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Energy of dislocation,

Interaction between dislocations,


Stress required to bend a
dislocation

DC
Elastic Strain Energy of a dislocation
Elastic Strain Energy of a dislocation

No displacement along X- and Y-direction


b bθ/
2π b
rθ θ=2π rθ θ=0
2πr
θ-axis

Z-axis
L
θ-plane

Volume of the pipe per unit length: 2πrdr


= (τ .γ ).2πrdr
1
dEel ( screw)
1  b Gb  2
dEel ( screw) =  . .2πrdr
2  2πr 2πr 
Gb  R 2
R
1 Gb dr 2
Eel ( screw) = ln 
Eel ( screw) = ∫ . 4π  r0 
2 r0 2π r
Gb 2  R  Eel ( screw) = αGb 2

Eel ( screw) = ln 


4π  r0  Per unit length of dislocation line

α ∼ 0.5-1.0 Frank’s rule

R
R
2
1 Gb dr Gb 2
Eel ( edge ) = ∫ . Eel ( edge ) = ln 
2 r0 2π (1 −ν ) r 4π (1 −ν )  r0 
3
Eel ( edge ) ≈ Eel ( screw) As 1/(1-ν) ∼ 3/2
2
R=1 mm; r0 = 1 nm, G = 40 GNm-2; b = 0.25 nm, Eel(edge) ≈ 4 nJm-1 or 6 eV
for each plane threaded by dislocation

Etotal = Ecore + Eelesticstrain


15% of the total energy
Interaction between dislocations

Etotal = αGb 2 + αGb 2 = 2αGb 2

Etotal = αG (2b) 2 = 4αGb 2

Etotal = αGb 2 + αGb 2 = 2αGb 2


Etotal = αGb 2 − αGb 2 = 0
Fr
Y

x
Force between edge dislocations in adjacent slip planes, Fx

Same
sign

Opposite
sign

Distance, x (as the multiple of y)

Edge dislocations
on neighbouring
slip-planes
Same sign Opposite sign
The stress field (σzz) of a
single edge dislocation
The stress field (σzz) of dislocation array

Two dislocations Multiple dislocations


Force on the dislocation line

Uniform shear stress, τ


Force on the plane, τA

Element of dislocation line, ds,


displaced by an amount dl.

Average displacement  dsdl 


 .b
of the crystal  A 

Area of the slip plane, A Work done

Force on dislocation is the force per unit length


of the dislocation line, F:
Stress required to bend a dislocation line over radius, R
Outward force bending the dislocation line: τ .b.ds
T
 dθ 
Inward force due to line tension: 2T sin  
 2 
For small bend angle, θ
ds = Rdθ
Tdθ = τbds
T αGb
τ = T = αGb τ =
2
T bR R
Gb
α = 0.5, τ =
ds 2R
Shear stress required to bend unit
length of dislocation line over radius, R
Forces on dislocation
Chemical force per unit length of
the dislocation line: