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AIR COMPRESSOR CRANK AND SLOTTED LINK

MECHANISM

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of

DIPLOMA
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BY

Under the guidance of ------------------------

2005-2006

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


CERTIFICATE

Register number: _________________________

This is to certify that the project report titled


“PNEUMATIC JACK” submitted by the following students
for the award of the Diploma engineering is record of
bonafide work carried out by them.
Done by

Mr. /Ms._______________________________

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of

Diploma in Mechanical Engineering


During the Year – (2005-2006)

_________________ _______________
Head of Department Guide

Coimbatore –641651.
Date:

Submitted for the university examination held on ___________

_________________ ________________
Internal Examiner External
Examiner
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At this pleasing moment of having successfully


completed our project, we wish to convey our
sincere thanks and gratitude to the management
of our college and our beloved chairman
…………………………………………………, who provided all
the facilities to us.
We would like to express our sincere thanks to
our principal ………………………………………, for
forwarding us to do our project and offering
adequate duration in completing our project.
We are also grateful to the Head of
Department Prof. …………………………………….., for
her constructive suggestions & encouragement
during our project.
With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our
earnest & sincere thanks to our guide
…………………………………………………….., Department
of Mechanical for her kind guidance &
encouragement during this project.
We also express our indebt thanks to our
TEACHING and NON TEACHING staffs of
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT,
……………………….(COLLEGE NAME).

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AIR COMPRESSOR USING CRANK
AND SLOTTED LINK
MECHANISM
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CONTENTS
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CONTENTS

CHAPTER

NO TITLE PAGE NO
1 Synopsis
2 Introduction
3 Components and Description
4 compressor
5 Design and drawing
6 Working principle
7 Generally used Materials
8 Advantages and Disadvantages
9 Applications
10 List of materials
11 Cost estimation
12 Conclusion
Bibliography
Photography

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Chapter-1
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SYNOPSIS
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CHAPTER-1

SYNOPSIS

The objective of this experiment is to investigate the kinematics motion of a


Crank and Slotted Lever Quick Return mechanism. The investigation is to show
that it is indeed a quick return mechanism and to evaluate the increase in efficiency
that this would offer if applied to a machine tool.
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Chapter-2
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INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER-2

INTRODUCTION

Definition of a Mechanism

A mechanism is a simplified model, usually in the form of a line diagram, which is


used to reproduce the motion occurring in a machine. The purpose of this
reproduction is to enable the nature of the machine. The purpose of this
reproduction is to enable the nature of the motion to be investigated without the
encumbrance of the various solid bodies which form the machine elements The
various parts of the mechanism are called links or elements. Where two links are in
contact and a relative motion is possible, then they are known as a pair. An
arbitrary set of a links which form a closed chain that is capable of relative motion,
and that can be made into a rigid structure by the addition of a single link, is
known as a kinematics chain. To form a mechanism from a kinematics chain one of
the links must be fixed. However as any of the links can be fixed, it follows that
there are as many mechanism as there are links in the chain. The technique
obtaining different mechanism by fixing the various links in turn is known as
inversion.

Degrees of automation are of two types, viz.

Full automation.

Semi automation.

In semi automation a combination of manual effort and mechanical power is

required whereas in full automation human participation is very negligible.

NEED FOR AUTOMATION:

Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics,

etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation.

Automation plays an important role in automobile.

Nowadays almost all the automobile vehicle is being atomized in order to product

the human being. The automobile vehicle is being atomized for the following reasons.

 To achieve high safety


 To reduce man power

 To increase the efficiency of the vehicle

 To reduce the work load

 To reduce the vehicle accident

 To reduce the fatigue of workers

 To high responsibility

 Less Maintenance cost

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Chapter-3
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COMPONENTS AND
DESCRIPTION
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CHAPTER-3

COMPONENTS AND DESCRIPTION


1. PNEUMATIC CYLINDER

2. HOSE COLLAR AND CONNECTOR

3. FRAME STAND

4. CAM

1. PNEUMATIC CYLINDER:

Pneumatic cylinder consist of

A) PISTON B) CYLINDER

The cylinder is a double acting cylinder one, which means that the air pressure

operates forward and backward. The air from the compressor is passed through the

regulator which controls the pressure to required amount by adjusting its knob.

