students may feel pressured to make extracurricular activities a part of their daily routine to the point where every hour of the day is accounted for.

) Relax every day. Have a healthy sense of self-esteem. You need time to recover from exercise and stressful events. Sell yourself to yourself. setting priorities. How Can I Keep a Positive Attitude? . Control what you can and leave behind what you cannot control. to realize you cannot be 100% successful at everything all at once. Get enough rest. Effective time-management skills involve asking for help when appropriate. The time you spend resting should be long enough to relax your mind as well as your body. and taking time out for yourself. these demands are ones we have chosen. no matter how busy your life is. Choose from a variety of different techniques Take responsibility. remind yourself of what you do well. Many people find life is filled with too many demands and too little time. you can't fight stress effectively without rest. Set realistic goals and expectations. Examine your values and live by them. For the most part. The more your actions reflect your beliefs. and healthy. Aerobic Exercise has been shown to release endorphin's (natural substances that help you feel better and maintain a positive attitude.and set reasonable goals. Even with proper diet and exercise. It's OK. pacing yourself. Reduce causes of stress. the better you will feel. Some people find that taking a nap in the middle of the day helps them reduce stress. When you are feeling overwhelmed.

try taking a different route. or car-pooling. keep these tips in mind: Stay calm. Try to be objective. Here are some suggestions: First identify the stressor. what is the worst possible thing that can happen? (Chances are that won't happen) Tell yourself that you can learn something from every situation. Think about the outcome: Ask yourself. realistic and flexible. A positive attitude means telling yourself there are things you can do to improve certain situations and admitting that sometimes there's nothing you can do. it is possible to reduce the harmful effects of certain stressors on you and your heart. riding the train or bus. What's causing you to feel stressed? Avoid hassles and minor irritations if possible. Think about the possible solutions. A positive attitude and self-esteem are good defenses against stress and heart disease because they help you view stress as a challenge rather than a problem. Stop what you're doing. If traffic jams cause you stress. A positive attitude keeps you in control when there are inevitable changes in your life. While it is impossible to live your life completely stress-free. Try to keep the situation in perspective. . Reflect on your choices. Always tell yourself you can get through the situation. Breathe deeply. To maintain a positive attitude during a stressful situation (or to prepare yourself for a potentially stressful situation). Choose one that is the most acceptable and feasible.

This helps you find out what is causing your stress and how much stress you feel. Stress-relief techniques focus on relaxing your mind and your body. you can find better ways to cope. After you know. concentrate on each task as it comes.When you experience a change in your life. You can also use this coping strategies form to see how you respond to stress.Ways to Relieve Stress The best way to manage your stress is to learn healthy coping strategies. Practice these techniques until they become habits you turn to when you feel stress. Learn how to manage your time effectively. Try one or two until you find a few that work for you. Or think about tracking your stress. Stress Management . It may help to write about things that are bothering you. Write for 10 to 15 minutes a day about stressful events and how they made you feel. Take a break when your stressors compile to an uncontrollable level. You can start practicing these tips right away. Ways to relax your mind Write. but be realistic and flexible when you plan your schedule. try to continue doing the things that you enjoyed before the change occurred. . Do one thing at a time. Ask for help if you feel that you are unable to deal with stress on your own.

you imagine yourself in any setting that helps you feel calm and relaxed. Paying attention to your breathing is one way to focus. Talking with friends. family. Meditation and guided imagery are two ways to focus and relax your mind. You may feel that you're too busy to do these things. or art. With guided imagery. such as gardening. a counselor. Do something you enjoy.Let your feelings out. or a teacher to guide you. A creative activity. Focus on the present. When you meditate. Mindfulness-based stress reduction is one form of meditation that is very helpful with managing stress and learning how to better cope with it. and express anger when you need to. But making time to do something you enjoy can help you relax. laugh. Playing with and caring for pets. Try: A hobby. Use guided imagery. such as writing. Volunteer work. you focus your attention on things that are happening right now. or a member of the clergy about your feelings is a healthy way to relieve stress. You can use audiotapes. cry. crafts. Talk. . It might also help you get more done in other areas of your life. Meditate. books.

Yoga. which is powerful tool to use. to analyzeevents objectively and observe calmly. Try techniques to relax. andyoga can help relieve stress. You can do all of these techniques at home.2 Local Literature According to Maraya de Jesus Chebat ( 2009 ) stress is here to stay. Walking is a great way to get started. People who can handle stress use their coping mechanism.1. These techniques combine exercise and meditation. Even everyday activities such as housecleaning or yard work can reduce stress. muscle relaxation. Orlandi ( 2010 ) stated. see the topic Fitness. Whatp e o p l e m u s t d o i s t o l e a r n m o r e a b o u t i t s n a t u r e . For more information about becoming more active. You do it by relaxing separate groups of muscles one by one. Breathing exercises. This technique reduces muscle tension. Ways to relax your body Exercise. “Your ability to tolerate stressors depends onthe number of stressors in your life”. Books and videos are also helpful. Stretching can also relieve muscle tension. a type of deep breathing Progressive muscle relaxation. and qi gong. s o u r c e s a n d alternatives so that people used the energy positively and work in thebest possible way. Regular exercise is one of the best ways to manage stress. You may need some training at first to learn them. 2. These include roll breathing. Breathing exercises. Gather . tai chi.

bureaucratic frustration. clerical accuracy. They show that after experiencing stressors such as noise. 2008).. Related Studies Foreign Studies Stress and Job Performance Early studies reported deleterious effects of a wide variety of stressors on speed and accuracy in tracking. u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w h a t t o p r o d u c e t h e t e n s i o n t h a t h elps you feel that the stress is alleviated. More recent research has been guided by propositions about the adaptive demands of stress that drain energy (Glass & Singer. a decrease in the recognition . 2009). and the ability to avoid perceptual distractions. They consider stressful situation opportunist for growth. and task load. Wilkinson.information at thestateo f e q u i l i b r i u m . In Cohen's (2008) version of this model. verbal reasoning. people perform less effectively on tasks which call for tolerance for frustration. electric shock. 2010. Miranda ( 2011 ) specified that the most effective way of managing stressa r e t h r o u g h r e l a t i o n a n d e x e r c i s e w h i c h i r o n i c a l l y a r e e x t r e m e l y aesthetical acts which involved dynamics of the mind and body. They also becomeless sensitive to others and show "a decrease in helping. Peoplewho are always stress survivors stay healthy throughout their lives. stressors create conditions of information overload because they force people to pay special attention. Cohen (2008) reviewed several studies that support this model. signal detection. sentence formation. This results in cognitive fatigue and saps energy needed for task performance. and other kinds of verbal performance (Lazarus et al.

and an increase in aggression". Isen. It is not the job but the . Cunningham. such rankings have little importance for several reasons. Workplace Stress Chart describing the souces of stress in America Numerous studies show that job stress is far and away the major source of stress for American adults and that it has escalated progressively over the past few decades. cooperating. 2009) and altruism (Aderman. the relationship between job stress and heart attacks is so well acknowledged. listening. Clark. and Near (2010) reported positive correlations between job satisfaction and prosocial organizational behaviors such as helping. Motowidlo (2009). Salovey. Isen & Levin. 20010. Los Angels and other municipalities.2012). Rosenhan. hypertension and other disorders. Although the Institute is often asked to construct lists of the “most” and “least” stressful occupations. These effects on interpersonal sensitivity are consistent with results of studies on aggression (Rule & Nesdale. and Smith. Increased levels of job stress as assessed by the perception of having little control but lots of demands have been demonstrated to be associated with increased rates of heart attack. Bateman and Organ (2008). 2011. and showing consideration for the needs and feelings of others. 2008.of individual differences. Steinberg. that any police officer who suffers a coronary event on or off the job is assumed to have a work related injury and is compensated accordingly (including heart attack sustained while fishing on vacation or gambling in Las Vegas). They are also consistent with recent research in work situations where measures of job satisfaction have been used as surrogates for positive affective experience. & Hargis. Organ. 2008. volunteering. & Schwartz. In New York. which indicate that negative emotions associated with stress incline people toward more aggressive and less altruistic behavior. & Grev.

