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GENERAL REQUIREMENTS composed of parts joined together in some

definite manner.
ADDITION is an extension or increase in floor
area or height of a building or structure. STRUCTURAL ENGINEER is a registered Civil
Engineer with special qualification in the practice
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN is a method of of Structural Engineering as recognized by the
proportioning structural elements such that Board of Civil Engineering of the Professional
computed stresses produced in the elements by Regulation Commission of the Philippine
the allowable stress load combinations do not Institute of Civil Engineers through the
exceed specified allowable stress (also called Association of Structural Engineers of the
working stress design). Philippines.


or modification in construction or occupancy.
APPROVAL shall mean that the proposed work
APPROVED as to materials and type of or completed work conforms to this section in
construction, refers to approval by the building the opinion of the building official.
official as the result of investigation and tests
conducted by the building official, or by reason AS GRADED is the extent of surface conditions
of accepted principles or tests by recognized on completion of grading.
authorities, technical or scientific organizations.
BEDROCK is in-place solid rock.
BUILDING is any structure used or intended for
supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. BENCH is a relatively level step excavated into
earth material on which fill is to be placed.
BUILDING, EXISTING, is a building erected
prior to the adoption of this code, or one for BORROW is earth material acquired from an off-
which a legal building permit has been issued. site location for use on grading on a site.

BUILDING OFFICIAL is the officer or other CIVIL ENGINEER is a professional engineer

designated authority charged with the licensed to practice in the field of civil
administration and enforcement of this code, or engineering.
the building official’s duly authorized
representative. CIVIL ENGINEERING is the application of the
knowledge of the forces of nature, principles of
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN mechanics and the properties of materials to the
(LRFD) METHOD is a method of proportioning evaluation, design and construction of civil
structural elements using load and resistance works.
factors such that no applicable limit state is
reached when the structure is subjected to all COMPACTION is the densification of a fill by
appropriate load combinations. The term “LRFD” mechanical means.
is used in the design of steel and wood
structures. EARTH MATERIAL is any rock, natural soil or
fill or any combination thereof.
proportioning structural elements such that the ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST is a licensed
computed forces produced in the elements by geologist experienced and knowledgeable in
the factored load combinations do not exceed engineering geology.
the factored element strength. The term
“strength design” is used in the design of ENGINEERING GEOLOGY is the application of
concrete and masonry structures. geologic knowledge and principles in the
investigation and evaluation of naturally
STRUCTURE is that which is built or occurring rock and soil for use in the design of
constructed, an edifice or building of any kind, or civil works.
any piece of work artificially built up or

EROSION is the wearing away of the ground
surface as a result of the movement of wind, SOIL is naturally occurring superficial deposits
water or ice. overlying bedrock.

EXCAVATION is the mechanical removal of SOILS ENGINEER. See Geotechnical Engineer

earth material.
FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by Engineering
artificial means.
TERRACE is a relatively level step constructed
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER is an engineer in the face of a graded slope surface for
experienced and knowledgeable in the practice drainage and maintenance purposes.
of geotechnical engineering.
application of the principles of soil and rock ACCESS FLOOR SYSTEM is an assembly
mechanics in the investigation, evaluation and consisting of panels mounted on pedestals to
design of civil works involving the use of earth provide an under-floor space for the installations
materials and the inspection or testing of the of mechanical, electrical, communications or
construction thereof. similar systems to serve as an air-supply or
return-air plenum.
GRADE is the vertical location of the ground
surface. AGRICULTURAL BUILDING is a structure
designed to house farm implements, hay, grain,
GRADE, EXISTING, is the grade prior to poultry, livestock or other horticultural products.
grading. The structure shall not be a place of human
habitation or a place of employment where
GRADE, FINISH, is the final grade of the site agricultural products are processed, treated or
that conforms to the approved plan. packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the
GRADE, ROUGH, is the stage at which the
grade approximately conforms to the approved ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN METHOD is a
plan. method of proportioning structural elements
such that computed stresses produced in the
GRADING is any excavating or filling or elements by the allowable stress load
combination thereof. combinations do not exceed specified allowable
stress (also called working stress design).
KEY is a designed compacted fill placed in a
trench excavated in earth material beneath the ASSEMBLY BUILDING is a building or portion
toe of a proposed fill slope. of a building for the gathering together of 50 or
more persons for such purposes as deliberation,
PROFESSIONAL INSPECTION is the education, instruction, worship, entertainment,
inspection required by this code be performed amusement, drinking or dining, or awaiting
by the civil engineer, geotechnical engineer or transportation.
engineering geologist. Such inspections include
that performed by persons supervised by such AWNING is a shelter supported entirely from the
engineers or geologists and shall be sufficient to exterior wall of a building.
form an opinion relating to conduct of the work.
BALCONY, EXTERIOR, is an exterior floor
SITE is any lot or parcel of land or contiguous system projecting from a structure and
combination thereof, under the same ownership, supported by that structure, with no additional
where grading is performed or permitted. independent supports.
SLOPE is an inclined ground surface the
inclination of which is expressed as a ratio of
vertical distance to horizontal distance.

DEAD LOADS consist of the weight of all wall supporting its own weight for more
materials and fixed equipment incorporated into than one story.
the building or other structure.
EXTERIOR WALL is any wall or element of a
DECK is an exterior floor system supported on wall, or any member or group of members, that
at least two opposing sides by an adjoining defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a
structure and/or posts, piers, or other building and that has a slope of 60 degrees or
independent supports. greater with the horizontal plane.

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are buildings and NONBEARING WALL is any wall that is not a
other structures that are intended to remain bearing wall
operational in the event of extreme
environmental loading from wind or PARAPET WALL is the part of any wall entirely
earthquakes. above the roof line.

GARAGE is a building or portion thereof in RETAINING WALL is a wall designed to resist

which motor vehicle containing flammable or the later displacement of soil or other materials.
combustible liquids or gas in its tank is stored,
repaired or kept. IV. WIND LOAD
GARAGE, PRIVATE, is a building or portion of a BASIC WIND SPEED, V is a 3-second gust
building, not more than 90 sq. m. in area, in speed at 10 meters above the ground in
which only motor vehicles used by the tenants of Exposure C and associated with an annual
the building on the premises are kept or stored. probability of 0.02 of being equaled or exceeded
(50-year mean recurrence interval).
LIMIT STATE is a condition in which a structure
or component is judged either to be no longer BUILDING, ENCLOSED, is a building that does
useful for its intended function (serviceability not comply with the requirements for open or
limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state). partially enclosed buildings.
LIVE LOADS are forces or other actions that BUILDING, OPEN, is a structure having all walls
result from the weight of all building materials, at least 80% open.
occupants, and their possessions,
environmental effects, differential movements, BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED is a
and restrained dimensional changes. Permanent building that complies with both of the following
loads are those loads in which variations over conditions:
time are rare or of small magnitude. All other
loads are variable loads. 1. The total area of openings in a wall that
receives positive external pressure
MARQUEE is a permanent roofed structure exceeds the sum of the areas of the
attached to and supported by the building and openings in the balance of the building
projecting over public property. envelope (walls and roof) by more than
10% and
OCCUPANCY is the purpose for that a building, 2. The total area of openings in a wall that
or part thereof, is used or intended to be used. receives positive external pressure
exceeds 0.5 sq. m. or 1% of the area of
WALLS that wall, whichever is smaller, and the
BEARING WALL is any wall meeting either of percentage of openings in the balance
the following classifications: of the building envelope does not
exceed 20%.
1. Any metal or wood stud wall that
supports more than 0.5 KN per linear BUILDING, LOW RISE, is an enclosed or
meter of superimposed load. partially enclosed building which complies with
2. Any masonry or concrete wall that the following conditions:
supports more than 1.0 KN per linear
meter superimposed loads, or any such

1. Mean roof height, h, less than or equal BEARING WALL SYSTEM is a structural
to 18 meters. system without a complete vertical load-carrying
2. Mean roof height, h, does not exceed space frame.
least horizontal dimension.
BOUNDARY ELEMENT is an element at the
COMPONENTS AND CLADDING are elements edges or openings or at perimeters of shear
that do not qualify as part of the main wind-force walls or diaphragms.
resisting system.
BRACED FRAME is an essentially vertical truss
DESIGN FORCE, F, is the equivalent static system of the concentric or eccentric type that is
force to be used in the determination of wind provided to resist lateral forces.
loads for open buildings and other structures.
BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM is an essentially
DESIGN PRESSURE, p, is the equivalent static complete space frame that provides support for
pressure to be used in the determination of wind gravity loads.
loads for buildings.
EFFECTIVE WIND AREA is the area used to column element provided to transfer lateral-
determine GCp. For cladding fasteners, the force-resisting system that cantilevers from a
effective wind area shall not be greater than the fixed base and has minimal moment capacity at
area that is tributary to an individual fastener. the top, with lateral forces applied essentially at
the top.
STRUCTURES are slender buildings and other COLLECTOR is a member or element provide
structures that have a fundamental natural to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a
frequency less than 1 Hz. Included are buildings structure top vertical elements of the lateral-
and other structures that have a height, h, force-resisting system.
exceeding four times the least horizontal
dimension. COMPONENT is a part or element of an
architectural, electrical, mechanical or structural
IMPORTANCE FACTOR, I, is a factor that system.
accounts for the degree of hazard to human life
and damage to property. COMPONENT, EQUIPMENT, is a mechanical
or electrical component or element that is part of
MAIN WIND-FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM is a mechanical and/or electrical system.
an assemblage of structural elements assigned
to provide support and stability for the overall COMPONENT, FLEXIBLE, is a component,
structure. The system generally receives wind including its attachments, having a fundamental
loading from more than one surface. period greater than 0.06 second.

RECOGNIZED LETERATURE are published COMPONENT, RIGID, is a component,

research findings and technical papers that are including its attachments, having a fundamental
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. period less than or equal to 0.06 second.


braced frame in which the members are
BASE is the level at which the earthquake subjected primarily to axial forces.
motions are considered to be imparted to the
structure or the level at which the structure as a DESIGN BASIS GROUND MOTION is that
dynamic vibrator is supported. ground motion that has a 10% chance of being
exceeded in 50 years as by a site-specific
BASE SHEAR, V, is the total design lateral hazard analysis or may be determined by a
force or shear at the base of the structure. hazard map. A suite of ground motion time
histories with dynamic properties representative
of site characteristics shall be used to represent
this ground motion. The dynamic effects of the

Design Basis Ground Motion may be FLEXIBLE ELEMENT or system is one whose
represented by the Design Response Spectrum. deformation under lateral load is significantly
larger than adjoining parts of the system.
response spectrum of 5% equivalent viscous HORIZONTAL BRACING SYSTEM is a
damping used to represent the dynamic effects horizontal truss system that serves the same
of the Design Basis Ground Motion for the function as a diaphragm.
design of structures. This response spectrum
may be either a site-specific spectrum based on INTERMEDIATE MOMENT-RESISTING
geologic, tectonic, seismological and soil FRAME (IMRF) is a concrete frame.
characteristics associated with a specific site or
may be a spectrum. LATERAL-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM is that
part of the structural system.
DESIGN SEISMIC FORCE is the minimum total
strength design base shear, factored and MOMENT-RESISTING SYSTEM is a frame in
distributed. which members and joints are capable of
resisting forces primarily by flexure.
DIAPHRAGM is a horizontal or nearly horizontal
system acting to transmit lateral forces to the MOMENT-RESISTING WALL FRAME (MRWF)
vertical-resisting elements. The term is a masonry wall frame especially detailed to
“diaphragm” includes horizontal bracing provide ductile behavior.
DIAPHRAGM OR SHEAR WALL CHORD is the braced frame or concrete-braced frame.
boundary element of a diaphragm or shear wall
that is assumed to take axial stresses analogous ORDINARY MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME
to the flanges of a beam. (OMRF) is a moment-resisting frame not
meeting special detailing requirements for
DIAPHRAGM STRUT (drag strut, tie, collector) ductile behavior.
is the element of a diaphragm parallel to the
applied load that collects and transfers ORTHOGONAL EFFECTS are the earthquake
diaphragm parallel to the applied load that load effects on structural elements common to
collects and transfers diaphragm shear to the the lateral-force-resisting systems along two
vertical-resisting elements or distributes loads orthogonal axes.
within the diaphragm. Such members may take
axial tension or compression. OVERSTRENGTH is a characteristic of
structures where the actual strength is larger
DRIFT. See “story drift” than the design strength. The degree of over
strength is material-and-system-dependent.
DUAL SYSTEM is a combination of moment-
resisting frames and shear walls or braced P EFFECT is the secondary effect on shears,
frames. axial forces and moments of frame members
induced by the vertical loads acting on the
ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME (EBF) is a laterally displaced building system.
steel-braced frame.
SHEAR WALL is a wall designed to resist lateral
ELASTIC RESPONSE PARAMETERS are forces parallel to the plane of the wall
forces and deformations determined from an (sometimes referred to as vertical diaphragm or
elastic dynamic analysis using an unreduced structural wall).
ground motion representation.
ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are those structures SYSTEM uses combinations of shear walls and
that are necessary for emergency operations frames designed to resist lateral forces in
subsequent to a natural disaster. proportion to their relative rigidities considering
interaction between shear walls and frames on
all levels.

required to develop the anchorage forces,
SOFT STORY is one in which the lateral including sub diaphragms and continuous ties.
stiffness is less than 70% of the stiffness of the
story above. WEAK STORY is one in which the story strength
is less than 80% of the story above.
SPACE FRAME is a three-dimensional
structural system, without bearing walls, VI. CONCRETE
composed of members interconnected so as to
function as a complete self-contained unit with ADMIXTURE is material other than water,
or without the aid of horizontal diaphragms or aggregate, or hydraulic cement used as an
floor-bracing systems. ingredient of concrete and added to concrete
before or during its mixing to modify its
FRAME (SCBF) is a steel-braced frame.
AGGREGATE is granular material, such as
SPECIAL MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME sand, gravel, crushed stone and iron blast-
(SMRF) is a moment-resisting frame specially furnace slag, and when used with a cementing
detailed to provide ductile behavior. medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or
a moment-resisting frame specially detailed to AGGREGATE, LIGHTWEIGHT, is aggregate
provide ductile behavior. with a dry, loose weight of 1120 kg/cu.m. or less.
STORY is the space between levels. AIR-DRY WEIGHT is the unit weight of a
lightweight concrete specimen cured for seven
STORY DRIFT is the lateral displacement of one days with neither loss nor gain of moisture at
level relative to the level above or below. 15deg.C to 27deg.C and dried for 21 days in 50
+- 7 percent relative humidity at 23deg.C +-
STORY DRIFT RATIO is the story drift divided 1.1deg.C.
by the story height.
ANCHORAGE DEVICE in post-tensioning is a
STORY SHEAR, V, is the summation of design device used to anchor tendons to concrete
lateral forces above the story under member; in pretensioning, a device used to
consideration. anchor tendons during hardening of concrete.
STRENGTH is the capacity of an element or a ANCHORAGE ZONE in post-tensioned
member to resist factored load. members is the portion of the member through
which the concentrated prestressing force is
STRUCTURE is an assemblage of framing transferred to the concrete and distributed more
members designed to support gravity loads and uniformly across the section. Its extent is equal
resist lateral forces. Structures may be to the largest dimension of the cross section. For
categorized as building structures or nonbuilding intermediate anchorage devices, the anchorage
structures. zone includes the disturbed regions ahead of
and behind the anchorage devices.
SUBDIAPHRAGM is a portion of a larger wood
diaphragm designed to anchor and transfer local BASIC MONOSTRAND ANCHORAGE DEVICE
forces to primary diaphragm struts and the main is an anchorage device used with any single
diaphragm. 16mm or smaller diameter bar that satisfies the
anchorage device requirements of the Post-
VERTICAL LOAD-CARRYING FRAME is a Tensioning Institute’s “Specification for
space frame designed to carry vertical gravity Unbonded Single Strand Tendons”.
WALL ANCHORAGE SYSTEM is the system of is an anchorage device used with multiple
elements anchoring the wall to the diaphragm strands, bars or wires, or single bars larger than
and those elements within the diaphragm

16mm diameter that satisfies the bearing stress fine aggregate consists of normal-weight sand is
and minimum plate stiffness requirements of termed “sand-lightweight concrete.”
AASHTO Bridge Specifications.
CONTRACTION JOINT is a formed, sawed, or
BONDED TENDON is a prestressing tendon tooled groove in a concrete structure to create a
that is bonded to concrete either directly or weakened plane and regulate the location of
through grouting. cracking resulting from the dimensional change
of different parts of the structure.
which have cementing value when used in CURVATURE FRICTION is friction resulting
concrete either by themselves, such as Portland from bends or curves in the specified
cement, blended hydraulic cements and prestressing tendon profile.
expansive cement, or such materials in
combination with fly ash, raw or other calcined DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT is deformed
natural pozzolans, silica fume, or ground reinforcing bars, bar and rod mats, deformed
granulated blast-furnace slag. wire, welded smooth wire fabric and welded
deformed wire fabric.
COLUMN is a member with a ratio of height-to-
least-lateral dimension of 3 or greater used DEVELOPEMNT LENGTH is the length of
primarily to support axial compressive load. embedded reinforcement required to develop
the design strength of reinforcement at a critical
MEMBERS are concrete flexural members of
precast and cast-in-place concrete elements, or EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION (d) is the
both, constructed in separate placements but so distance measured from extreme compression
interconnected that all elements respond to fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement.
loads as a unit.
COMPRESSION-CONTROLLED SECTION is a remaining in prestressing tendons after all
cross section in which the net tensile strain in losses have occurred, excluding effects of dead
the extreme tension steel at nominal strength is load and superimposed load.
less than or equal to the compression-controlled
strain limit. EMBEDMENT LENGTH is the length of
embedded reinforcement provided beyond a
LIMIT is the net tensile strain at balanced strain
conditions. EXTREME TENSION STEEL is the
reinforcement (prestressed or nonprestressed)
CONCRETE is a mixture of Portland cement or that is the farthest from the extreme
any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, compression fiber.
coarse aggregate and water, with or without
admixtures. ISOLATION JOINT is a separation between
adjoining parts of a concrete structure, usually a
CONCRETE, SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE vertical plane, at a designed location such as to
STRENGTH OF (f’c) is the compressive strength interfere least with performance of the structure,
of concrete used in design and expressed in yet such as to allow relative movement in three
megapascals (Mpa). directions and avoid formation of cracks
elsewhere in the concrete and through which all
CONCRETE, STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT, is or part of the bonded reinforcement is
concrete containing lightweight aggregate and interrupted.
has an air-dry unit weight as determined by “Test
Method for Unit Weight of Structural Lightweight JACKING FORCE is the temporary force
Concrete” (ASTM C 567) not exceeding 1840 exerted by device that introduces tension into
kg/cu.m. In this code, a lightweight concrete prestressing tendons in prestressed concrete.
without natural sand is termed “all-lightweight
concrete” and lightweight concrete in which all

LOAD, DEAD, is the dead weight supported by
a member. REINFORCEMENT is material excluding
prestressing tendons unless specifically
LOAD, FACTORED, is the load, multiplied by included.
appropriate load factors, used to proportion
members by the strength design method. RESHORES are shores placed snugly under a
concrete slab or other structural member after
LOAD, LIVE, is the live load. the original forms and shores have been
removed from a larger area, thus requiring the
LOAD, SERVICE, is the load specified (without new slab or structural member to deflect and
load factors). support its own weight and existing construction
loads applied prior to the installation of the
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY is the ratio of reshores.
normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile
or compressive stresses below proportional limit SHEATHING is a material encasing a
of material. prestressing tendon to prevent bonding the
tendon with the surrounding concrete, to provide
NET TENSILE STRAIN is the tensile strain at corrosion protection, and to contain the
nominal strength exclusive of strains due to corrosion inhibiting coating.
effective prestress, creep, shrinkage and
temperature. SHORES are vertical or inclined support
members designed to carry the weight of the
PEDESTAL is an upright compression member formwork, concrete and construction loads
with a ratio of unsupported height to average above.
least lateral dimension not exceeding of 3.
PLAIN CONCRETE is structural concrete with anchorage device that satisfies the standard
no reinforcement or with less reinforcement than acceptance tests of AASHTO “Standard
the minimum amount specified for reinforced Specifications for Highway Bridges”, Division II.
PLAIN REINFORCEMENT is reinforcement that wound reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical
does not conform to definition of deformed helix.
POST-TENSIONING is a method of prestressing tensile strength of concrete determined in
in which tendons are tensioned after concrete accordance with ASTM C 496 as described in
has hardened. “Specifications for Lightweight Aggregate for
Structural Concrete” (ASTM C 330).
PRECAST CONCRETE is a structural concrete
element cast in other than its final position in the STIRRUP is reinforcement used to resist shear
structure. and torsion stresses in a structural member,
typically bars, wires, or welded wire fabric (plain
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE is structural or deformed) bent into L, U or rectangular
concrete in which internal stresses have been shapes and located perpendicular to or at an
introduced to reduce potential tensile stresses in angle longitudinal reinforcement. (The term
concrete resulting fro loads. “stirrups” is usually applied to lateral
reinforcement in flexural members and the term
PRETENSIONING is a method of prestressing “ties” to those in compression members.)
in which tendons are tensioned before concrete
is placed. STRENGTH, DESIGN, is the nominal strength
multiplied by a strength-reduction factor, .
concrete reinforced with no less than the STRENGTH, NORMAL, is the strength of a
minimum amounts of prestressing tendons or member or cross section calculated in
nonprestressed reinforcement. accordance with provisions and assumptions of

the strength design method before application of to a building. This level does not necessarily
any strength-reduction factors. coincide with the ground level.

STRENGTH, REQUIRED, is the strength of a BOUNDARY ELEMENTS are portions along

member or cross section required to resist structural wall and structural diaphragm edges
factored loads or related internal moments and strengthened by longitudinal and transverse
forces in such combinations. reinforcement.

STRESS is the intensity of force per unit area. COLLECTOR ELEMENTS are elements that
serve to transmit the inertial forces within
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE is all concrete used structural diaphragms to members of the lateral-
for structural purposes, including plain and force-resisting system.
reinforced concrete.
CONFINED CORE is the area within the core
TENDON is a steel element such as wire, cable, defined by h.
bar, rod or strand, or a bundle of such elements,
used to impart prestress forces to concrete. CONNECTION is an element that joins two
precast members or a precast member and a
TENSION-CONTROLLED SECTION is a cross cast-in-place member.
section in which the net tensile strain in the
extreme tension steel at nominal strength is COUPLING BEAM is a horizontal element in
greater than or equal to 0.005. plane with the connecting two shear walls.

TIE is a loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing CROSSTIE is a continuous reinforcing bar
longitudinal reinforcement. A continuously having a seismic hook at one end and a hook
wound bar or wire in the form of a circle, not less than 90 degrees with at least six-
rectangle or other polygon shape without re- diameter extension at the other end. The hooks
entrant corners is acceptable. shall engage peripheral longitudinal bars. The
90-degree hooks of two successive crosstie
TRANSFER is the act of transferring stress in engaging the same longitudinal bars shall be
prestressing tendons from jacks or pretensioning alternated end for end.
bed to concrete member.
DESIGN DISPLACEMENT is the total lateral
UNBONDED TENDON is a tendon that is displacement expected for the design-basis
permanently prevented from bonding to the earthquake, as required by the governing code
concrete after stressing. for earthquake-resistant design.

WALL is a member, usually vertical, used to DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR A BAR WITH A
enclose or separate spaces. STANDARD HOOK is the shortest distance
between the critical section (where the strength
WOBBLE FRICTION in prestressed concrete, is of the bar is to be developed) and a tangent to
friction caused by unintended deviation of the outer edge of the 90-degree hook.
prestressing sheath or duct from its specified
profile. DRY CONNECTION is a connection used
between precast members, which do not qualify
YIELD STRENGTH is the specified minimum as a wet connection.
yield strength or yield point of reinforcement in
megapascals (Mpa). Yield strength or yield point HOOP is a close tie or continuously wound tie. A
shall be determined in tension according to closed tie can be made up of several reinforcing
applicable ASTM standards. elements, each having seismic hooks at both
ends. A continuously wound tie shall have a
VII. SEISMIC DESIGN seismic hook at both ends.