A pressure gauge is attached to the regulator for showing the line pressure.

Then the compressed air is passed through the 5/2 solenoid valve for supplying the air to

the cylinder.
One hose take the output of the directional Control (Solenoid) valve and they are

attached to one end of the cylinder by means of connectors. One of the outputs from the

directional control valve is taken to the flow control valve from taken to the cylinder. The

hose is attached to each component of pneumatic system only by connectors.

CYLINDER TECHNICAL DATA:

Piston Rod:
M.S. hard Chrome plated

Seals:
Nitrile (Buna – N) Elastomer

End Covers:
Cast iron graded fine grained from 25mm to 300mm

Piston:
-Aluminium.

Media:
-Air.

Temperature Range:
0^c to 85^c
Parts of Pneumatic Cylinder

Piston:

The piston is a cylindrical member of certain length which reciprocates inside the

cylinder. The diameter of the piston is slightly less than that of the cylinder bore diameter

and it is fitted to the top of the piston rod. It is one of the important parts which convert

the pressure energy into mechanical power.

The piston is equipped with a ring suitably proportioned and it is relatively soft

rubber which is capable of providing good sealing with low friction at the operating

pressure. The purpose of piston is to provide means of conveying the pressure of air

inside the cylinder to the piston of the oil cylinder.

Generally piston is made up of

 Aluminium alloy-light and medium work.

 Brass or bronze or CI-Heavy duty.

The piston is single acting spring returned type. The piston moves forward when

the high-pressure air is turned from the right side of cylinder. The piston moves backward

when the solenoid valve is in OFF condition. The piston should be as strong and rigid as
possible. The efficiency and economy of the machine primarily depends on the working

of the piston. It must operate in the cylinder with a minimum of friction and should be

able to withstand the high compressor force developed in the cylinder and also the shock

load during operation.

The piston should posses the following qualities.

a. The movement of the piston not creates much noise.

b. It should be frictionless.

c. It should withstand high pressure.

Piston Rod

The piston rod is circular in cross section. It connects piston with piston of other

cylinder. The piston rod is made of mild steel ground and polished. A high finish is

essential on the outer rod surface to minimize wear on the rod seals. The piston rod is

connected to the piston by mechanical fastening. The piston and the piston rod can be

separated if necessary.

One end of the piston rod is connected to the bottom of the piston. The other end

of the piston rod is connected to the other piston rod by means of coupling. The piston

transmits the working force to the oil cylinder through the piston rod. The piston rod is
designed to withstand the high compressive force. It should avoid bending and withstand

shock loads caused by the cutting force. The piston moves inside the rod seal fixed in the

bottom cover plate of the cylinder. The sealing arrangements prevent the leakage of air

from the bottom of the cylinder while the rod reciprocates through it.

Cylinder Cover Plates

The cylinder should be enclosed to get the applied pressure from the compressor

and act on the pinion. The cylinder is thus closed by the cover plates on both the ends

such that there is no leakage of air. An inlet port is provided on the top cover plate and an

outlet ports on the bottom cover plate. There is also a hole drilled for the movement of

the piston.

The cylinder cover plate protects the cylinder from dust and other particle and

maintains the same pressure that is taken from the compressor. The flange has to hold the

piston in both of its extreme positions. The piston hits the top plat during the return

stroke and hits the bottom plate during end of forward stroke. So the cover plates must

be strong enough to withstand the load.

Cylinder Mounting Plates:

It is attached to the cylinder cover plates and also to the carriage with the help of

‘L’ bends and bolts.


Cylinder Tube Materials:

LIGHT DUTY MEDIUM DUTY HEAVY DUTY

1. Plastic Hard drawn brass tube hard drawn brass tube.

2. Hard drawn Aluminium Hard drawn steel tube

Aluminium tube Castings tube.