Scientific studies based on this model confirm that workers who perceive they are subjected to high demands but have little control are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. there would be a significant decrease in the stability of their . physicians and other occupations. dead end assembly line work enjoyed by others who shun responsibility and simply want to perform a task that is well within their capabilities. Stress levels can vary widely even in identical situations for different reasons. 2001). Stress is a highly personalized phenomenon and can vary widely even in identical situations for different reasons. The stresses that a policeman or high school teacher working in an inner city ghetto are subjected to are quite different than those experienced by their counterparts in rural Iowa. One survey showed that having to complete paper work was more stressful for many police officers than the dangers associated with pursuing criminals. police personnel. It is necessary to keep this in mind when sweeping statements are made about the degree of stress in teachers. Results of their research revealed that there were 33% of students when suffered from the characteristics of depression and anxiety. general health and social lifeof a student will be affected by the harmful effects of perceived stress(Allgöweret at. Some individuals thrive in the time urgent pressure cooker of life in the fast lane. having to perform several duties at the same time and a list of things to do that would overwhelm most of us — provided they perceive that they are in control.Demakis and McAdams 2007)also found that when a high level of stress is reported by the undergraduate students.person-environment fit that matters.. PERCEIVED STRESS AND GENERAL HEALTH: It is evident that physical health. The severity of job stress depends on the magnitude of the demands that are being made and the individual’s sense of control or decision-making latitude he or she has in dealing with them. They would be severely stressed by dull.

such as exercise regularly. Uchino further explained that coping strategy frequently act as a mediator in influencing one’s level of stressors. 2004). An effective coping strategy can determine one’s outcomes in facing and handling a stressful situation and influence the level of general health state (Uchino. Walton (2002) and Beck (2005) also revealed that fear of not achieving is constantly a drain on student’s energy and resources that ultimately deteriorate their level of performance. In addition. With such a high level of perceived stress. practice relaxation and so on. For example. Often it is wise to choose strategies that work in a particular context. a person who has a higher level of perceived stress tends to have a lower level of coping strategy. The American College Health Association (2006) found that the most common health factor that created the negative impact on the undergraduate students’ general health was stress. seek social support. PERCEIVED STRESS AND COPING STRATEGY: Blonna (2005) found that a stressful circumstance can be reduced considerably if an individual knows how to cope with it. Folkman and Lazarus (1980) have distinguished coping strategies into two broad types: problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. In addition.In parallel with Morgan (2007).general health state compared with those who have reported the lower levels of stress. Uchino defined coping strategy as the ability of a person in changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage psychological stress adaptively. Cheng and Cheung (2005) explained that individuals who face stressful circumstances need to have constructive coping strategy. Grade anxiety and the fear of not achieving is the constant . Cheng and Cheung further explained that a person who has experienced a cluster of stressful life event would be able tocope successfully with life if he/she isable to modify coping strategy to match the demands of the situation. The goal of both strategies is to control and reduce threats that lead to perceived stress in a person. students are likely to be demotivated and consequently exaggerate their general health state.

Their analyses showed that both active coping and coping by seeking social support were related to better general health while avoidant coping was related to worse . COPING STRTEGY AND GENERAL HEALTH: When problems or life difficulties arise. Approaching people for advice was also linked negatively to diminishment. Walton. Litman and Lunsford (2009) studiedthe variety of coping strategies people employed and its relations to general health among 450 individuals with a mean age of 20. A similar investigation was carried out among 268 Singaporeans aged 17 to 66 years (Diong& Bishop. The findings of their study showed that acceptance and planning would increase one’s self-efficacy while positive reinterpretation leads to greater general health growth. 2009). In sum. 1995.84 years.drain on student’s energy and resources that ultimately deteriorate their level of psychological well-being (Beck. Thoits (2005) further suggested that the use of effective coping mechanisms is in fact the determinant factor to alleviate the harmful effects of student’s perceived stress and enhance their level of general health. it is shown that an individual’s coping strategy while facing stress or difficulties in life would affect the person’s general health. emotions venting. the use of acceptance. Drawing a conclusion from the aforementioned literature. hence the significant findings to both positive and negative impacts. Litman and Lunsford explained that acceptance could involve identifying factors that were either within or outside of an individual’s control. and behavioral disengagement were shown to weaken an individual.2002). the study of Litman and Lunsford demonstrated approach-oriented strategies to contribute to positive impacts while avoidant-oriented strategies to negative impacts. there are different strategies in which different individuals would apply. On the other hand.