BASE OF STRUCTURE is a level at which JOINT is the geometric volume common to

earthquake motions are assumed to be imparted intersecting members.

portion of the structure composed of members to resist combinations of shears, moment, and
proportioned to resist forces related to axial forces induced by earthquake motions.
earthquake effects.
STRUT is an element of a structural diaphragm
LIGHTWEIGHT-AGGREGATE CONCRETE is used to provide continuity around an opening in
an all-lightweight or sand-lightweight aggregate the diaphragm.
concrete made with lightweight aggregates.
TIE ELEMENTS are elements that serve to
MOMENT FRAME is a space frame in which transmit inertia forces and prevent separation of
members and joints resist forces through building components such as footings and walls.
flexure, shear, and axial force.
WALL PIER is a wall segment with a horizontal
NONLINEAR ACTION LOCATION is the center length-to-thickness ratio between 2.5 and 6, and
of the region of yielding in flexure, shear or axial whose clear height is at least two times its
action. horizontal length.

NONLINEAR ACTION REGION is where the WET CONNECTION uses any of the splicing
member length over which nonlinear action methods to connect precast members and uses
takes place. It shall be taken as extending a cast-in-place concrete or grout to fill the splicing
distance of no less than h/2 on either side of the closure.
nonlinear action location.
SEISMIC HOOK is a hook on a stirrup, hoop or
crosstie having a bend not less than 135 BLOCKED DIAPHRAGM is a diaphragm in
degrees, except that circular hoops shall have a which all sheathing edges not occurring on
bend of not less than 90 degrees. Hooks shall framing members are supported on an
have a six-diameter (but not less than 75mm), connected to blocking.
extension that engages the longitudinal
reinforcement and projects into the interior of the CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME
stirrup or hoop. CONSTRUCTION is a type of construction
whose primary structural elements are formed
SHELL CONCRETE is the concrete outside the by a system of repetitive wood-framing
transverse reinforcement confining the concrete. members.
SPECIFIED LATERAL FORCES are lateral DIAPHRAGM is a horizontal or nearly horizontal
forces corresponding to the appropriate system acting to transmit lateral forces to the
distribution of the design base shear force vertical resisting elements. When the term
prescribed by the governing code for “diaphragm” is used, it includes horizontal
earthquake-resistant design. bracing systems.
STRONG CONNECTION is a connection that FIBERBOARD is a fibrous-felted, homogenous
remains elastic, while the designated nonlinear panel made from lignocellulosic fibers (usually
action regions undergo inelastic response under wood or crane) having a density of less than 497
the Design Basis Ground Motion. kg/cu.m. but more than 160 kg/cu.m.
members, such as floor and roof slabs, that elements, the section of which is composed of
transmit inertial forces to lateral force resisting built-up lumber, wood structural panels or wood
members. structural panels in combination with lumber, all
parts bonded together with adhesive.
STRUCTURAL TRUSSES are assemblages of
reinforced concrete members subjected GRADE (Lumber), the classification of lumber in
primarily to axial forces. regard to strength and utility in accordance with

the grading rules of an approved lumber grading combination of veneer and wood-based
agency. material, and mat0formed panel such as
oriented stranded board and waferboard.
HARDBOARD is a fibrous-felted, homogenous
panel made from lignocellulosic fibers IX. GENERAL
consolidated under heat and pressure in a hot
press to a density not less than 497 kg/cu.m.
NOMINAL SIZE (Lumber), the commercial size
designation of width and depth, standard sawn BEDDED AREA is the area of the surface of
lumber grades; somewhat larger than the a masonry unit, which is in contact with
standard net size of dressed lumber. mortar in place of the joint.


stressed a member or fastening to the full is the cross-sectional area of reinforcement
allowable stress. This loading may be applied for multiplied by the cosine of the angle
approximately 10 years, either continuously or between the reinforcement and the direction
cumulatively, and 90 percent of this load may be for which effective area is to be determined.
applied for the remainder of the life of the
member or fastening. GROSS AREA is the total cross-sectional
area of a specified section.
PARTICLE BOARD is a manufactured panel
product consisting of particles of wood or NET AREA is the gross cross-sectional area
combinations of wood particles and wood fibers minus the area of ungrouted cores, notches,
bonded together with synthetic resins or other cells and unbedded areas. Net area is the
suitable bonding system by a bonding process, actual surface area of a cross section of
in accordance with approved nationally masonry.
recognized standard.
TRANSFORMED AREA is the equivalent
PLYWOOD is a panel of laminated veneers. area of one material to a second based on
the ratio of moduli of elasticity of the first
ROTATION is the torsional movement of a material to the second.
diaphragm about a vertical axis.

