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NICANOR ABELARDO

VIOLIN SONATA

by

JOSEPH B. ORTIGUERA

JOANNA BIERMANN, COMMITTEE CHAIR

STEVEN B. BUNKER
SUSAN C. FLEMING
JENNY GREGOIRE
MARVIN JOHNSON
DANIEL SWEANEY

A DOCUMENT

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements


for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts
in the School of Music
in the Graduate School of
The University of Alabama

TUSCALOOSA, ALABAMA

2014
Copyright Joseph B. Ortiguera 2014
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
ABSTRACT

Nicanor Abelardo (1893 – 1934) was a composer who emerged from post-colonial

Philippines to create a national musical identity. A composer of over 140 works that included

sonatas, concerti and chamber music, Abelardo is best known for elevating the Philippine genre

of the Kundiman into a western art-song form. He is credited as being the most prominent and

most influential of composers during the height of classism in Filipino music, a period which

lasted from the 1860s until the end of World War II.

The Violin Sonata (1931) by Abelardo is a composition for violin and piano that does not

fit the characteristics most associated with Philippine music, particularly the Kundiman that

Abelardo is best known for during that time period. Abelardo composed the Sonata as a student

at the Chicago Musical College. It is a work that allowed the composer to explore unfamiliar

musical languages influenced by Debussy, Schoenberg, Ravel, Hindemith and Bartok. The

Sonata embodied a modern and western sound by a composer who exemplified Philippine music,

nationalism and identity. There is no published copy of the Violin Sonata: only the original

manuscript and a few hand-copied scores are in existence.

This is a critical edition of Abelardo’s Violin Sonata. It is a work that adheres to the tonal

and structural paradigm of sonata form but is chromatically enriched by Abelardo’s integration

of the whole-tone scale to create a work that is both diatonic and atonal.

ii
DEDICATION

I am a product of the African proverb, “It takes an entire village to raise a child.” This

document is a result of the time, energy, patience and belief many have invested in this kid from

Milwaukee. I would like to thank in particular: Dr. Patricia Jones Whyte, for always reminding

me to “keep the eye on the prize;” Professor Terry Collins, for always looking out for my best

interests and for the many opportunities that led me down a better path in my education and

personal growth; Mr. J. Patrick Rafferty, for bringing me down to the South and empowering me

to pursue my musical dreams and aspirations; Dr. Joanna Biermann, you are an incredible

mentor, there are not enough words to express my gratitude for all that you have bestowed upon

me; Dr. Linda Cummins, thanks you for your advocacy, care and incredible compassion in your

guidance and teaching; and to my wife Ciana who took a chance to go on this adventure with me

in 2004, what a ride it has been and I could not have done it without your endless love and

support. Finally, I dedicate this work to my mother who has always given her very best to

provide me with every opportunity in life. For all the tutoring, music lessons, trips abroad, miles

driven and prayers, I am who I am because of you.

iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Thank you to those who have been instrumental in making this project possible. At the

University of the Phlippines – Diliman: Dean Jose S. Buenconsejo, Professor Sergio Z. Esmillia,

Professor Leticia Del Valle, Ms. Florinda Santos and the College of Music Library staff. At The

University of Alabama: Dr. Joanna Cobb Biermann, for imparting your expertise from the

Beethoven Archives; and Dr. Marvin Johnson, for your extensive time and energy in the analysis

chapter. The members of the Abelardo family: Mrs. Cecilia Abelardo Quizon, Mr. Ermin

Quizon, Mrs. Menchie Abelardo, Mr. Leslie J. Abelardo and Sister Maria Anunciata Santa Ana.

Finally to my dear Ate Chona Capulong who always made Teacher’s Village home for me.

Maraming na maraming salamat po sa inyong lahat.

iv
CONTENTS

ABSTRACT................................................................................................ ii

DEDICATION........................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................ .iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS.............................................................................v

1. BIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................1

2. ANALYSIS............................................................................................20

3. CRITICAL REPORT.............................................................................34

4. VIOLIN SONATA – FIRST MOVEMENT..........................................38

5. VIOLIN SONATA – SECOND MOVEMENT ....................................65

6. VIOLIN SONATA – THIRD MOVEMENT ........................................79

7. CATALOGUE OF VARIANTS..........................................................105

REFERENCE LIST .................................................................................106

PERMISSION TO PUBLISH..................................................................108

v
BIOGRAPHY

From the first landing of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1565 until the revolution in 1898,

the Philippines had been a colony of Spain. Augustinian, Dominican and Franciscan missionaries

brought Western music along with Catholicism to the Philippines. The Spanish used genres of

Western music to evangelize and acculturate the indigenous populations throughout the colonial

era. By the 1800s a Filipino national awareness had evolved. Native Filipinos who had, “direct

contact with Europe brought ideas of the French Revolution and the Enlightenment to the

colony.”1 By the 1860s demonstrations against Spain were rampant in Manila and by the late

1880s the relationship between Filipinos and Spain had deteriorated. The return of Dr. Jose

Rizal, considered the national hero of the Philippines, to Manila in 1892 was the start of many

events that led to the revolution against the Spanish colonial government. General Emilio

Aguinaldo, who led the Revolutionary Government, declared the First Philippine Republic on

June 12, 1898. However, the Treaty of Paris, signed on December 10, 1898, by the United States

and Spain, turned the Philippines into a U.S. Territory until the end of World War II. Philippine

independence from the United States finally came on July 4, 1946.

Nicanor Abelardo was born on February 7, 1893, in the town of San Miguel de Mayumo,

Philippines, five years before the Philippines declared independence from Spain. San Miguel is a

town in the province of Bulacan, one of the Tagalog speaking regions on the main island of

1
The Life Works of Marcelo Adonay, ed. Elena Rivera Mirano, vol. 1, Music and History in the Manila of
Marcelo Adonay (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2009), 56.

1
Luzon.2 Valentin Abelardo and Placida Santa Ana, raised a total of eight children, of which

Nicanor was the oldest. His mother, who came from a family of painters, wood carvers and

sculptors, sang in the church choir and worked as a dressmaker. His father was a self-taught

musician who learned how to play the violin and banduria.3 Valentin eventually became the

primary music teacher in San Miguel, teaching all string instruments and leading the town

Rondalla band.4 With the banduria, he would play haranas with the local group of Haranistas. 5

Despite being the town maestro, he needed to sustain his family by additionally working as a

photographer, goldsmith and tailor. He even tried his hand at politics.

At just seven months of age, Nicanor Abelardo ostensibly demonstrated signs of innate

musical sensitivity. It is reported that he remained alert rather than fall asleep when Tagalog

lullabies were sung to him. It was the steady rhythm of the marches by the town’s band that

lulled him to sleep. He made up melodies as a young child and even played with self-made

instruments of bamboo. According to Epistola, Abelardo was described as being “good natured

and endearing,” despite receiving harsh discipline from his father. 6 At age five, his father gave

him his first banduria and later instructed him in the rudiments of solfeggio along with lessons on

the piccolo-banduria, laud and guitar.7 At six, he had mastered the guitar and people considered

2
The majority of biographical information and quotations in this section come from Ernesto Epistola, the
author of one of two published books about Nicanor Abelardo: Ernesto V. Epistola, Nicanor Abelardo: The Man
and the Artist: a Biography (Quezon City: Rex Printing Company, 1996). Most scholarship on Abelardo’s life and
music cites Epistola. The other main source is Alfredo M. German, Ang Buhay at Musika ni Maestro Abelardo
(Bulacan: Bulacan Cultural Arts and Historical Foundation, 1993). It can be found in the Philippine National Library
and is written entirely in Tagalog.
3
The banduria is a chordophone that looks similar to the mandolin and has six pairs of strings.
4
The rondalla is an ensemble of string instruments that are played with a plectrum. The standard Filipino
rondalla ensemble consisted of a banduria, the laud, octavina, guitar and double bass.
5
Haranas were courtship serenades sung by men wishing to court a woman outside her window. The
haranas were songs in either duple or triple meter, in either major or minor keys, with simple harmonic
accompaniment on the guitar or rondalla.
6
Epistola, 9.
7
The laud is similar to the rondalla but with a longer neck and with a range one octave lower.

2
him a child prodigy.8 He played in a popular rondalla group led by his father, who unfortunately

would discipline Nicanor quite openly and harshly when he made mistakes. Nicanor therefore

practiced his part constantly out of self-defense.

Nicanor reportedly loved the haranas so much that he would rather play his instrument

than sleep. He particularly loved the kundimans and kumintangs that the Rondalla group played. 9

He quickly memorized all the old kundimans sung in the town and accurately played what he had

just heard. When he was seven, his father taught him how to play the violin. Epistola described

the instruction as “play-your-notes-as you-can technique,” because Valentin was also a self-

taught violinist.10 Nicanor also continued to receive lessons from his father in solfeggio and

mastered melodic and harmonic dictation.

His renown as a child prodigy attracted the attention of the local Spanish gentry, who

retained their land holdings and wealth even though the Philippines was no longer a Spanish

colony. They wanted to send him to Spain for formal instruction in music but his mother would

not allow it, although she later regretted that decision.

School was difficult for the young Nicanor. It took him three years to complete the

second grade. He was not good at academics and had a difficult time socially. He was a sickly

child and began wearing thick glasses at age eight due to a bout with the smallpox virus. Perhaps

because of his difficulties in school, his parents sent him to Manila when he was nine where his

uncle, Juan Abelardo, resided. Nicanor attended the Primera Enseñaza (primary grade school,

still based on the Spanish colonial education system). Juan was a painter who exposed Nicanor to

8
Epistola, 10.
9
The Kudiman and Kumintang are closely related popular love songs of the 1800s accompanied by a
guitar.
10
Epistola, 12.

3
the visual arts and provided his own children with piano lessons from a teacher who would come

to the house. Nicanor, who did not receive instruction, would listen to the lessons and try to teach

himself how to play. Eventually he played the piano better than his cousins. Nicanor apparently

was no more successful in the Manila school, as his classmates constantly mocked him for his

unkempt appearance; but he supposedly laughed along with the mockery. When his father

learned that Nicanor was playing piano rather than studying, he brought him back home and

enrolled Nicanor in the San Miguel Primary School. This meant a further change in education

systems since the school was organized after an American model. At the same time he returned

to playing with his father’s Haranista group, also learning how to play the harp. He played music

with his early childhood friend, Francisco Tecson, better known as “Pakong” until the latter

departed for the United States to study dentistry. Epistola writes that the inspiration behind the

famous Kundiman, “Nasaan Ka Irog?” (Where art thou, my love?) is about Pakong and a girl

named Segunda, who were not allowed to be together because they came from rival families.