4. Hard drawn Brass, Bronze, Iron or

Brass tube Castings, welded steel tube

End Cover Materials:

LIGHT DUTY MEDIUM DUTY HEAVY DUTY

1. Aluminium stock Aluminium stock Hard tensile

(Fabricated) (Fabricated) Castings

2. Brass stock Brass stock

(Fabricated) (Fabricated)

3. Aluminium Aluminium, Brass,

Castings iron or steel Castings.

Piston Materials:

LIGHT DUTY MEDIUM DUTY HEAVY DUTY


1.Aluminium Aluminium Castings Aluminium Forgings,

Castings Brass (Fabricated) Aluminium Castings.


2. Bronze (Fabricated) Bronze (Fabricated)
3. Iron and Steel Brass, Bronze, Iron or

Castings Steel Castings.

Mount Materials:

LIGHT DUTY MEDIUM DUTY HEAVY DUTY


1. Aluminium Aluminium, Brass High Tensile

Castings And Steel Castings Steel Castings


2. Light Alloy High Tensile

(Fabricated) Steel Fabrication

Piston Rod Materials:

MATERIAL FINISH REMARKS


MILD STEEL Ground and polished hardened, Generally preferred chrome

ground and polished. plated


STAINLESS STEEL Ground and Polished Less scratch resistant than

chrome plated piston rod

2. PU CONNECTIORS, REDUCER AND HOSECOLLAR:

In our pneumatic system there are two types of connectors used; one is the hose

connector and the other is the reducer. Hose connectors normally comprise an adapter

(connector) hose nipple and cap nut. These types of connectors are made up of brass or

Aluminium or hardened steel. Reducers are used to provide inter connection between two

pipes or hoses of different sizes. They may be fitted straight, tee, “V” or other
configurations. These reducers are made up of gunmetal or other materials like hardened

steel etc.

3. FRAME STAND:

This is a supporting frame and made up of mild steel.

CAM

INTRODUCTION

Cams are mechanical member having miscellaneous contour surfaces which

transmit a desired motion to a follower by direct contact; and the cam mechanisms

are used to create mathematical functions, motion (movement in a prescribed,

exact path) mechanisms and mechanical computers, with the help of cams it is very

easy, accurate and efficient to produce a given motion, velocity and acceleration.

In the design of cams it is essential that the kinetics (relative motions),

dynamics (masses, accelerations, clasticities of members) and the design (practical

construction, proportion of parts and fabrication accuracy) be considered

thoroughly. In the case of high speed cams, a detailed study of the cam contour
and its characteristic velocity and acceleration curves, which concerns with

vibrations, dynamic loads, noise etc., is also essential.

EMPIRICAL DESIGN

A radial cam can be considered to be a wedge rolled in plane of the paper

having a length of one cycle wedge cam equal to the circumference.

The empirical design of cam is used to construct a simple cam requiring a

given total rise in a given time for low cam speeds. This method calls for two

important conditions it., the cam should have a smooth contour free of sharp

changes such that the steepness of displacement curve is not more than 30 (It may

be noted that steepness of the curve can be reduced for the same given rise, by

employing a bigger size cam). This is desirable to avoid jamming of the

translating follower on the sides.

The profile of the cam is developed by fixing the cam and moving the

follower around the cam at its respective relative positions. Enough points should

be considered in order to obtain smooth and reliable cam contour. With the roller

follower, the lay out is drawn for the centre of the roller and then the cam curve is

drawn tangent to the rollers.

ECCENTRIC
It is best suited for rise-return-rise cam which has no dwells. In eccentric,

the displacement, velocity and acceleration curves have a continuous sine or cosine

curve characteristic. It is more compact and cheaper to fabricate than a cam.

CAM PROFILE LAY OUT

Having specified the displacement time diagram, it becomes simple to

design the cam profile further. However, the important points needing

consideration are: Space limitations of interference, wear or strength problems,

whether the cam designed will actually give the displacement time characteristics.

