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International Diploma

SAMPLE RESOURCES

This RMS sample resources pack contains a selection of powerpoint


slides together with a supporting lesson plan and are representative of
the full set of RMS trainer materials for the NEBOSH International Diploma
qualification.

RMS Publishing Ltd

Suite 3, Victoria House,


Lower High Street, Stourbridge, West Midlands DY8 1TA
Tel: +44 (0) 1384 447927 Email: sales@rmspublishing.co.uk
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Element IC8

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Electrical safety
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Learning outcomes

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IC8.1 Outline the basic principles of electricity

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IC8.2 Outline the dangers of electricity
IC8.3 Outline the issues relevant to the installation, use,

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inspection and maintenance of electrical systems
IC8.4 Outline the main principles for safe working in the

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vicinity of high voltage systems
IC8.5 Outline the main hazards, risks and controls associated
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with the use of portable electrical equipment
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Contents

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IC8.1 Basic principles of electricity

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IC8.2 Dangers of electricity
IC8.3 Installation, use and inspection of electrical systems

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IC8.4 Safe working in the vicinity of high voltage systems

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IC8.5 Portable electrical equipment
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Contents

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IC8.1 Basic principles of electricity

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IC8.2 Dangers of electricity
IC8.3 Installation, use and inspection of electrical systems

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IC8.4 Safe working in the vicinity of high voltage systems

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IC8.5 Portable electrical equipment
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Basic principles of electricity
• Difference between low and high voltage

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• Potential difference, current, resistance, impedance, OHM’S

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law
• Basic electrical circuitry

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• Earthing principles

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Basic principles of electricity
• Electricity is a facility that we have all come to take for

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granted, whether for lighting, heating, as a source of motive

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power or as the driving force behind the computer
• Used properly it can be of great benefit to us, but misused it

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can be very dangerous and often fatal

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• Electricity is used in most industries, offices and homes and
our modern society could now not easily function without it
• The normal senses of sight, hearing and smell will not detect
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electricity
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• Making contact with exposed conductors at the supply


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voltage of 110V or 230V can be lethal


• The actual number of electrical accidents is small
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Differences between low and high voltage
• The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at

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voltages high enough to inflict harm or death upon living

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things
• The Electrotechnical Commission and its national

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counterparts Institute of Engineering Technology, Institute

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of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and Verband der
Elektrotechnik, Elektronik und Informationstechnik) define
high voltage as above 1,000V for alternating current, and
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above 1,500V for direct current - and distinguish it from low
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voltage (50-1,000V AC or 120-1,500V DC) and extra-low


voltage (<50V AC or <120V DC) circuits
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Electrical distribution voltages

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Source: Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology.

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Potential difference, current, resistance,
impedance, Ohm’s law
Potential difference

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• The flow of electrons through a conductor is known as

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current
• The electric current flows due to differences in electrical

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‘pressure’ or potential difference as it is often known

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• The unit of potential difference is called the volt, V
• One volt of potential difference exists between two points if
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one joule of work is done by each coulomb of charge in
moving between them
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• Potential difference is measured by an instrument called a


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voltmeter

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Potential difference, current, resistance,
impedance, Ohm’s law
Current

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• Current is the flow of charge

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• The unit of current is the ampere, A

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Current is measured using an ammeter
• Ammeters are connected in series with the part of the

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circuit through which one wishes to measure the current, I,
and they have negligible resistance
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Potential difference, current, resistance,
impedance, Ohm’s law
Resistance

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• For any conductor, the ratio of the potential difference

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across the conductor and the current flowing through it is
constant

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• This constant is called the resistance of the conductor, R:

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Resistance (R) 
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• The unit of resistance is the Ohm, Ω
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Potential difference, current, resistance,
impedance, Ohm’s law
Impedance

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• As an alternating current passes round a circuit under the

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action of an applied voltage it is impeded in its flow
• This may be due to the presence in the circuit of resistance,

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inductance or capacitance

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• The combined effect of which is called impedance and is
measured in ohms
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Impedance

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Source: G Self.