“Nasaan Ka Irog?” is dedicated to Dr. Francisco Tecson. 11

By the time he was sixteen, Nicanor had completed the sixth grade. Despite his academic

difficulties, Nicanor found a job as a primary school teacher in Sibul Springs, Bulacan due to a

shortage of teachers. Since Sibul was far from San Miguel, Nicanor went to live with another

uncle who resided nearby. Every weekend Nicanor would return to San Miguel. Eventually he

was posted even further out in the province to teach in San Ildefonso, significantly further from

his home in San Miguel. No longer able to go home on the weekends, Nicanor spent his time

making music: singing, playing guitar and composing on his own. There he composed a march

titled “Banaag at Lakas” (Glimmer of Strength), reportedly for a local constabulary band.

11
Epistola, 22-26.

4
Nicanor returned to Manila at age eighteen to attend the Segunda Enseñaza (high school)

at the Liceo de Manila. He returned to live with his uncle Juan but was still behind academically,

so the entire family pitched in to help him catch up in school. At this time, Nicanor taught

himself how to paint by observing his uncle and other family members, who at that time painted

for Manila theatres. He also learned about literature, particularly poetry, through his cousin

Mariano who shared poems in both Spanish and Tagalog, languages in which Nicanor was

proficient. He attended zarzuelas with his uncle’s family, who were regular patrons, and eagerly

studied their structure and presentation.12

Music was constantly played and sung in Juan’s house. Nicanor spent many hours at the

piano by himself and became an excellent improviser. When his uncle saw how well his nephew

now played, he sought an experienced pianist who could provide advanced training. This led

Nicanor to work as an apprentice under the best cinema pianist in Manila: Francisco

Buencamino, who was also from San Miguel.13 Providing music at the cinema did not satisfy

Nicanor’s musical appetite so he found more work as a guitarist accompanying singers. This led

him to meet Florentino Ballacer, an important figure in the zarzuela scene at that time.

Ballacer was quite impressed with the nineteen-year-old Abelardo’s guitar playing and

improvisation skills, and in 1912 he asked him to collaborate on composing a zarzuela, a new

challenge for Nicanor. With Ballacer serving as librettist and Abelardo composing the score,

they produced their first collaboration: “Lucila,” a zarzuela in three acts. It was presented at the

12
Zarzuelas are Spanish comic operettas. They have spoken dialogue along with singing in the traditional
operatic forms of arias, recitatives and choruses.
13
Francisco Buencamino Sr. (1883–1952). A composer from San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan.
Buencamino was a student of the eminent Philippine composer and conductor of the late 19th century, Marcelo
Adonay. He composed many Tagalog operettas and zarzuelas. Buencamino taught at the Ateneo de Manila in the
early 1900s. He also taught at the Centro Escolar de Señoritas and headed its Music Department for 30 years. He
founded the Buencamino Music Academy in 1930, and had Abelardo as one of his students. N. Tiongson, ed., CCP
encyclopedia of Philippine Art, Vol. 6: Philippine music (Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines, 1994).

5
old Opera House in Manila but failed commercially, with critics panning it as a “first-class

flop.”14 A few months later they completed “Akibat,” an operetta in one act. Unlike “Lucila,” it

was an immediate success. According to Epistola, “Akibat is a zarzuela on nationalism. It tells

the story of a character named Akibat who betrayed his own people to Magellan.” 15 In other

words, it is a Spanish language piece telling the story of a native Filipino whose actions lead his

native country to become a colony of Spain for 333 years. After this first success, Abelardo

started writing more zarzuelas. Companies regularly approached Abelardo for whatever he

composed, but he also wanted to continue playing for Buencamino and so began playing jazz in

the saloon in Calle Aceiteros.

On February 4, 1916, the Philippine Legislature established a conservatory of music in

Manila. According to Banas, this was a result of musicians, music lovers and members of the

first Philippine Assembly during the American regime wanting a “concrete manifestation of the

government’s concern for the country’s culture and arts.” 16 Seven months later, the University of

the Philippines Conservatory of Music opened with Wallace W. George, a voice professor from

the New England Conservatory, as its first director.17 Abelardo was one of the first students to

enroll. Although he had only seven years of primary school and two years of secondary school,

he was still admitted to the program leading to the Teacher’s Certificate in Science and

Composition.18

14
Epistola, 30.
15
Ibid., 30.
16
Raymundo C. Banas, Pilipino Music and Theater (Quezon City: Manlapaz Publishing Co., 1969), 120.
17
“The Directors and Deans of the College,” College of Music University of the Philippines Diliman,
accessed February 27, 2013, http://music.upd.edu.ph/Administration%20of%20the%20College%202.html.
According to Epistola, the opening date was October 4, 1916, but the UP College of Music website lists the opening
date as September 4, 1916.
18
The modern equivalent to the Teacher’s Certificate in Science and Composition is a degree in music
theory and composition.

6
In 1917, the twenty-four year old student and musician began to seriously court a young

Sixta Naguiat, whom he had met three years earlier. Epistola describes the romance as follows:

at one of the movie houses at which he had worked, Abelardo had befriended a ticket girl,

Pacing. When there was no need for mood music or when it was intermission, the two would talk

and help keep each other company. On one afternoon, Abelardo saw Sixta resting next to her

elder sister, Pacing. He did not know that his friend had such a beautiful sister. Eventually he

would send letters to her, “morning, noon and night; night letters were especially delivered.” 19

Abelardo would also try to see Sixta whenever he could, sometimes coming straight from his job

at the saloon to see her at mass. When he told his mother that he wanted to marry her, she was

against the idea knowing that her son would marry a girl who was socially beneath him: Sixta

only had a fifth grade education and came from a “family of taquilleras and refreshment parlor

cashiers.”20 Abelardo convinced his mother that he loved her and she finally agreed, although his

father was entirely against the union. The parents of Sixta were strict and expected a formal

courtship, where both parents of the man would come to the house and ask the woman’s parents

for their daughter’s hand in marriage. Abelardo’s father refused to go, so his mother went alone.

Since both parents were not present, Sixta’s family refused the marriage proposal. Later that day,

Abelardo explained to Sixta that their only option was to elope. According to Epistola, “they

went to a Methodist minister who married them at the Knox Memorial Church on June 16, 1917.

After the ceremony they returned to their respective homes. When Nicanor told his parents what

they had done, his father was furious and whipped the twenty-four year old Nicanor like a little

boy. But on July 1, 1917, a second ceremony (this time, a Catholic one) was held at the Santa

19
Epistola, 35.
20
Ibid., 35. Taquillera: box office clerk or ticket clerk. “Taquillera” WordReference.com, accessed
February 27, 2013, http://www.wordreference.com/es/en/translation.asp?spen=taquillera.

7
Cruz Church in Manila at four o’clock in the morning. Nicanor Abelardo and Sixta Naguiat were

officially married.”21

Abelardo was now a married man, a student at the UP Conservatory and an active saloon

musician. He and his new wife moved to a house close to the Conservatory where he was

studying. He did well in his music-related coursework and composed more zarzuelas. He was a

serious student; what he had learned by doing as a child was now being explained on a

theoretical or scientific basis. However, Epistola reports that Abelardo wrote many exercises for

compositional practice which puzzled his professors, who could not say whether they were right

or wrong. Epistola claims further that Abelardo did not believe in hard and fast rules to

composing, and he found no clear rules for or against his harmonization in his textbooks.

Abelardo’s ears and his perfect pitch guided him.

As a conservatory student, Abelardo was required to study one or two secondary

instruments aside from the piano, which was his primary instrument. He studied piano under

pianist Jose Estrella, violin with Bonifacio Abdon and the banduria with Jose Silos, all of whom

would later be recognized as significant Filipino composers. He also studied voice with

Victoriano Carreon, who had been a pupil of the Italian Maestro Enrico Capozzi. Abelardo

studied other instruments as well, but his ultimate goal was to compose.

In addition to his intense musical subjects, Epistola writes:

“he had realized how important foreign languages were to him. Spanish was not
much of a problem; he spoke it fluently. It was English he sought. He felt he could
still improve his English by reading. What he read, he supplemented by talking

21
Ibid., 36.

8
with his many American friends. Soon, he was using English with ease and
fluency that many thought he talked like an American.” 22

As a result of this fluency, he received numerous invitations to play for American parties and

organizations.

Abelardo still worked in the saloon in the Lerma district of Manila. He was the

pianist/leader of a dance band where most of the members were heavy drinkers. They used gin as

an important tool of their trade: the gin would help them play better and stay awake longer.

Abelardo, too, began drinking heavily. Despite being the butt of many jokes due to his drinking,

Abelardo was respected by the musicians who collaborated with him. Band members considered

him a great musician who knew everyone’s part by memory after a first reading. All the requests

for dances to be played were always directed to him, according to Epistola: “The band had a very

large repertoire: about twelve hundred pieces of one-steps, fox trots, waltzes and ragtimes.”23

On July 15, 1918, Abelardo was appointed to teach in the Conservatory as an assistant

instructor in solfeggio and harmony. He was twenty-five and a junior there. No one questioned

this appointment, for everyone knew that Abelardo always received perfect grades in those

subjects. One year later, he was promoted to full instructor.

On April 4, 1921, Abelardo graduated from the UP Conservatory of Music, receiving the

“Teacher’s Certificate in Science and Composition.” Two years later, he completed his

postgraduate work in Science and Composition. He composed his Op. 12 Concerto in B-flat

minor for piano and orchestra as his major composition that year. It was a standard three-

movement concerto, but the first piano concerto to incorporate Philippine melodies.

22
Ibid., 41.
23
Ibid., 44.

9
Abelardo established himself as a composer, teacher and orchestra leader. Many

prominent families sent their children to study piano and solfeggio with him. On November 20,

1924, he was appointed head of the Department of Science and Composition of the UP

Conservatory. Though proud of this honor, the corresponding salary that came with the

promotion was not enough to support his family of five. Abelardo therefore continued to work

his evening job as leader of the dance orchestra at the Santa Ana Cabaret. “Like any other

cabaret orchestra, Abelardo’s group played anything that would satisfy the customers who came

to dance. They played ragtime, fox trots, one-steps, waltzes and all the music that their

generation could dance.”24 Abelardo’s Conservatory superiors did not appreciate the fact that

their colleague was a “cabaret musician.” As a result, Alexander Lippay, the director of the

Conservatory, created a rule stating, “no professor should engage in an occupation that would be

derogatory to the prestige of the conservatory.” 25 Abelardo tried many times to resign from his

position, as there was no way he could support his growing family without his evening job.