All these problems are obviously related with the size and shape of the cam

and follower, and it becomes necessary to consider that cam profile in some detail,

either analytically or graphically. For most purposes, the information required by

the designer can readily be determined with sufficient accuracy by using graphical

means. However, where extreme accuracy is necessary, than special analytical

methods in conjunction with high speed digital computers need to be considered.

Every cam design is based upon the following three points:


i) The displacement-time diagram is always given for a point on

the follower which may be used to draw the follower in its

correct position at any time.

ii) The cam profile will be tangent to the follower at all times and

will thus be determined by the envelope of the follower profiles

drawn in successive positions.

iii) Cam profile has, therefore, to be drawn on the basis of principle

of inversion, i.e., cam should be kept fixed and the frame

carrying the follower rotated in the direction opposite to that

specified for cam rotation and then the envelope of follower

profiles is drawn.

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Chapter-
4
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COMPRESSOR
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CHAPTER-4

AIR COMPRESSOR
COMPRESSORS

The main function of the air compressor is to compress the air up to the required

pressure. The maximum capacity of the compressor is 10105 to 12 105 N/m2. This is a

two stages or two-cylinder reciprocating air compressor. The two cylinders are for low

and high compression. The air pressure is measured at various places by the use of

pressure gauges. V-belt and pulley are used to drive the compressor.

Compressors can be broadly classifieds into two groups. They are:

 Positive Displacement Compressor

 Dynamic Compressors

Positive Displacement Compressor

Successive volumes of air isolated and then compressed to a higher pressure.

There are essential two forms of positive displacement compressor, reciprocating and

rotary

Dynamic compressors
These are rotary continuous machines in which a high speed rotating element

accelerates the air and converts the resulting velocity head into pressure.

Positive displacement compressors work on the principle of increasing the

pressure of a definite volume in an enclosed chamber. Dynamic (turbo) compressor

employs rotating vanes or impellers to impart velocity and pressure to the flow of

the air being handled. The pressure comes from the dynamic effects such as

centrifugal force.

SELECTION CRITERIA FOR COMPRESSORS

A number of factors are involved in the selection criteria of a suitable air

compressor. These are dealt here briefly

1. Pressure

First of all, the pressure needed must be determined. Most air operated system

and tools are designed to operate at a pressure from 6 105 to 7 105 N/m2. A

compressor of normal make and type would normally be suitable if this can assure

a pressure 6 105 N/m2 in the distribution line laid down for a pneumatic tools and

system.
2. Capacity

Another important factor in compressor selection is the capacity or volume

of air required. This factor is sometimes extremely difficult to evaluate. Obviously,

the unit selected should be large enough to supply all the air devices, which will be

operating at any given time. If all the air operation is continuous, the capacity

required is simply the sum of air compression of each individual tool.

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Chapter-5
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DESIGN AND DRAWINGS


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CHAPTER-5

DESIGN AND DRAWINGS


1. PNEUMATIC CYLINDER

Design of Piston rod:

Load due to air Pressure.

Diameter of the Piston (d) = 40 mm

Pressure acting (p) = 6 kgf/cm²

Material used for rod = C 45

Yield stress (σy) = 36 kgf/mm²

Assuming factor of safety = 2

Force acting on the rod (P) = Pressure x Area

= p x (Πd² / 4)

= 6 x {( Π x 4² ) / 4 }

P = 73.36 Kgf

Design Stress(σy) = σy / F0 S

= 36 / 2 = 18 Kgf/mm²
= P / (Π d² / 4 )

∴d = √ 4 p / Π [ σy ]

= √ 4 x 75.36 / {Π x 18}

= √ 5.33 = 2.3 mm

∴ Minimum diameter of rod required for the load = 2.3 mm

We assume diameter of the rod = 15 mm

Design of cylinder thickness:

Material used = Cast iron

Assuming internal diameter of the cylinder = 40 mm

Ultimate tensile stress = 250 N/mm² = 2500 gf/mm²

Working Stress = Ultimate tensile stress / factor of safety

Assuming factor of safety = 4

Working stress ( ft ) = 2500 / 4 = 625 Kgf/cm²

According to ‘LAMES EQUATION’


Minimum thickness of cylinder ( t ) = ri {√ (ft + p) / (ft – p ) -1 }

Where,

ri = inner radius of cylinder in cm.

ft = Working stress (Kgf/cm²)

p = Working pressure in Kgf/cm²

∴ Substituting values we get,

t = 2.0 { √ (625 + 6) / ( 625 – 6) -1}

t = 0.019 cm = 0.19 mm

We assume thickness of cylinder = 2.5 mm

Inner diameter of barrel = 40 mm

Outer diameter of barrel = 40 + 2t

= 40 + ( 2 x 2.5 ) = 45 mm

Design of Piston rod:

Diameter of Piston Rod:


Force of piston Rod (P) = Pressure x area = p x Π/4 (d²)

= 6 x (Π / 4) x (4)²

= 73.36 Kgf

Also, force on piston rod (P) = (Π/4) (dp)² x ft

P = (Π/4) x (dp)² x 625

73.36 = (Π/4) x (dp)² x 625

∴ dp² = 73.36 x (4/Π) x (1/625)

= 0.15

dp = 0.38 cm = 3.8 mm

By standardizing dp = 15 mm

Length of piston rod:

Approach stroke = 160 mm

Length of threads = 2 x 20 = 40mm

Extra length due to front cover = 12 mm

Extra length of accommodate head = 20 mm

Total length of the piston rod = 160 + 40 + 12 + 20

= 232 mm

By standardizing, length of the piston rod = 230 mm


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Chapter-6
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WORKING PRINCIPLE
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CHAPTER-6

WORKING PRINCIPLE

Kinematics Pairs

The relative motion between two links of a pair can take different form. Three
types of a pairs are known as lower pairs and these are the frequently occurring
ones:Sliding : such as occurs between a piston and a cylinder Turning : such as
occurs with a wheel on an axle Screw motion : such as occurs between a nut and a
bolt All other cases are considered to be combinations of sliding and rolling are
called higher pairs. Strictly screw motion is a higher pair as it combines turning
and sliding. Slider – Crank Mechanism The slider- crank mechanism is well known
as the basis of a reciprocating engine. As shown in the diagram below it consists of
three turning pairs and one sliding pair

In the above diagram, the link 1 is fixed. If we now fix link 2, that is consider an
inversion of the mechanism, we obtain the mechanism shown below. This is known
as Whiworth’s Quick Return Mechanism.
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Chapter-7
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GENERALLY USED MATERIALS


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CHAPTER-7

GENERALLY USED MATERIALS

Cylinder Tube Materials:

LIGHT DUTY MEDIUM DUTY HEAVY DUTY

1. Plastic Hard drawn brass tube hard drawn brass tube.

2. Hard drawn Aluminium Hard drawn steel tube

Aluminium tube Castings tube.

4. Hard drawn Brass, Bronze, Iron or

Brass tube Castings, welded steel tube

End Cover Materials:

LIGHT DUTY MEDIUM DUTY HEAVY DUTY

1. Aluminium stock Aluminium stock Hard tensile

(Fabricated) (Fabricated) Castings

2. Brass stock Brass stock

(Fabricated) (Fabricated)

3. Aluminium Aluminium, Brass,

Castings iron or steel Castings.


Piston Materials:

LIGHT DUTY MEDIUM DUTY HEAVY DUTY


1.Aluminium Aluminium Castings Aluminium Forgings,

Castings Brass (Fabricated) Aluminium Castings.


2. Bronze (Fabricated) Bronze (Fabricated)
3. Iron and Steel Brass, Bronze, Iron or

Castings Steel Castings.