SUBDIAPHRAGM is a portion of a larger wood

diaphragm designed to anchor and transfer local
forces to primary diaphragm struts and the main ADHESION BOND is the adhesion between
diaphragm. masonry units and mortar or grout.

TREATED WOOD is wood treated with an REINFORCING BOND is the adhesion

approved preservative under treating and quality between steel reinforcement and mortar or
control procedures. grout.


DECAY OR TERMITES is the heartwood of the element within masonry in which
species set forth below. Corner sapwood is reinforcement is embedded.
permitted on 5% of the pieces provided 90% or
more of the width of each side on which it occurs CELL is a void space having a gross cross-
is heartwood. Recognized species are: sectional area greater than 967 sq. mm.
Decay resistant: Narra, Kamagong, Dao, Tangile
Termite resistant: Narra, Kamagong CLEANOUT is an opening to the bottom of
a grout space of sufficient size and spacing
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL is a structural to allow the removal of debris.
panel product composed primarily of wood.
Wood structural panels include all-veneer COLLAR JOINT is the mortared or grouted
plywood, composite panels containing a space between wythes of masonry.

COLUMN, REINFORCED, is a vertical
structural member in which both the
reinforcement and masonry resist BED JOINT is the mortar joint that is
compression. horizontal at the time the masonry units are
structural member whose horizontal HEAD JOINT is the mortar joint having a
dimension measured at right angles to the vertical transverse plane.
thickness does not exceed three times the
thickness. MASONRY JOINT is brick, tile, stone, and
glass block or concrete block.
unit whose net cross-sectional area (solid
ACTUAL DIMENSIONS are the measured area) in any plane parallel to the surface
dimensions of s designed item. The actual containing cores, cells or deep frogs is less
dimension shall not vary from the specified than 75% of its gross cross-sectional area
dimension by more than the amount allowed measured in the same plane.
in the appropriate standard of quality.
SOLID-MASONRY JOINT is a masonry unit
NOMINAL DIMENSIONS of masonry units whose net cross-sectional area in any plane
are equal to its specified dimensions plus parallel to the surface containing the cores
the thickness of the joint with which the unit or cells is at least 75% of the gross cross-
is laid. sectional area measured in the same plane.

SPECIFIED DIMENSIONS are the PRISM is an assemblage of masonry units

dimensions specified by the manufacturer and mortar with or without grout used as a
for construction of masonry, masonry units, test specimen for determining properties of
joints or any other component of a structure. the masonry.

GROUT LIFT is an increment of grout height REINFORCED MASONRY is that form of

within the total grout pour. masonry construction in which reinforcement
acting in conjunction with the masonry is
GROUT POUR is the total height of used to resist forces.
masonry wall to be grouted prior to the
erection of additional masonry. A grout pour SHELL is the outer portion of a hollow
will consist of one or more grout lifts. masonry unit as placed in masonry.


GROUTED HOLLOW-UNIT MASONRY is BONDED WALL is a masonry wall in which

that form of grouted masonry construction in two or more wythes are bonded to act as a
which certain designated cells of hollow structural unit.
units are continuously filled with grout.
CAVITY WALL is a wall containing
GROUTED MULTIWYTHE MASONRY is continuous air space with a minimum width
that form of grouted masonry construction in of 51mm and a maximum width of 114mm
which the space between the wythes is between wythes, which are tied with metal
solidly or periodically filled with grout. ties.

WALL TIE is a mechanical metal fastener,

which connects wythes of masonry to each
other or to other materials.

WEB is an interior solid portion of a hollow-
masonry unit as placed in masonry.

WYTHE is the portion of a wall, which is one

masonry unit in thickness. A collar joint is not
considered a wythe.