Lippay never accepted the resignation letters because there was no one who could replace

Abelardo.

Abelardo disliked his cabaret job, but the work supplemented his monthly income and

allowed him a higher standard of living in addition to ensuring that his children would not suffer

the same poverty that he had experienced as a child. The demands and hours were long and he

now slept fewer and fewer hours. He believed that gin would help him combat the fatigue.

“It did sustain him for a time, or so he thought. And he drank it like [an] ordinary
soft drink. Abelardo drank gin for breakfast, after using the first few mouthfuls as
mouthwash. Eventually he could no longer control his body’s constant craving for
24
Ibid., 53.
25
Ibid., 53. Alexander Lippay headed the UP Conservatory 1927 – 1930. The Directors and Deans of the
College,” College of Music University of the Philippines Diliman, accessed February 27, 2013,
http://music.upd.edu.ph/Administration%20of%20the%20College%202.html.

10
gin, so he stopped at every sarisari [convenience store] store where gin was sold.
But he was one of the very few who knew how to drink…Before he knew it, his
drinking made him a very sick man and for a month he was in a hospital. When he
came out, everything seemed right again.” 26

Epistola describes Abelardo’s family life in colorful terms. It was anything but ideal. The

author describes Abelardo as being a devoted and loving husband who “spoiled” his wife. He did

not want her to do any kind of laborious tasks like washing clothes. He wanted to provide his

wife with the very best and she happily obliged by spending his month’s salary on clothes for

herself. He would often have to cook for himself after working long hours. She did not seem to

care that her husband of social and professional standing would wear shabby clothes. Sixta was a

jealous woman and secretly spied on her husband. She was described as being a very capricious

wife and perhaps that was one of the reasons why Abelardo drank so much. 27

Abelardo composed numerous sacred works, most of which are no longer extant.

Although not a religious man, he had many clergy friends who often asked him to compose

hymns, songs and masses for the church. He was very happy to do this and gave away his

compositions without payment. As Epistola observes, “Most of the time, he would give out the

original manuscript even without his signature. This is why we do not have many of his sacred

works today.”28 Abelardo was most fond of the town fiestas.29 Despite his demanding schedule,

he made time to conduct, sing and play in the High Mass. He was quite popular among the

priests because he spoke Spanish fluently and used it with wit. Abelardo was the life of the after-

26
Ibid., 55.
27
Ibid., 61.
28
Ibid.,61.
29
The Philippine Fiesta was an annual celebration where the town would celebrate its patron saint or pay
homage to the life events of Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary.

11
mass celebrations and parties at the homes of those he visited during the fiesta. He enjoyed

eating and drinking well.

As a composer at this time, Abelardo possessed a remarkable gift of concentration.

Regardless of his environment or circumstance, he had the ability to work under any condition

and to complete compositions quickly. Not only was he expeditious with his compositions, he

was also a disciplined and neat composer. His manuscripts are legible and easy to read. He was

able to notate anything he heard. When the latest 78 rpm records of popular songs in America

would arrive in the Philippines, Abelardo would immediately transcribe what he heard and then

quickly arrange the songs for his cabaret orchestra, thereby creating the largest repertoire among

the local Manila dance bands. This made his band the most popular in the city. In my interview

with Abelardo’s niece, she remembered her uncle composing constantly on napkins, street car

tickets, whatever was available at that time. And when he was surrounded by his children, who

were climbing and jumping on their father, he would still stay engaged in whatever he was

working on at that time.30 Epistola writes,

“There was nothing really that could dampen Abelardo’s will and power to create.
His alcoholism, his kidney trouble, and other barriers to any creative artist could
not destroy his spirit.”31

In 1928, the University of the Philippines granted Abelardo a year’s sabbatical from his

teaching duties. He wanted a change of environment and went to Cebu to work as a music

director of a large theatre.32 There he befriended Philippine composer Manuel Velez. At the

30
Sister Maria Anunciata Santa Ana, Dean, College of Music and Performing Arts at St. Paul University
Manila, interview by author, 17 July 2012.
31
Epistola, 59.
32
Cebu is a province in the Philippines, located in the Visayas or the principal middle region of the
Philippine Islands.

12
conclusion of the year’s leave, Abelardo resigned from the Conservatory of Music. He wanted to

study abroad and learn new ideas about music, particularly about atonality, according to Epistola.

A diploma from a foreign country would increase his prestige and reputation, but unfortunately

financing this desire would prove to be an issue.

The Conservatory of Music could not find a replacement for Abelardo, so he decided to

resume his previous position. He was very popular as a teacher and revered by many students for

his ability to easily explain the most difficult harmony lessons. Despite being back on the

Conservatory faculty, Abelardo remained intent on studying abroad. The current director of the

Conservatory, Dr. Francisco Santiago, had previously done so and Abelardo believed he should

also be afforded this opportunity.33 Although he had received an invitation to study at the Real

Conservatory in Madrid, he preferred to study in America. Santiago had earned his doctorate at

the Chicago Musical College, and this institution became Abelardo’s goal.

On February 19, 1931, the University of the Philippines granted Abelardo a year’s leave

with pay. He was given several “despedidas” or going-away parties where he received money for

his trip. Although still worried about not having enough money to maintain himself in America,

Abelardo departed on May 2, 1931, on the Canadian Pacific Steamship Empress of Russia to

America with his $500 savings, a trunk and a wooden suitcase. The ocean voyage was twenty-

three days long. On the passage, Abelardo busied himself with compositions that he could

publish once he arrived in Chicago. The ship landed in Vancouver, where Abelardo then boarded

a train to Chicago. He arrived in Chicago the morning of May 23, 1931. In a letter written in

33
Dr. Francisco Santiago headed the UP Conservatory from 1930 to 1946. The Directors and Deans of the
College,” College of Music University of the Philippines Diliman, accessed February 27, 2013,
http://music.upd.edu.ph/Administration%20of%20the%20College%202.html.

13
Tagalog to his wife dated May 29, 1931, Abelardo wrote of his astonishment at depression-era

Chicago:

“After a seemingly endless trip on the train from Vancouver, I reached the land of
my dreams at 8:30 in the morning with God’s help and mercy…First thing I did
was to rest because of sheer tiredness and second to save myself from people who
are taking advantage of others, in Chicago, the state of their economy is very poor,
a lot beggars and homeless are everywhere asking for money, for coffee or bread.”
34

Having come to Chicago to study music, he visited the city’s music schools and confirmed his

desire to attend Chicago Musical College. The cost of enrollment was $481, but Abelardo only

had $400 of his original $500 left. He was informed he could pay the tuition on installment,

which would cost more but was the only way he could enroll. He placed his hope in future

scholarship opportunities because he was quickly running out of funding, and in the meantime he

wrote home for more money.

Abelardo matriculated at Chicago Musical College and found himself more advanced

than most of his classmates. To the surprise of his primary teacher, Dr. Wesley LaViolette,

Abelardo demanded to take the final examinations for the undergraduate and graduate

coursework he was enrolled in and passed all the exams. However, a one-year residency was

required and there was an additional hurdle: Abelardo did not have a high school diploma. His

financial problems were mounting. Abelardo tried to join the Musician’s Union but he could not

afford the $100 initiation fee and dues from his quickly dwindling money, and therefore he could

not find work as a musician in Chicago. Additionally, no one wanted to buy his pieces. Abelardo

tried to save money by adhering to a very strict budget. He found the cheapest room he could

34
Nicanor Abelardo, Chicago, to Sixta Abelardo, Manila, 29 May 1931, trans. Chona Capulong. Letter in
the hand of Nicanor Abelardo. Private collection of Cecille Abelardo Quizon, Quezon City, Philippnes.

14
that was close to the college and limited himself to two meals per day, believing he could either

sleep or study during one of the missed meals. Despite these hardships, Abelardo was

remarkably productive; he composed the violin sonata and a fugue for string quartet in a mere

three weeks.

The Sonata for Violin and Piano premiered at an 11 a.m. recital on Saturday, July 25,

1931. The performance took place at the Punch and Judy Theatre in Chicago Musical College.35

Fellow students, violinist Alex Peusner of Milwaukee, Wisconsin and a student of Leon

Sametini; and collaborating pianist Ralph Squires of Morgan City, Louisiana and a student of

Rudolph Ganz, the Director of the College, premiered the work.36 After the recital, many came to

congratulate Abelardo. According to Epistola, “many were wondering how a Filipino could have

written such a sonata. It was too modern for their taste.” 37 His teacher, Dr. LaViolette, could not

have been more pleased with what his student had accomplished in the span of two short months.

Ganz used Abelardo’s Nocturne for Piano as the subject of his Interpretation-Repertoire class, a

tremendous honor.

The fall of 1931 was an auspicious time for Abelardo. He had received more money from

home, he was given the Wesley LaViolette Scholarship of $1,000 and he became his teacher’s

assistant. He was the first student at the College to have earned top grades in all his graduate

courses. He was well on track to obtain his master’s degree if he could pass his high school

examinations.

35
The Punch and Judy Theatre was originally the Steinway Hall, which was located in the Chicago Musical
College building.
36
German, Ang Buhay at Musika ni Maestro Nicanor Abelardo. Bulacan: Bulacan Cultural Arts and
History Foundation, 1993.
37
Epistola, 81.

15
In the fall semester, the Chicago Musical College Symphony Orchestra began to rehearse

his Cinderella Overture, which he had also composed during his first few months in Chicago.

The work prompted considerable discussion in the musical community and premiered on

December 12, 1931, in a gala concert. A few days later, a review of the performance appeared in

the Musical Leader, a national musical magazine of the 1930s, which called it “a work

displaying originality and marked ability in the smooth weaving of intricate materials.” 38

Abelardo was then interviewed by the Musical Courier in 1932, one of the most popular music

magazines in America at that time. He became one of two graduates to receive a master’s degree

one year later. At this time, however, he was becoming homesick. Financial pressures were

increasing, and he was fearful of not having enough money to return home. Abelardo had sent

his songs to two publishing companies, Sam Fox and Presser Co., but neither of them showed

any interest. His many fears led the composer to seek alcohol again in Prohibition-era Chicago.