Mount Materials:

LIGHT DUTY MEDIUM DUTY HEAVY DUTY


3. Aluminium Aluminium, Brass High Tensile

Castings And Steel Castings Steel Castings


4. Light Alloy High Tensile

(Fabricated) Steel Fabrication

Piston Rod Materials:

MATERIAL FINISH REMARKS


MILD STEEL Ground and polished hardened, Generally preferred chrome

ground and polished. plated


STAINLESS STEEL Ground and Polished Less scratch resistant than

chrome plated piston rod

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Chapter-8
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ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES


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CHAPTER-8

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES

 It requires simple maintenance cares


 Checking and cleaning are easy, because of the main parts are screwed.

 Handling is easy.

 Manual power not required

 Repairing is easy.

 Replacement of parts is easy.

 Maximum height up to 1 foot can be reached.

DISADVANTAGES

1. Initial cost is high.

2. High maintenance cost.

3. Separate air tank or compressor is required.

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Chapter-9
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APPLICATIONS
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CHAPTER-9

APPLICATIONS
 Thus it can be useful for the following types of vehicles;

1) MARUTI,

2) AMBASSADOR,

3) FIAT,

4) MAHINDRA,

5) TATA

 All small scale industries

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Chapter-10
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LIST OF MATERIALS
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CHAPTER-10
LIST OF MATERIALS

Sl. No. PARTS Qty. Material


i. Pneumatic Cylinder 1 M.S
ii. Quick exhaust valve 1 Aluminium
iii. Crank and slotted 1 Aluminium
iv. Plate 1 M.S
v. Cam plate 1 Plastic
vi. Polyethylene Tube - Polyurethene
vii. Hose Collar and Reducer - Brass
viii Stand (Frame) 1 Mild steel
Ix PU connector 4 Brass

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Chapter-11
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COST ESTIMATION
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CHAPTER-11
COST ESTIMATION

1. MATERIAL COST:

Sl. No. PARTS Qty. Material Amount (Rs)


i. Pneumatic Cylinder 1 M.S
ii. Quick exhaust valve 1 Aluminium
iii. Crank and slotted 1 Aluminium
iv. Plate 1 M.S
v. Cam plate 1 Plastic
vi. Polyethylene Tube - Polyurethene
vii. Hose Collar and Reducer - Brass
viii Stand (Frame) 1 Mild steel
Ix PU connector 4 Brass
TOTAL =

2. LABOUR COST

LATHE, DRILLING, WELDING, GRINDING, POWER HACKSAW, GAS CUTTING:


Cost =

3. OVERHEAD CHARGES

The overhead charges are arrived by “Manufacturing cost”


Manufacturing Cost = Material Cost + Labour cost
=
=

Overhead Charges = 20% of the manufacturing cost


=

TOTAL COST

Total cost = Material Cost + Labour cost + Overhead Charges


=
=

Total cost for this project =

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Chapter-12
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CONCLUSION
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CHAPTER-12

CONCLUSION
This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience, to use

our limited knowledge. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning,

purchasing, assembling and machining while doing this project work. We feel that the

project work is a good solution to bridge the gates between institution and industries.

We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time

successfully. The “AIR COMPRESSOR USING CRANK & SLOTTED LINK

MECHANISM” is working with satisfactory conditions. We are able to

understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and also quality. We have

done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available facilities. In

conclusion remarks of our project work, let us add a few more lines about our

impression project work.

Thus we have developed an “AIR COMPRESSOR USING CRANK &

SLOTTED LINK MECHANISM” which helps to know how to achieve low cost

automation. The operating procedure of this system is very simple, so any person

can operate. By using more techniques, they can be modified and developed

according to the applications.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. G.B.S. Narang, “Automobile Engineering”, Khanna Publishers, Delhi, 1991,

pp 671.

2. William H. Crowse, “Automobile Engineering”.

3. MECHANISMS IN MODERN ENGINEERING DESIGN Vol. V. PART I

4. ELEMENTS OF WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY – VOL II

-S.K. HAJRA CHOUDHURY

-S.K. BOSE

-A.K. HAJRA CHOUDHERY

5. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS -I.B. PRASAD

Web site:

www.maritime.org
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PHOTOGRAPHY
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