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Potential difference, current, resistance,
impedance, Ohm’s law
Ohm’s law

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• “For any particular conductor at a constant temperature, the

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current that flows through it is directly proportional to the
potential difference applied across it”

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• There is a simple relationship between electrical pressure

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(volts), current and resistance represented by Ohm's Law:
• Voltage (V) = current (I) multiplied by the circuit resistance (R)
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Basic electrical circuitry

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Voltage
By Ohm’s law: Current 
Resistance

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Source: RMS.

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Basic electrical circuitry
• Resistance in a circuit is dependent on many factors

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• Most metals, particularly precious metals, allow current to

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pass very easily
• These have a low resistance and are used as conductors

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• Other materials such as plastics, rubber and textiles have a

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high resistance and are used as insulators
• If the person is on, say, a dry concrete floor, resistance in the
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body will only be about 2,000 ohms and the resistance in
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the floor about 4,000 ohms, therefore:


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230 Volts
I   0.04 Amps
R  2000  4000 Ohms

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Earthing principles
• The conductive mass of the Earth helps as a protective

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measure

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• A conductor called an earth wire is connected to the system
• It is connected at one end to a plate buried into the ground

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and the other end connected to the metal casing of the

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equipment
• If for any reason a conducting wire touches the casing so
that the equipment casing becomes ‘live’ the current will
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flow to the point of lowest potential
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• By fitting the earth wire the path to this point is made easier
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as the wire has very little resistance and therefore an easier


path
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Unearthed electrical system

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Source: G Self.
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Earthed electrical system

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Source: G Self. Note: Harmonisation in Europe has now changed UK mains voltage to 230 Volts.
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NEBOSH International Diploma – Unit IC International workplace and work equipment safety

Lesson Plan – Day 2


TIME ELEMENT/TOPIC CONTENT RESOURCE/TASK
08.30 Review of overnight work Give feedback regarding content and structure of delegates work. General discussion with group
09.00 5.2 Risk assessment and use The need for conducting risk assessments in the use of work equipment Slides

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Tutor asking questions to whole group and/or
specific individuals to establish learning.

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Small Group exercises: as sections of the material
are covered and as time permits, divide group
into small groups of 2 or 3 – set selected exam-
style questions relevant to topics being discussed.
Outline answers only required – collect whole

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group feedback using flipchart as focus.

The risks associated with the use of work equipment arising from its initial

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integrity, the location where it will be used, and the purpose for which it will
be used
The risks associated with the use of work equipment arising from its: incorrect
installation or re-installation; deterioration; or, of exceptional circumstances
which could affect the safe operation of work equipment
The risk control hierarchy relating to work equipment: eliminating the risks;
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taking 'hardware' (physical) measures (such as the provision of guards); taking
appropriate 'software ' measures (such as following safe systems of work and
the provision of information, instruction and training)
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10.45 Break
11.00 5.3 Maintenance, inspection The hazards and precautions associated with the maintenance of work Slides
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and testing equipment Tutor asking questions to whole group and/or


specific individuals to establish learning.
Additional resource for students The Safety
Assessment Federation Guidance document
MLCC05 - In-Service Inspection Procedures -

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NEBOSH International Diploma – Unit IC International workplace and work equipment safety

TIME ELEMENT/TOPIC CONTENT RESOURCE/TASK


http://safed.co.uk/technical-guides/machinery-
lift-and-crane/
The three maintenance management strategies of: planned preventive;
condition based; and breakdown

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Factors to be considered in developing a planned maintenance programme for
safety-critical components

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The need for the maintenance of work equipment, including hired work
equipment
The factors to be considered in determining inspection regimes having regard
to the type of equipment; where it is used; and how it is used

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The need for functional testing of safety-related parts, including interlocks,
protection devices, controls and emergency controls
12.30 Lunch

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13.30 5.4 Competence, training, The difference between training and competence Slides
information and supervision Tutor asking questions to whole group and/or
specific individuals to establish learning.
Circumstances when training is likely to be required including: induction;
changes in work activities; introduction of new technology or new equipment;
changes in systems of work; refresher training due to declining skills
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Groups of people having specific training needs including supervisors, young
and vulnerable persons
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The relationship between competence and supervision (external and self-
supervision)
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The circumstances where there are specific training needs for certain
hazardous types of work equipment (including chainsaws, woodworking
machines, power presses, abrasive wheels, etc)
14.45 Break

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