“There were rumors and gossip that Abelardo was again the alcoholic he had
always been. Talks circulated that he did not even care what he drank anymore;
he consumed bootleg whiskey and bathtub gin by the bottle. The gossip also said
that he left the Lorraine Hotel to move to an apartment adjacent to a ‘still’ and
‘speakeasy’ which was open all day.” 39

Abelardo later moved into a house with a professor of Spanish at DePaul University who was

also an alcoholic.

Abelardo’s anxiety to get home was mounting, but he did not have the funds to return.

The University of the Philippines could not help him. His wife went to their provincial home

capitol of Bulacan to ask the Governor for assistance. The Governor of Bulacan in turn wrote the

President of the University of the Philippines with some suggestions to ease Abelardo’s situation,

38
Ibid., 95.
39
Ibid., 101.

16
but the President ultimately could not do anything. There were collections taken up by friends

from home: private organizations, his former pupils and even the Philippine Constabulary Band

for whom he wrote one of his first compositions. Unfortunately, the sum total of the money

collected could not pay for the ticket home. Abelardo therefore remained in Chicago and

continued to drink. “Drinking was his only escape. It brought him solace and relived his

consuming sense of impotence by blurring the cruel outlines of his real world. He associated less

with ‘respectable friends’ and went with those who drank with him.” 40

In July 1932 Abelardo received the long-awaited $500 from home, most of which was a

loan from the University of the Philippines. He quickly bought his ticket and boarded the SS

President Taft in Seattle on July 18. He did not have his diploma in hand at the time because the

results of the University of Illinois college entrance exam, which served as the high school

equivalency exam, had not been released and he did not have the $25 for the diploma.

Abelardo arrived home on August 15. Friends and family welcomed him back but were

disturbed by his appearance. “He was much thinner than they expected, and his enormous middle

betrayed a bloated stomach. His complexion had the grayish pallor of a person suffering from

alcoholism.”41

Upon his return to the Philippines, Abelardo resumed his position as instructor in the

Conservatory of Music. He did little composing but wrote numerous articles on music. Subjects

included nationalism, the lack of music appreciation in the Philippines, the psychoanalysis of

music, conducting and even a treatise on modern harmony.

40
Ibid., 108.
41
Ibid., 110.

17
On June 21, 1933, Abelardo finally received his Master of Music diploma. He had passed

the high school examinations he took at the University of Illinois and paid the $25 diploma fee.

Abelardo had finally accomplished his goal. However, the University had hired another music

professor to take his place and it seemed that his University of the Philippines Conservatory

colleagues no longer took him seriously, apparently because of his drinking. Despite the

advanced degree, Abelardo did not get the raise he had been expecting or the promotion he felt

he deserved. He remained at the rank of an instructor.

Abelardo resigned from the Conservatory on February 27, 1934. His health was failing

and he had difficulty coping with his disappointment at not having received what he thought he

deserved after having worked so hard in Chicago.

On March 19, 1934, Abelardo suffered an intestinal hemorrhage in the morning and was

hospitalized later that evening in a weakened condition. On March 20, 1934, his entire family

gathered in his room at the hospital to celebrate two happy events: his eldest daughter’s birthday

and his youngest sister’s graduation from the University of the Philippines. Abelardo was very

happy to see his family and friends gathered together. “But it was the last time he would see his

beloved ones gather together. Maybe he sensed that. The family had the same feeling.” 42 Later

that evening, with his immediate family and mother and sisters around him, Nicanor Abelardo

died at the age of forty-one as a result of an intestinal hemorrhage.

Abelardo’s March 24, 1934 funeral was well attended. Epistola describes it as follows:

“the rich and the ‘important’ people came with big wreaths of expensive flowers
and the funeral parlor overflowed with them. Friends came to hold necrological
services and to extol him in their speeches. Musicians came in bands from far-
away provinces to play their sad funeral music. The ‘little’ people and the dirty

42
Ibid., 118

18
beggars who had learned to love him because of his understanding for them came
with nothing save the silent prayers in their hearts. They remembered that this was
their friend who invited them into his home to hear them sing and accompany
their songs.”43

Epistola described the funeral procession as “a thick line of silent people about two miles

long and headed by the Philippine Constabulary Band.”44 Because it was the Lenten season,

music was not allowed at the funeral mass. But his sister Victoria pleaded with the priests who

eventually allowed the singing of hymns for the dead for Abelardo’s benediction. Nicanor

Abelardo was finally laid to rest that afternoon at the La Loma Cemetary in Manila. “It was a

hero’s farewell and many people would later compare it to the funeral of the first President of the

Commonwealth of the Philippines, Manuel Quezon.”45

43
Ibid., 119.
44
Ibid., 121.
45
Ibid., 121.

19
ANALYSIS

The Violin Sonata by Nicanor Abelardo is a three movement work which adheres in

broadest outline to patterns inherited from traditional tonal literature. Movements I and III

exhibit design features of Classical sonata form, or “first movement form.” Movement II follows

a ternary design. Movements I and III may be understood in A minor while Movement II is in E-

flat, notably a tritone's distance from A. In his article Nicanor Abelardo: Filipino Classicism in

the Art of Music, Ramon Santos quotes Abelardo as saying:

“I have written a ‘sonata’ for violin, … on the atonal basis. I have been released at last
from the Classical Bond, I have been sent to wander in the new horizon taking for a guide
Hindemith, Schoenberg, Bartok, - and the ultra modern style.” 46

Santos continues his discussion of basic characteristics of the tonal language of the Sonata:

“The tonal language of the Violin Sonata is not atonal in the sense of the pre-serial and
serial works of Schoenberg and his school from Op. 11 (Drei Klavierstücke), cast more
according to the tonal explorations of the Second String Quartet and the Chamber
Symphony, in which reference to tonality is intended to dramatize its deconstruction by
entering into a field of tonal ambiguities. While Abelardo wrote his Sonata in the domain
of ‘A’ as the tonal center, the entire music was written as though challenging the overall
influence of ‘A’ as a place of rest. The overall scheme of the three movements is in fact
based on a tritone relationship: A-minor/major (1st Movement); E-flat major (2nd
Movement); A-minor (3rd Movement).”47

In his discussion of the first movement of the Sonata, Santos continues by observing that . . .

“In his attempt to depart from the syntactic framework of the harmonic language,
Abelardo utilized the tonal regions as merely baseline structures to hold together larger
formal units, rather than as interrelated events in a linear continuum. . . . in the ‘Violin

46
Ramon Pagayon Santos, Tunugan: Four Essays on Filipino Music (Quezon City: The University of the
Philippines Press, 2005), 53.
47
Ibid., 55.

20
Sonata,’ Abelardo's lines have been completely liberated from the conventional rules of
chromatic harmony, using semi-independent intervals of fourths, fifths, and displaced
octaves, or diminished and augmented triads. In the first fifteen bars, [of the First
Movement] the entire passage is braced by two tonal-regions – A and D on its way to E-
flat (ms 18), the tritone of A. Within the A-D frame is a vigorous dramatic unfolding of
Abelardo's thematic material.” 48

The following diagrams chart the overall design of each movement and the bass motions

(described here by a succession of letter names) as they are aligned with formal divisions. In

addition, Roman numerals have been attached to each letter name to indicate possible tonal

harmonic functions; however, as Santos has pointed out, “upper voices do not necessarily follow

tonal harmonic implications of the bass voice.” 49 With this important qualifying and limiting

constraint firmly acknowledged, I propose the following diagrams of the formal design and basic

tonal structures of each of the three movements:

Movement I

Movement II

Movement III

48
Ibid., 55.
49
Ibid., 55.

21
These classic models are elaborated and extended to a considerable degree by many

features which depart from expected tonal norms. The third movement in particular follows the

classical paradigm of sonata form in broadest outline only in that while there is a clear

introduction (mm.1 – 20) and a first theme area (mm.21 – 56) and a transition (mm.57 – 81)

which leads to a second theme on E-flat, the motion to that secondary tonal area is not

punctuated by a decisive cadence nor is the secondary tonal area reinforced by a closing theme or

codetta with authentic cadences which establish E-flat firmly as a concluding secondary tonal

area at the end of an exposition. Instead, an abbreviated second theme (mm.82 – 101) is followed

by an extended development section (mm.102 – 165) directed toward a strong dominant E-

natural (mm.146 – 165), preparing a long concluding section or recapitulation (mm.166 – 321)

clearly reasserting a tonic A.

The third Movement then resembles classical sonata form in that there is a clear first

theme and tonic tonal area on A and a clear return of that material at the beginning of a

recapitulation, also on A. However, while the exposition does have a transition leading to an

identifiable secondary tonal area on E-flat, that plateau is insufficiently well established and the

associated thematic material truncated to initiate the beginning of an extended development

section leading eventually to a structural dominant on E (m.146) and a decisive recapitulation

which follows. In addition, while the recapitulation does incorporate familiar alterations, such as

a redirection of the transition to F (upper neighbor to the dominant E?) instead of the E-flat of the

exposition, it is the exposition in this special case which is abbreviated, not the development, as

might have been the case in a traditional “sonatina form.”

22
In Movement I opening thematic material in measures 1-10 unfolds over a predominant

A minor tonality, although chromatic elaborations of the scale degrees of A minor permeate the

texture from the very beginning. The passage proceeds in four measure phrases with the

thematic material introduced in the violin in measures 1-4 imitated in measures 5-8 where

rhythm and melodic contour are preserved for the most part but where the specific intervals of

transposition vary from note to note.

As Santos has demonstrated, important ascending skips of a perfect fifth in measures 3

and 4 (F-natural to C-natural, A-natural to E-Natural, and F natural to C-natural) are answered by

diminished 5ths or “tritones” (G-sharp to D-natural, B-natural to F-natural, and E-natural to B-

flat respectively) in measures 7 and 8.50 In spite of the irregularity of these intervals of

imitation, adjustments in the second phrase (mm. 5-8) can still be understood to a considerable

degree as elaborations of A minor (F-natural upper neighbor to the Dominant note E in measure

5, G-sharp, lower neighbor to the tonic note A in measure 6, B-flat as an upper neighbor to the

50
Ibid., 55.

23
tonic note A in measure 7, etc.). An adjusted version of the thematic material in measures 1-8,

this time in the piano, is redirected in measures 9-16 to a climactic E-flat in measure 16 (both

piano and violin) and is particularly notable as that point of arrival initiates a decisive descending

whole-tone scale (E-flat, C-sharp, B, A, G, F, E-flat), continued for an additional octave in the

left hand of the piano which leads to a low E-flat on the downbeat of measure 18 and the

initiation of transitional materials. The transition concludes in measure 28 with an additional

whole tone segment in the violin (F, E-flat, D-flat, B, (A), G). Segments from this succession

answer in the piano in measures 30-34.