positive intrusive thoughts. avoidance coping. Their results showed that problem-focused coping would have the positive effect of alleviating psychological distress while emotion-focused coping would have the negative effects of impairing general health. These findings seem to be an extension of the inverted-U-shaped relationship discussed previously. Another study was conducted in Taiwan using 441 16 to 20-year-olds on the relationships between coping methods and psychological well- being (Wang &Yeh. 2000). a similar research was administered in Malaysia context using the sample of 421 undergraduates (Arulrajah&Harun. The inconsistent research findings on the relationship between student’s coping strategy and general health emphasize the needs for further research. For example. Among the four categories of coping. particularly in the Malaysian context. STRESS AND JOB SATISFACTION AND TURNOVER INTENTIONS Research also suggests that moderate levels of stress can have positive effects on job satisfaction and organizational commitment while reducing turnover intent. and Hochwarter (2002) find that . 2005). the effect size was smaller as compared to positive intrusive thoughts and problem-focused coping (Arulrajah&Harun). Other than the aforementioned studies conducted in other nations. Under this hypothesis. The positive relationship between avoidance coping and general health was inconsistent with other research findings. and problem-focused coping but not negative intrusive thoughts were found to be positively linked to undergraduates’ psychological wellbeing (Arulrajah&Harun). Kiewitz.general health. individual performance and productivity are likely to be higher and can also contribute to higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment. at moderate levels of stress. however. Zivnuska.

They find that the tension-squared term has a statistically significant relationship with each of the outcome variables. it does exist in positive and helpful forms that can contribute to individual and group intensity and achievement. As stress levels decline from the “optimal” level. The authors explain this effect by noting that moderate stress is perceived as stimulating and challenging. while value attainment and job satisfaction decrease quadratically with tension. the authors find that individual endorsement of official goals of the military. where a certain level of stress may help maintain vigilance and reduce boredom. military unit morale. and morale. and job satisfaction by including a tension-squared term as a predictor variable in their model. while exposure to some level of stressor may help . which looks at the effects of stress on a group of Israeli soldiers. these studies suggest that although stress often comes along with a negative connotation in popular language. Empirically.moderate levels of stress tend to be correlated with higher levels of job satisfaction than either very high or very low stress levels. They find that moderate levels of stress foster increased group cooperation. all of which can contribute to effective group performance. without being unbearable. This type of stress is likely to be particularly important for military personnel in peacekeeping deployments. value attainment. and Zafrir (1989). commitment. and loyalty to the unit also decline. These findings are supported by the work of Milgram. Orenstein. Taken together. the authors demonstrate the nonlinear relationship of stress with turnover intent. These findings suggest that turnover intent increases quadratically with job tension. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF STRESS However.

One potential result of an extended exposure to a single or to multiple stressors is burnout. Long-term exposure to stressors can also have other negative effects. For example.56. fatigue. chronic stress can also lead to physical problems. Cropanzano. and Leiter (2001) to include exhaustion. stomach and intestinal problems. decreased fertility. In the extreme. a sense of ineffectiveness. and sleep problems. Work by Lee and Ashforth (1990) supports the argument that high and consistent exposure to stress can lead to burnout. depression. it does support the argument that individual stress levels are strongly related to burnout. They find that psychological strain and burnout have a correlation of 0.94 and that physiological strain and burnout have a correlation of 0. feelings of cynicism and detachment. According to Seymour and Black (2002). anxiety. Schaufeli. Although this does not imply a causal relationship. and lack of accomplishment. Long-term stress can also lead to feelings of anger. which has been shown to degrade organizational commitment and increase turnover intentions. defined by Maslach. Rapp. The authors note that individuals with high MBI scores tend to also exhibit higher levels of job dissatisfaction and lower workplace effectiveness. according to the majority of research looking at prolonged exposure to stress. muscle pain. the long-term effects of stress on the individual tend to be negative. including cardiovascular disease.individual performance. Burnout is most often measured on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). long-term exposure to high levels of stressors or a single exposure . and reduced immune system strength. and Bryne (2003) find that longterm exposure to high levels of stressors can lead to emotional exhaustion.

They find that soldiers who handled human remains reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms than did those who did not. 2006). and social isolation. PTSD has a variety of symptoms. 2000.S.. PTSD has been observed in nearly all veteran populations studied. For example. Litz et al. Vaitkus. a psychiatric illness that can interfere with life functioning. and Kahana. the severity of stress response experienced by an individual appears to be related to the type.. the Korean War. difficulty sleeping. In fact. casualties exhibited the highest scores for PTSD symptoms. Rates for other conflicts are lower. flashbacks. Kahana. genetics. In general. and Martin (2006) find that Operation Desert Storm veterans who had witnessed U. in addition to combat-related stressors.. As mentioned previously. and UN peacekeeping deployments. Vaitkus. including those who served in World War II. 2002). and Martin. Not all individuals who experience extreme stress will develop PTSD. duration. Ursano. combat experience is one of the types of stressors that can bring on PTSD. a very demanding event can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder. Important from the perspective of this report. though. the stress associated with peacekeeping duties can also be severe. incidence of PTSD in Gulf War veterans is estimated to be between 2 and 10 percent (Hoge et al. Specifically. and magnitude of stressor experienced. 2008. Adler. including nightmares. Harel. Factors that make individuals more or less susceptible to PTSD include the type of stressor experienced. McCarroll. lack of social support. Persian Gulf conflicts. For example. for the Vietnam War. and Fullerton (2003) also look at the connection between PTSD symptoms and degree of stress exposure. a study conducted 15 years after the end of the conflict found that at least 15 percent of veterans were still suffering from PTSD symptoms (Schlenger et al. 2004). (2007b) study the rates of PTSD and exposure to stress for military personnel who served in a . or the existence of other mental or physical diseases (Green et al.

2000). socially withdrawn. this rate is comparable to that discussed above for Gulf War veterans. despite the fact that the Somali deployment was a peacekeeping mission. Furthermore. 2002. The authors used a survey to identify personnel who met the criteria for PTSD set out in the Department of Veterans Affairs’ National Center for PTSD Checklist. those deployed to Iraq demonstrated a much higher incidence of mental disorders than did those who had only been to Afghanistan. Although the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan are still under way.2.2 Local Studies According toCalderon( 2008 ). and Rothbaum. They find a prevalence rate of PTSD for the sample (men and women) of 8 percent. including anxiety. Interestingly. Weisaeth. (2004) finds that soldiers deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq had significantly higher levels of mental disorders.p e o p l e w h o e x p e r i e n c e a h i g h l e v e l o f st ress for a long time and who cope poorly with this stress may becomeirritable.peacekeeping mission in Somalia.. Zinbarg. A study by Hoge et al. Some people underintense and prolonged stress may start to suffer from extreme anxiety. depression. The authors hypothesize that “peacekeeping operations under perilous conditions may represent a unique class of potentially traumatizing experiences not sufficiently captured by traditional war zone exposure. and PTSD. and emotionally unstable. . research on the prevalence of mental health disorders among returning veterans has already begun. than did those who were not deployed..depression or other severe emotional problems. They may alsohave difficulty concentrating and solving problems. It could be that both war zone exposure and frustration with peace enforcement are most implicated in PTSD responses because of the uncontrollable and unpredictable nature of peacekeeping” ( see also Foa.. 2.