As Santos has pointed out in his discussion, Abelardo has deliberately tried to extend

inherited tonal norms to embrace atonal practices and chromaticism. “Abelardo, upon being

exposed to the musical revolution unfolding in the West, saw his past creative experience as one

of confinement and circumscription, a life cloistered by the dogmas of form and the harmonic

language.”51 The frequent juxtaposition of diatonic, chromatic, and whole-tone collections

recurs throughout and can be understood as accounting for important characterizing features of

all three movements.

Santos has discussed this mixture of elements as deriving from the practice of other

composers and from various stylistic trends of the early part of the Twentieth Century

(Impressionism, early departures from nineteenth century chromaticism by Schoenberg, the

“mystic chord” of Scriabin, etc.) 52 While these observations are useful as ways of understanding

the various influences affecting Abelardo at the time he composed this work, and an awareness

of these influences is useful in establishing the historical context from which this music emerges

51
Ibid., 54.
52
Ibid., 55.

24
as well as some basis for understanding and appreciating the diversity of influences affecting

compositional decisions from moment to moment, section to section, and movement to

movement; they do not result in analytic paradigms which reveal an integrated pitch structure

underpinning and linking thematic materials, phrase structure, and form.

Construction of such a paradigm or paradigms is particularly challenging in this work

where at least two different referential pitch collections (diatonic minor-major scale, and the

whole-tone scale) are juxtaposed throughout and where varying degrees of their simultaneous

appearance summarize to produce an over-riding chromatic texture, frequently atonal in

character. If such an insight is possible, the extensive in-depth investigation and analytic

techniques required to reveal such a model lie outside the intended scope of this paper. Even so,

I would like to propose a way of understanding interrelationships among these pitch collections

which may help set the stage for a more intensive study, should such an investigation be

attempted in another context.

The following examples diagram the way each of these collections divides the octave and

how the interrelationship of those collections suggests ways of understanding important aspects

of pitch organization. Notice: 1) that the diatonic scale (minor mode, ascending form) and the

whole-tone scale are mutually exclusive in pitch class content except for the first two scale

degrees, A and B in the collection starting and ending on A and E-flat and F for the scale

transposed to E-flat; 2) that the first three pitches of the descending form of the minor mode (A,

G, F-natural) and the last three pitches of the ascending whole-tone scale (F, G, A) are composed

of the same pitch classes; 3) that the last tetrachord of the descending form of the minor mode

(D, C, B, A or A-flat, G-flat, F, E-flat) may engage the “Phrygian 2,” the chromatically lowered

25
second scale degree (becoming D, C, B-flat, A or A-flat, G-flat, F-flat, E-flat); and 4) that the

summation of these two collections (including the lowered second degree of the descending

minor mode) results in a complete chromatic collection.

The whole-tone scale does not provide perfect fifths, the boundary interval of major and

minor triads. In particular, it is important to recognize that the fifth scale degree does not nor

does not form a perfect fifth with the first or a possible “tonic.” In fact, the fourth and fifth scale

degrees form intervals of an augmented fourth and a minor sixth respectively with a possible

“tonic,” such as might be inferred from the opening of Movement I. Sudden shifts from a

diatonic collection in A minor, to a whole tone collection on E-flat, such as that which occurs in

measures 16-17 in the first movement, result in an harmonic goal far outside any normally

expected for a secondary tonal plateau in A minor. This kind of motion disrupts “tonality” and

introduces a strong “atonal” element at the deepest structural levels of pitch organization. This

motion is not the result of “modulation” in the traditional sense, as common triads are not

26
available between A and E-flat. However, it does seem important to recognize that the

juxtaposition of the whole- tone scale on E-flat and the E-flat collection which produces the

major-minor implications in measures 18-21 (see violin part in particular), though mutually

exclusive in pitch content for the most part (E-flat and F are common tones) are related to one

another, scale degree by scale degree, by half step, the characterizing interval from diatonic

collections which determines modality and the interval which imparts the strongest voice

leading tendencies (leading tone to tonic, minor 6th down to the dominant, fourth scale degree

down to the third, etc.).

The juxtaposition of these two collections then, sometimes successively and sometimes

simultaneously, not only results in a fully chromatic texture but at the same time results in a

texture predominated by step motions much of the time, most notably by half-step motions. For

example, notice the very opening of Movement I (D-sharp to E, G to F-sharp, etc.) or the

principal theme in Movement II (E-natural to F, G to A-flat etc.). These half steps facilitate

greatly the establishment of tonal regions as such step motions, particularly when they are

formed by dyads separated by larger intervals, have a strong tendency to subordinate one note of

the dyad to the other. The emphasized pitch then may become part of a deeper structure

(ascending or descending diatonic fragment, major or minor triad, etc.) which helps establish, if

only temporarily, a sense of “tonic.”

It is particularly interesting to notice how this juxtaposition or association of diatonic

elements and whole-tone elements may happen simultaneously in the structure of a single

thematic idea, and on occasion at deeper levels, to support decisive motions to important cadence

points.

27
The example above charts the contour of the opening thematic materials in Movement II. See

how the boundary interval of the principal theme in the violin, C to E-Natural, is followed by

two half-step motions, E-natural to F and G to A-flat, imparting a strong feeling of F minor. At

the same time however, that skip from C down to E-natural, a minor sixth, and the terminal note

of the ascending scale, A-flat, are all elements in a whole-tone scale on C: C, D, E, F-sharp G-

sharp (eharmonically equivalent to A-Flat), A-sharp / B-flat, C. The intervening notes, F and G

are not parts of the whole-tone scale; however, the two notes forming the opening skip and

boundary interval of the line, along with the note of termination, A-Flat, are all members of a

whole-tone scale coexistent with the foreground in F minor. Notice as well that the notes C, E-

natural, and A-flat all receive agogic accents.

This theme, illustrated above, is then transposed up a minor third to E-flat in measure 15 where

28
the same duality of diatonic scale on E-flat minor and whole-tone scale on E-flat coexist once

more. In the example below, a second transposition to G in measure 21 does not continue with a

third literal statement of the theme but does preserve the duality of juxtaposing diatonic scale

segments (G, F, E-flat, D, etc.) with skips of a minor sixth in a series of successive segments in

measures 21-30, all of which associate that interval with diatonic scale segments: G to B-natural

in mm. 21-23, D to F-sharp in mm. 23-24, B-natural up to G in mm. 26-27, C up to A-flat in mm.

28-29, and E-natural up to C in mm. 29-30.

It is very interesting to notice that, whereas this duality in Movement II features a

diatonic foreground in service of whole-tone middle-ground collections, themselves “atonal” in

implication, just the opposite is true in the beginning of Movement III where foreground

elements delineate whole-tone collections in service of middle-ground and back-ground diatonic,

tonal structures.

The opening octaves of E - natural in the piano in measures 1-3, repeated dramatically in

measures 6-8, 11-13, and in measures 17-20, are interpreted finally in measure 21 as having a

strong dominant function, where, subject to local voice leading constraints (G-sharp to A-natural

in the violin and B-flat to A in the bass), they lead to an A minor triad in measure 21. This more

background motion of V (E) to I (A) in A minor is juxtaposed however with interjecting and

accompanying whole-tone segments in measures 3-5 and 8-10 (piano), 13-16 and 20 (in violin),

and 17-20 in the piano. The simultaneous statements of ascending and descending whole-tone
29
scales in the piano in measures 16-19 and the accelerated repetition (diminution) in the violin in

measure 20 of that same scale (C, D, E, F-sharp, G-sharp) bring together B-flat in the bass and

G-sharp in the top voice, an augmented sixth in a traditional tonal context, which, is this case, is

resolved accordingly by expanding to the octave on A.

All notes in measures 17-20 are derived directly from the whole-tone scale on C, with the

exception of the B-natural in the piano on beat one of measure 17 and that same pitch (three

octaves higher) on beat one of measure 20. The appearance of this one single pitch class from

outside the collection which controls all other elements in this passage may seem out of place on

first encounter; however, some understanding of its significance in this passage can be gained by

thinking of these notes, particularly the B-natural in measure 17, as a resolution of the

augmented sixth (C-natural to A-sharp) in measure 16. In fact, every adjacent pitch class in any

whole-tone collection may, under enharmonic reinterpretation, be “resolved” as an augmented

sixth (a major second is enharmonically equivalent to a diminished third or, by inversion, an

augmented sixth). The basic principle of enharmonic reinterpretation and this particular example

in measures 16-21 (C, D, E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A-sharp reinterpreted as B-flat, C) not only

provides a way of understanding the decisive resolution to A minor in measure 21 but other

relationships as well, such as the succession in measures 100 to 102 where the pedal E-flat,

sustained from measure 76 through measure 99, is reinterpreted as D-sharp and resolved to an

E-natural in the bass in measure 102. D-sharp and F-natural in measures 100 and 101 form a

diminished third which collapses to the E-natural in measure 102, D-sharp up to E, and F-natural

down to E (implicitly here as the E-natural resolving the F does not appear in that same register).

As is typically the case in this composition, the “E-major triad” in measure 102 is accompanied

by additional elements: in this case C-sharp and D-sharp. Interestingly, the sixth in the right

30
hand, E to C-sharp, expands to an octave D-sharp to D- sharp.

As represented in the examples above, the material from the third movement in measures

3-5 and 8-10 (examples a and b) interrupts the emphatic E-natural which prepares the decisive

motion to A in measure 21. These passages are transpositionally related (the second is a tritone

higher than the first) and attract special attention analytically, both because of their strategic

location in Movement III and the fact that measures 8-10 have appeared literally in Movement II

in measures 60 and 61 and later in measures 135 and 136 where they are transposed up a major

ninth. These passages and their relationship to the repeated E preceding and following

incorporate many of the characterizing voice leading features of the work as it assumes at the

same time a major structural role in the opening of Movement III. Notice as well in example c,

that these passages incorporate some of the same basic pitch class relationships (at the same

pitch level in measures 3-5) as the opening material in the violin in Movement II. This recurring

presence in different guises necessarily draws our attention to the particulars of this passage and

31
to a consideration of the extent to which it incorporates many of the basic structural and voice

leading tenants of the composition.

As examples a and b show, open notes at both transpositional levels derive from the same

whole-tone collection (C, D, E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A-sharp). Closed notes derive from the second

or “complimentary” whole-tone collection (D-flat, E-flat, F, G, A, B). While this hexachordal

division neatly partitions the total chromatic scale into two distinct whole-tone collections, and

while one of these collections has a strong representation in Movement II and in Movement III

(C, D, E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A-sharp), it does not, in and of itself, reveal generative processes

which account for the frequent juxtaposition of this whole tone-material with elements from the

complimentary hexachord or elements from parallel diatonic collections.53

For example, in this case the bass line of measures 3-5 starts on B-flat and terminates on

E while its counterpart in measures 8-10 starts on E and terminates on B-flat (both notes from the

whole-tone collection on C). This tritone division of the octave on E is familiar as it reflects

other such tritone divisions, especially large scale relationships from A to E-Flat in Movements I

and II, as illustrated in the first example of this chapter. The upper voices, in similar fashion,

span intervals of a minor sixth from this same whole-tone collection, E to C and A-sharp to F-

sharp respectively. Furthermore, the first chord and the third chord in each passage as well as the

boundary notes in melody and bass (E and C and B-flat and F-sharp respectively) in the fourth

chord, all drive from that same collection. All other notes in these passages, with the exception

of the G-sharp and the D-natural in the fifth chord of measure 5, derive from the complimentary

53
Hexachords are said to be complimentary if their combined pitch class content sums to the total
chromatic collection..

32
hexachord (B, C-sharp, D-sharp, F, G, A) and, more importantly perhaps, are related to elements

in the first by semitone (E to F, C to D-flat, B-flat to A in measures 3-4 and A-sharp to B, F-sharp

to G, and E to E-flat or D-sharp in measures 8 and 9). As result, and in spite of the fact that the

second chord in each group forms an augment triad consistent with that complimentary whole-

tone collection, the introduction of the half step relationships between the first and second chords

organizes this collection so that the second chord is emphasized or “tonicized” as a result of

these semitone “resolutions” and a sense of tonality, if ever so temporary and transitory, is

imposed on the configuration (F minor in the first case: E, F, A-flat, C and perhaps B-minor in

the second: A-sharp, B, D, F-sharp in the second). The incorporation of other semitone

relationships, most notably in measure 5 (C to B, G, to G-sharp, and D-flat to D-natural) results

in an unmitigated dominant seventh chord on E, predicting perhaps the eventual arrival of A

minor in measure 21.

The pervading juxtaposition of tritone relationships, augmented triads, whole-tone scales,

with latent tonal forces such as structural fifth relationships in the bass and semitone motions at

critical cadence points accounts for the mixture of elements which characterize the surface of this

music. While this brief discussion leaves open questions about the possibility of a more

integrated way of understanding these rich and varied musical textures, it does I hope, set the

stage for further rewarding investigation along those lines.

33
CRITICAL REPORT

I was first introduced to Abelardo’s Violin Sonata by Professor Sergio Z. Esmilla when I

was an exchange student at the University of the Philippines College of Music in 1995. Professor

Esmilla had given me a photocopy of a hand-copied violin part and piano score which I was

supposed to learn under his tutelage that semester. Years later, I asked him where he had

obtained his copy of the Violin Sonata. He was not sure from what source or when he first

obtained this copy, but he knew it was not copied from the item housed at the University of the

Philippines College of Music Library, which I could corroborate in the summer of 2012. At that

time I visited the library and was given access to the collection of works by well-known Filipino

composers. The reserved area has drawers and vertical file boxes of music and scores by

Philippine composers in alphabetical order.

The Sonata was found in a vertical file box with no shelf number but with a label

indicating it contained Abelardo’s music; there are also two drawers that hold his music. The

piece was housed in an expanding legal-sized folder. The folder contained the full score and a

violin part. The score at that time did not have any kind of protective binder and appeared to be

an item in general circulation that was accessible to all.

When determining whether the worn score is in Nicanor Abelardo’s hand, I compared the

notation and writing of dynamics against the autograph score of Abelardo’s Sinfonietta for String

Orchestra and found them to be the same. The pages of the Sinfonietta score are also on the

same “Parchment Brand” as the Violin Sonata. At the end of each movement of the Sonata and

34
the Sinfonietta the composer notated the location and date of completion. All three movements of

the Sonata indicated Chicago, Illinois as the location and the date in which it was completed. The

location and date of composition of these works by Abelardo are consistent with what was

described by both biographers, German and Epistola. Abelardo’s handwriting shows some

defining characteristics: the “S” in both titles are similar in that they both have extra curves on

the top and bottom of the letter. The capital “C” is also very characteristic, having an almost

complete circle decorating the top of the letter. Dynamic markings are also written in Abelardo’s

hand, particularly clear in the abbreviated crescendo and allegro indications.

The score is bound in a 27.5 cm x 33 cm faded and worn brown cover. It bears a UP

College of Music Library stamp on the top right corner. In the middle of the front cover was

apparently a title in red pencil and a faded ink symbol with a treble clef in the center of the

cover. The cover appears to have been subject to water damage. The top and bottom right corners

are dog-eared, worn and extremely fragile. The back of the cover is torn with the bottom half

missing, exposing an unused back page of the bound score. The pages of the score are 11” x 17”

and are bound by 25 saddle stitched gatherings. The bound score is made up of one type of

paper, with “Parchment Brand” printing at the bottom of the left corner. To the right of that, “No.

6 – 12 lines” is printed. On the bottom center of the page, “Made in U.S.A.” is printed and to the

very right corner, “Belwin Inc. New York. U.S.A.” There are four systems printed on each page,

each system made up of three staffs, with a treble clef printed for the solo instrument on the top

staff and with the bottom two staffs bracketed together for the piano accompaniment.

There is a separate violin part kept with the score, but it is a newer copy written on white

manuscript paper that originated from the Blessing Music Store in Santa Cruz, Manila, as printed

35
at the bottom of one side of each page. The violin part is notated in a different hand with a

different calligraphy pen than the score. It is not known who produced this particular violin part.

The first page of the score bears the title in the center and the tempo marking of Allegro

on the top left corner of the page. On the top right corner, where composers usually write their

names, is a name in quotations: “Hiram.” This is written in the same ink as the rest of the work

but with red ink on top of it to cross it out. When investigating the name “Hiram,” I was

reminded that the literal translation of “Hiram” in Tagalog is “to borrow.” Perhaps Abelardo

used the pseudonym “Hiram” to show that he felt the work was to some degree composed in a

musical idiom still unfamiliar to him and that he had borrowed musical ideas from composers

whom his teacher, Wesley LaViolette, had recommended he study. In a letter written to his

friend Antonio J. Molina, Abelardo wrote “I have written a ‘sonata’ for violin, and a fugue for

string quartette on the ATONAL basis.[…] I have been sent to wander in the new horizon taking

for guide Hindemith, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Bartok – and the ultra modern style.”

The score is written entirely in black ink which has faded, particularly in the dynamics,

articulations, accidental markings and the measure numbers. There are many pages where the ink

had bled through to the other side of the page or where the ink had transferred to the adjacent

page. There are pencil markings throughout the score which are not autograph, particularly in the

piano accompaniment. Presumably these were added by a pianist using the score. Whether they

were suggested by Ableardo cannot be established. There are a few additional markings in the

violin part of the score. These are not corrections for the violin, but are markings to aid the

accompanist in seeing cadential points or dynamics. There is a penciled marking in measure 150

of the first movement indicating that the violin part is to be played up one octave, but the writing

is not Abelardo’s.

36
There are definite corrections by the composer in the score. In the first movement in

measures 102 – 104 the composer pasted a correction using the same paper as the rest of the

score. In the second movement in measures 87 – 95 a slur and several notes seem to have been

whited out and corrections inserted in black ink. These appear to be autograph. In the third

movement, measure 296 was originally notated with many ledger lines. Abelardo crossed this

out and rewrote the measure using octave notation.

37
Violin Sonata
Score Nicanor Abelardo
I Edited by J.Ortiguera

œ − œ − ∀œ
%β Œ Œ œ œ
1 2 3

Violin
∀œ œ œ − œ œ ∀œ −
∀œ − œ œ ∀œ µœ −

%β ˙ Œ Œ œœ
1 2 3

œœ Œ ∀ ˙˙ œœ ˙˙ œ
˙ ο
ϖœ
cresc.

˙˙ œœ œ
Piano
>β ˙ œ œ œ
œ −− Œ œ −− Œ
œ œ
Θ˙ Θ˙
− −
œ
œ − ∀œ µœ − œ œ œ ∀œ œ 5 − − œ− œ − œ œ − œ
œ œ œ Œ œ Œ α œ − œ
4 6 7

Vln. % œ − œ ∀œ œ− œ ∀œ
3

ϖ
3

∀ œœ œœ œœ
% œœœ œœ œœ α ϖϖϖ Œ Œ ∀ ˙˙ α œœ
4 5 6 7

œ ∀ œœ Ó α ∀ ˙˙˙ ˙ œ œ
œœ Œ ϖœ α œ
cresc.

> œϖœ œ α ˙˙
Pno.
œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ −− œθ œ −− œ
˙ Θ˙
αœ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ ‰− œ œ − œ œ œ − œ œ − αœ œ − œ œ œœœ
8 9 10 3

Vln. % Θ
3 3 3

œœ œœ ∀ œœ ∀ œœ ∀ œœ œœ − 10
α œœ Œ
8 9

% ∀ œœ µ œœ ∀ œœ ∀œ ∀ œœ œ Œ œœœ− œ œœœ ∀ œœ ∀ œ − œ−
Pno.
œ œ œœ ∀ œœ Œ œ − œ ∀ œ œ − œ ˙˙
> ˙œ œ œ œ − œ −−
α ˙œ œ œ −− œ œ˙
Θ˙ Θ˙
38

œ œ œ œ ∀œ − œ œ œ œ− − −
% œ œœœ œ œœœœ
œ αœ
11 12 13

∀˙
Vln.
3

œ αœ
∀ œ œœ −−− ∀ ∀ œœ µ µ œœ −− œœ α œœ œ œ œ œ
3 5

œ
% œ˙ − ∀ œ µ œ − œ œ˙ − œ œ −− Œ
11 12 3 13

œ− œ ∀œ œ ∀œ µœ − ∀ œœ œ œ œ ∀ œœ − œ
Œ œ− œ
3

> œ˙ œ α œœ œœ
Pno.
œ œ œ ∀œ µœ œ− œ
œ œ ˙œ ∀œ
œ Óœ ∀œ ˙ œ− Ι ˙

˙ œ α˙
œαœ ∀œ
14 3 15 16

% œ
œ α˙ ˙
Vln.