Odrigo G. “Stress gives us energy to cope witht h e d e m a n d i n g a c t i v i t y o f l i f e . d r y m o u t h a n d increase heart rate are all physiological effects of stress that we associate with the emotion of anxiety. Ancheta ( 2009 ) says that. How you perceived and handledstressors will determine whether the stress is good or bad for you. Flores (2000) said that a person who is stressed typically lessanxious thoughts and difficulty concentrating or remembering. Try to imagine life without stress. You would not have anyc h a l l e n g e s a n y t h i n g t o a f f e c t y o u r e m o t i o n s a n d a n y t h i n g n e w a n d exciting. pacing.3 Synthesis These reviewed literature and studies are considered because it talks about stress . Te e t h c l e n c h i n g .P e o p l e a l s o f e e l p h y s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t w h e n t h e y a re stress. nail biting. I t i s t r u e t h a t s t r e s s i s a n o r m a l constant part of our life because it involves changes. h a n d w r i n g i n g . 2. It gives as energy because it activity involves physically and emotionally. Stress might be considered as a problem because weo f t e n b e a r a b o u t s t r e s s i n a n e g a t i v e l i g h t t h a t p e o p l e m a y o n l y associate’s bad experiences with stress. Butterflies in the stomach. and heavy breathing are common signs of stress. cold hands and feet. Asituation that seems extremely stressful to you could leave very calmto somebody.Stressc a n a l s o c h a n g e o u t w a r d b e h a v i o r s . challenges andemotions.

The foreign and local studies shows the effects of stress and the effects of using different methods/ strategies in coping with it. It may give them awareness on how to deal with stress. In this matter. adapted to or acted and different coping mechanisms where in it is the very important part of this research. . This literature and studies has enabled the researchers to have a better understanding of ideas of different well known writers which resulted to broadening the researchers own thinking in relation to the present study. both the children ( including the students ) and adults ( including most the parents and teachers ) from these. coping mechanisms are ways to which external or internal stress is managed. It is an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control over behavior or gives psychological comfort. So It is in our hand on how we control ourselves in time of stressful situations. In this research.

thee research instrument and how was it administered in the population and the statistical analysis applied after deriving the results. Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter aims to enumerate the steps undertaken by the researcher in choosing the method suitable for the study. mathematical or numerical data or computational techniques The objective of quantitative research is to employ mathematical models. theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. Qualititative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical. . Research Method The researcher used descriptive method of research. The target population was selected through random sampling which included employees who arte in permanent items/position in the agency concerned. Cavite. The process of measurement is central to qualitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of qualititative relationships. Respondents of the Study The respondents of the study were fifty municipal employees from the Local Government of Ternate.

encountered by the employee-respondents: 1. This is the sampling method used by the researcher in conducting the study and choosing the target population. One of the best ways to achieve unbiased results in a study using survey method is to collect samples/respondents is through random sampling.Research Instrument The research instrument used by the researcher in the study was survey method. In its simplest form. Random sampling includes choosing subjects from a population through unpredictable means. The content of the questionnaire are divided into two sections: Part I Consist of the Profile of the respondents which is the background information of the respondents consisting of Age. Moral/ Spiritual T he questions were interpreted using the five point Likert scale as follows: SCALE DESCRIPTION 5 Always 4 Often . Position . Intellectual 4. Gender. Physical 2. subjects all have an equal chance of being selected out of the population being researched. and Number of years in service to the government. Emotional 3. Civil Status. Social 5. Part II Common symptoms identified.

Kind of Coping Mechanisms The questions in this section were directed to obtain the Kind of Coping Mechanisms of the students respondents. After approval of the survey form. The survey asked a specific. narrow question and collected a sample of numerical . 3 Sometimes 2 Seldom 1 Never Part II B. The questions were interpreted as follows: SCALE DESCRIPTION 1 Always 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Never Administration of the Instrument The researcher first drafted a survey form which included questions relating to her study. a final draft was made which was disseminated to the target population.