α œ − α œ 16 œ − ∀ œ α œ œœ
Œ œ − œ α œ − α œ œ − α œ œœ − œ α œ αœ œœœ œ
% α α œœ −− α œ œ
14 15

œ − ∀œ œ αœ
α œα œ œ− œ α ˙
Œ ˙ α œœ œœ α œ ∀œ − œœ
3
Pno.
> α œœ − µ œ ∀œ œ œ α œ ∀œ − œ− œ
œ œœ œ− œ
œ− Ι ˙
˙
œ œœœ œ
∀œ œ œ α œ œ α œ αœ œ œ œ
17 cantabile
18 19 3 3

% ∀˙ œ ˙
3

Vln.
3 3

œ− ˙ ∀œ œ α œ œ œ α α ˙œ œ
% œ − œ œ − αœ µ˙ Œ
17 18 19
cantabile

∀ ˙˙ ‰ œ œ αœ Œ
α œ αœ œ œ œ αœ αœ
rit. 3
Pno.
> α œ ∀œ − α œ œ œ œ ˙ œ
3 3

α œ œ œœ
3 3

œ
α œ ∀œ − œ œ œ − œ α œ α œ œ ˙ œ
˙ 3 3
3 3

39

3
αœ œ
αœ œ œ αœ œ œ
œ œ œ αœ œ œ
3 3

œ
20 21

% ∀œ ˙
3

Vln.
3 3

œ αœ ∀ œ α œ œ œ µ œœ α ˙ œ
3

% œ αœ µ˙
20 21

‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ αœ αœ αœ
αœ œ œ
œ αœ œ œ
Pno.
> œ œ
3

αœ œ œ œ αœ œ αœ
3 3 3 33

αœ α œ œ œ œ
3 3
3

∀œ œ ∀œ
% Œ œ
22 23

Vln. ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ
α œ œ α α œœ α œ œ
3

œ œ œ α œ œ α œœ α œ ∫ œ α œ œ α ∫ œœ œœ œ œ
3
3 3

% α œϖ α˙
22 3 23

‰ αœ œ αœ
œ αœ αœ œ
3

α œ
3

αœ
Pno.
> αœ αœ αœ œ œ œ ˙ œ
3 3

αœ ˙ αœ
3

3 3
3

œ− œ
œ α˙ α œ œ œ − œ α œ − œ ∀œ − µœ
˙ œ œœ ∀œ œ
24 25 26

% ∀œ
3

Vln.

œ, ∀ œ, œ,
% ∀ α ˙˙ œ ∀ α ˙˙˙ α ˙˙ −−
24 25 26

αœ ∀œ − œ œ œ ∀œ œ
˙ ˙−
, ∀ , œ 3œ
œ
‰ œ, œ, α œ
Pno.
> ‰ œ ∀œ œ ‰ œ µœ œ ‰ œ ∀œ œ ‰ œ œ œ
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3

αœ œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ,

40
=˙ œœ
˙ œ œ œ α œ œ α œ α œ 28 œ œ œ
∀œ œ œ α œ α œ
27 29 30

% œ
ß œ ∀œ ∀œ
Vln.

= = ϖ
αœ µœ , , ,
molto

œ ∀œ α œœ
% α α œ˙œ µ µ œœ Œ ∑ Œ
27 28 29 30

˙
∀ ˙˙
α˙ α œœ ∀ œœ
œ œ ∀ œœœ
ß
α α œœ ˙˙ ˙˙ ϖϖ ,
Pno.
>
Œ̇ ˙ α ˙ ∀ ϖϖ Œ œ α œ, α œ,

œœ Œ Ó ∑
31 3 32 33 34 35

%
a tempo
Vln.
œ ∀œ ∀ œ œ
ϖ ϖ œ ,
, , , Τ œœ
Œ αœ œ œ ˙ α œ ∀
ϖ œ œœ œœ
31 32 33 34 35

%
a tempo

œ œ œ ∀ ϖ
ϖ ∀ ˙ α œ
œ µ œ
œ ∀ œ œ
Óœ œ œ∀
ϖ ˙
,œ œ, , 3 Τ œ œ
Pno.
>
ϖ Œ œ α œ α œœ œ œ ϖœ œ, œ, œ, œ, ∀ œ, œ, œ, α œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œ ˙
tranquilamente

∑ œ œ œœ œ ∑ ∑
36 37 38 39 40

% ∀œ œ ∀œ ˙
Vln.

= 37 , α œœ
œœ œœ 40 αœ α

% ∀ œ œ ∀ œœ œœ ∀ œ œ ∀ œœ˙ œ œœ ∀ œ µ œ œ œœ œœ œ α œœ œ α α œœ α œœ
∀ α œœ
36 38 39

Óœ œ œ ˙ α œ ∀ œœ ∀œ ∀œ µ œ œ ∀œ œ ∀ œ œ

> œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œœ œ µ œ α œ œ ˙ α œ œ ˙˙
α
Pno.

∀ ∀ œœ
rfz

œ ˙ ˙

41
∀ œ œ œœ œ œ ∀œ œ ∀˙ ˙ ˙
œ, α œ,
41 42 43 44

Vln. % œ œ œ œ ∀œ
œ αœ
, , œ , , αœ
,
% ∀ œœ˙ œœ ∀ œœ œœ α œœœ œœœ α œœ α œœ αœ
41 42 43 44

∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ
œ œ œ
˙
> œ œ œœ œœ α œœ œœ œœ ‰ œœ ∀ œœœ œœœ œœ œœ ‰ œœ ∀ œœœ œœœ
Pno.
œœ œ ∀ œ Œ Œ
αœ œ

∀ œ, œ, œ œœ œ, ˙ œ œ α˙ œ œ− αœ α˙
œ α œ α œ, Œ
45 46 47 48

Vln. %
, , , , 47 48, , ,
œ α œ
œ α œ œα œ‰ œ œ α œ α ˙œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ α œœ œ œœ œ ˙œ œ œ œ
45 46

% ∀ œœ œ œ œ œ
œœ œ œ ‰ ∀ œœ α œœ œα œ œ œœœ œœα ‰œ œœ ˙œ œ œ œ œ˙ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ˙ œ œ œ
œœ‰
ο α ˙cresc. α œ = =
> œ˙ œ ‰ œ α ϖ
Pno.
ϖ
∀ œ˙ œ ‰ œ α ϖ Œ α˙ αœ Œ α˙ αœ
rfz
α˙ αœ
49
œ œ œ αœ œ œ αœ œ
50 αœ
œ α œ α œ α œ œ œ œ 51∀ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ œ
Vln. %
ο œ α œœ œ ι ι
α œœ œœ œœœ œœ œœœ œœ α œœ œ 51 ‰ ∀ ∀ œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ œœœ
50œ
3 3 3 3

œ αœ
% α œœœ œœ œœœœ œœ œœœœœ α œœœ œœ œ œ œ ∀ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œ
49

œ ‰ ‰ ∀ œΙ ‰ œΙ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ œΙ ‰
ο αœ αœ ι ι
α œ
Pno.
> ‰ αœ αœ œ œ
3 3 3 3

α œ œ œ α œ α œ α œ œι ◊
cresc. molto

αœ αœ αœ
œ ∀ϖ

42
˙
∀œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ
52 53
∀œ œ ˙
Vln. %
ι ι ƒ ι broad œ= œ= œ=
53 œ ‰ ‰ Œ
3

œ œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ œœœ œ œœ œœ


3 3 3 3

‰ ∀ ∀ œœ ‰ œ Ó
œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œœœ œœ œ
% ∀ ∀ œœœœ ‰ œœœœ

52

‰ œœΙ ‰ œœ ‰ œœ ‰ œœΙ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ
ƒ 3 ∀ œ]
3

∀ œ]
Pno. 3

>
3 3 3 3 3

˙ ∀œ ∀œ
poco rit.

ϖ ˙
∀˙
∀œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ µœ
54
∀œ œ ∀˙ 55
∀œ œ
Vln. %
œ œ œ Ε 3

œœ œœ œœ 55‰ 3 ‰
calmato

∀œ œ
3 3

œ œ œ œ
3

% ‰ α α œœœ œœœ ‰ µ œœœ œœœ ‰ œœ œœ œ œ


54 3 3 3

œ
œ œ œœ œ œ œ
œ œœ œœœ
Ε
3
Pno.
∀ œ ∀œ
> ˙ ∀œ ∀œ ∑
˙

∀œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ, œ, ∀ œ œ œ œ
56 57

Vln. %
=œ =œ =œ
œ œ œ
3

œ œ œ œ ∀ œ
œ œ
œ œ œ œ
3 3 3 3 3 3

% ‰ ∀ α œœ œ ‰ µ µ œœ ‰ ∀ œœ ‰ ∀ α œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œ œ
56 57

∀œ µœ ∀œ œ œ œ œ 3

∀œ
> α œœ œ
3

œœ
Pno.

∀ œ˙ œ ˙ œ ∀œ
˙

43
α œ α˙ œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ
αœ
∀ œ œ œ œ
58 59

Vln. %
α œœ œœ œœ 59 3
3 3

œœ œ
œ œ œ α œ œ œ œ œ α œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ α œœ œœ
∀ œ µ œ
% ‰ œ œ ‰ œ α œ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ α α œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
58

œ œ œ
α =œ
3
3 3

α œœ
Pno. 3 3 3

> ˙
3

ϖ
˙ ϖ

œ œ œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ
œ œ ∀œ ‰ Ι
60 61

% =
= =
Vln.