After tabulating the frequency of the respondents’ answer to the specific questions. The formula is % = ( Σfx/n ) 100 % = symbol for percentage Σ = symbol for summation fx = symbol for frequency multiply by the respondents n = sample size 100 = constant For a question on Relationship of the Profile Stressors and the .Profile percentage is used. By forming frequency distribution. To answer Part I . The researcher analysed the data with the help of statistics. the researcher used the weighted from participants to answer the question. the data can be summarized effectively. When the data are grouped into classes of appropriate size indicating the number of observations in each class we get a frequency distribution. Statistical Treatment of the Data The researcher applied the frequency distribution as statistical analysis in the treatment of the results. Frequency distribution is an orderly arrangement of data classified according to the magnitude of the observations. Frequency distribution is also known as Frequency table. It is a method of presenting the data in a summarized form.

The formula is: Wm = Σfx/n Wm = weighted mean f = frequency X =weight n = sample size .Kind of Coping Mechanisms.

Data were collected using the descriptive approach through survey forms disseminated to the respondents. After the data were gathered and tabulated the researcher used frequency. The respondents were selected through random sampling. the second part identified the stress symptoms they experience and the third part identified the effects of the said stress factors. After treatment of data. percentage and weighted mean to identify the relationship of the stress factors and work performance of the employees as statistical analysis. . CHAPTER V Summary. the researcher used the results to reject the hypothesis established by the study and generated a conclusion and provide recommendations. Conclusion and Recommendation Summary The study was conducted to identify the symptoms of stress factors being experienced by the target population who are municipal employees in the Local Government of Ternate who are in permanent position and the effects of the said stress factors in their work performance. They were asked to answer the three part survey form. The first part collected demographic information of the respondents.

2. assume responsibility with confidence. hold anger manageably. 8. 9. 2. Those are the following: A. work with the sense of urgency. feel sure of what I do. 8. B. 10. don’t have neck aches. set high goals for oneself. remain undisturbed under pressure. maintain dignity in all circumstances. extend help to others. Intellectual . have a high self. 4. don’t have headaches. 3. 7. 6. Physical 1. don’t have insomnia.esteem. calm in the midst of chaos. 10. 7. 4.Findings showed that there had been different stress factors and effects identified by the respondents. don’t have backaches. 9. don’t have a feeling of fatigue. 5. 6. don’t give up easily on the task. 3. don’t have a high blood pressure. C. punctual in attendance. don’t have muscle spasms. don’t have muscular tension. 5. Emotional 1.

D. enjoy the company of others. 5. give attention to details. 3. spend time for my relatives. 7. spend my time for my family. 7. 1. like to try out new things.give equal chance for everybody to be heard. make correct decisions. 9. able to join religious organization. am quick to make solutions. 4. 2. 2. 2. 10. see others opinion as different from mine. easy to cope up with the rapid changes. help voluntarily. Moral/ Spiritual 1. spend time for my friends. E. utilize to the maximum every material. 6. tend to be friendly. 6. 8. have strong spiritual foundation. Social 1. analyze every situation. 5. can adjust to any group as a member. 3. 9. enjoy my social activities. 10. very imaginative. 4. create new things. mentally alert. 8. .

time to read the Bible. emotional and even religious aspect of their personality and well-being. have time for spiritual retreats. not easily persuaded to conform to others religious belief. 8. 7. Hence. Recommendation Finding out that stress affects a worker on how he/she can properly perform his/ her service. the study recommends the following activities be undertaken by the concerned agency: Local Government of Ternate:  Provide Stress management Activities for the employees as stress affects how they . Conclusion Based on the findings of the study. respect any religious belief. always pray and devote. able to attend regularly Sunday Mass/ Church Service. mental social. it can therefore be concluded that stress poses a negative effect on the work performance of the employee. the hypothesis is rejected for there is a significant difference between the performance of the employee that is experiencing stress factors from the work performance of those who does not experience stress factors. 9. have conflicts between personal and spiritual obligations. 4. it is not only their work performance that is affected but also their physical. 6. Moreover. 5. 3. able to read inspirational magazines and books. 10.

deliver their basic working.  Ensure that the employees concerns are properly addressed to lessen their stress level.  Assure continuity of work security and safety  Promote a healthy working environment conducive to stress. .