œ ˙
œœ µ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œœ œœ 61∀ œ
3

α œœ µ œœœ œœœ œœœ α œœ œœ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ


œœ œœ œœ µ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ ∀ ∀ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ
% α α œœ µœ œ œ
60

œœ œœ œ œ ‰ œ œœ œ œ
3
‰ ‰
3 3 3
Pno. 3 3

>
3 3

α˙ αœ œ ϖ
α˙ αœ œ ϖ
œ ∀œ ∀˙
œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ
Ι
% ‰ Œ
62 63

= = =
Vln.

∀œ œ ∀ ˙ œ œ œ
œœ 63œ
dim.

∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ ˙ ∀ ∀ œœœ œœ ∀ œœ œœ œ œ œ ∀œ œ
% ∀ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œ‰ œ α œ α œ œ œ α œ œ œ ∀ œ œ
62

œ
‰ ‰ ‰ œ α œ αœ œ
Pno. 3 3

> ϖ
3 3 3 3

ϖ
3
3

ϖ ϖ

44
œ œ œ œ
∀œ œ œ α˙
64
œ ∀œ 65

Œ
Vln. %

œ œ œ− œ
∀œ αœ ∀ œ œ− œ
% ∀ œ‰ α œ œ œ œ œ ˙˙ œ
64 65

∀œ Ι
˙ 3
α œœ œœ ‰ µ œœœ œœœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœœ œœœ
3 3 3

‰ αœ
3

‰ α
œ œ αœ œ œ œ
Pno.
œ αœ œ
3

> œ œ
3 3

ϖ œ ϖ

œ ˙ ˙ œ
% Œ Œ ∑
66 67 68

Vln.

œ− αœ
œ α œ
œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œœ
% ∀œ œ− Ι
œœœ ∀ œœœ α α œœœ œœ
66 67 68

∀œ
∀œ 3 œ 3 ι ‰ Ι α
œ œ œ œ œ
3

œ œ œ ι ι
œ œ œ œ
3

> ‰ α œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ α œœ α œœ ‰ œœœ œœœ ‰ œ œ α œœ ∀ œœ α µ œœ α œ


Pno.

ϖ ˙ α˙ ˙ αœ

∑ ∑ ∑ œ œ− œ
69 70 71 72

Vln. % ∀œ Ι

œ αœ
69 70 71 72

% œ
∀ œ œ ‰œ α œœœ œœœ œ α œœ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œœ œœ α œœ µ ∀ œœ
ι Ι œ ο stringendo
‰ œ œœ ‰ ιι ι
œ œœ œœ ∀ œœ ∀ ∀ œœ œœ α œœ œœœ
Pno.
> œ ∀œ œ œ α˙ ‰ ‰ ‰œœ‰
3 3 3

œ ∀œ µ˙ œ œ œ œ œœ 3 œœ
œœ

45
œ œ− œ œ œ α˙
% ∀œ
73 74

Vln.
Ι

α œœ œœ œœ µ œ œ œ
3 3

α œœ œœ œœ α α œœ œœ œœ α œ œ œ µ µ œœ œœ œœ
73 74 3

% α œœ α œœ µ ∀ œœ
3

µ ∀ œœ
Pno.
> ‰ ‰ ‰œœ‰ Œ œ
3 3 3

œœ œœ ˙ œ
œœ 3
˙
− œ œ α œ œ œ œ− œ α œ α œ
% œ œ αœ α˙ œ œ œ
75 76

Vln.
3 3 3
3

% α œœ œœ œœ α α œœ œœ ∀ œœ α α α œœœ œœœ œœœ µ µ œœœ œœœ œœœ α α α œœœ


3

œœœ α œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ


75 3 3 76
3

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Pno.
> Œ œ œ œ
cresc.

˙ œ œ œ œ œ
˙ œ œ
œ
77
œ œ α ,
œ α œ α œ α œ µ œ œ œ− µ œ œ œ 78
œ œ αœ µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ αœ
Vln. %
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

] ] ] ] 78
% α α α œœœ œœœ œœ α œœ œœ œœ œœ œœœ α α α œœœ α œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ
3 3

œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ


77 3 3

œ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Pno.
> œ œ œ 3
œ3

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

46
œ œ œ α œ µœ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ ϖ
79 œ œ œ œ 80

%
ƒ 3
Vln.

œ
3

œ œ
œ œœ α œœ
80α œ
œ
µ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œœ ∀ œœ œœ
3 3 3 3
alargando 3

œ α œœ œœ œ
% α α α œœœœ α œœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
79 3 3

œ œœ ‰ œ œ
α œ ‰ œ œ œ
ƒ a tempo
Pno.
> œ œ
alargando 3 3
3 3

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙
œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ œ œ œ ∀ œ 82 œ œ ∀ œ œ
∀œ − œ 83∀ œ µœ
œ− ∀œ
Ι Ι
81

Vln. %
3

œœ œœ
3

œ œ œ
3 3

œ œ α œ œ œ œ œ œ
3

αœ œ œœ œœ α œ œ œ œ œ œα œ œ œµ œ œ œ ˙ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ∀ œ µ ∀ œœ œœ œ ∀ œœ œœ
81 82 83

% œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ
‰ α œœ œœ œœ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ∀ œ‰ œ

3 ι ˙3 œ3
α œœ œœ œœ
3

‰ Œ œ α œ œ ‰
Pno.
> œ œœ ∀œ
3 3 3 3 3
3

˙ ˙ ϖ ϖ

œ œ ∀œ ∀œ œ
œ ∀œ œ œ α ˙
84 85 86

% œ œ ∀œ µœ
œ
Vln.

α˙ µœ ‰ 3 ‰3 ‰3
% α ˙ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ∀ µ œœœ œœ œœ∀ œœ œ œ ˙ œœ œœ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ
84 85 86 3

‰ œ œ œ ‰˙ œ œœœœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ œœ∀ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
∀ œ
3 ι
Œ ˙ α œ Œ ∀ œ œ œ œ −3 œ α ˙˙
Pno. 3 3 3

œ œ
3

>
3 3 3 3

α˙ ˙ ϖ ˙

47
Ó ∑ Ó ∀œ œ
87 88 89

Vln. % ˙
=œœ =œœ α=œœ
3

∀ =œœ œœ −− œ
% ∀ œœœ Œ Ó ∀ œœ ∀ œœ Œ œœ −−
µ ∀ œœœ
∀ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
87 88 89 3 3

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
ß œ− αœ −
œ − œ α œ − œ
α œ œœ
Pno.
> αœ− œ œ − œ ∀œ − µœ œ − œ œ − ∀œ µœ α œ − αœ œ œ œ
3

Ι − œ
αœ− œ œ − œ ∀œ − µœ ∀œ µœ Ι αœ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ 91 ˙
∀œ œ µœ ∀œ œœ œ œ œ
œœœ ∑
90 92

%
= =
Vln.

92∀ œœœ ∀ œœœ µ œœœ −−− ∀ œœœ


3 7

∀ œœ − œα œ Œ œ − œ
% œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œœ Œ Ó
90 3 3 3 3 91

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ− αœ
ß œ − ∀œ Ι œ− αœ
Pno.
αœ− œ α˙ œ −
α œ − œ œ − ∀œ µœ œ − ∀œ œ
> αœ− œ− αœ œ
œ α˙ α œ − œ œ − œ ∀œ − µœ Ó
Ι
∀œ œ µœ ∀œ œ
∀œ œ
Ι ‰ œ œ œ
% Ó
93 94

Vln.

∀œ
∀ ∀ œœœ
œœ ∀ œœœ
3 3

œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ α œ α œ œ œΙ
3 3 3 3

œ œ ‰
93 94

% œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
αœ− ο œ αœ αœ œ œ
3

αœ œ œ œ αœ− œ
> αœ−
Pno.
œ αœ œ œ œ œ αœ Ι ‰
Ι Ι
3

48
∀œ œ œ œ µœ ∀œ œ
Ι‰ α œ œ œ ι ι
œ
95 96 97

% œ˙ œ œ œ œ œ
3

œ αœ
Vln.
3 3
3

œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ι ‰ Ó
3 3

Œ œ
95 96 97

% œ œ œ œ œ œ œ αœ αœ œ œ ϖ
œ ϖ

> αœ− =
Pno. rit.

œ αœ αœ αœ œ ˙− œ α˙−
Ι œ ϖ œ ˙− œ

∀œ − ∀œ ∀œ −
œ− œ œ œ− œ
98 99

% œ ∀˙ œ
cantabile
Vln. ‹œ−

αœ αœ
% Œ ∫œ α˙ œ
98 99

œ αœ αœ
α œ œ œ
œ αœ œ œ
Pno.

œ αœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
a tempo

>
3 3 3

α œ œ µœ
3 3 3

αœ α œ œ α œ αœ œ
3 3

œ−
œ− œ œ− œ
œ ∀œ − œ œ −
œ Œ ‰ ∀œ µœ œ
100 101 102

Vln. % ‹œ ∀˙ œ

% α œι α œ α œ œ α œ œ α œ, ∫ œ, œ αœ œ œ α œ œ α œ ∀ ∀ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ ˙˙œ œ œ œ œ œ
100 101 3 102

Ι
αœ œ œ œ 3 œ3 œ3 3
α œ αœ ∫œ αœ œ
Pno.
> œ œœ ˙
3

αœαœ αœ œ œ œ ∫œ œ œ
3 3

œ
3

αœ 3 3 œ 3 3

49
œ œ 104 ∀œ ∀œ œ œ
103

Œ œ
‰ Ι ∀ œ Œ Ó
105

‹ œ ∀œ
Vln. % œ œ
3

˙ œ ∀ œ ∀˙
∀ ˙ ∀ ˙
% ∀ ∀ œœ œ œ œœ œ µœ ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œœ œ ∀œ œœ œ œ ‹ œœ œ œ ∀ œœ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ ∀ œ ∀ œ ∀
103 104 105

œœœœ
3 3

ι
Pno.
˙ œ ∀œ
3 3

>
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

∀œ − ∀œ ‹œ ∀œ
œ ∀œ ∀œ ∀˙
3
∀œ − ∀œ ‹œ ∀˙
∀œ ∀œ œ œ œ ∀œ
% ‰ Ι ‹ œ ∀œ œ œ ‰ œ ∀œ œ∀œ œ
106 107

Vln.
Ι
œ
∀œ ∀ œ
œ µ
µ˙ ˙ ∀ϖ
% ∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ ∀ œœ œ œ µ œœ œ œ ∀ œœ œ œ
106 107

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Pno.
> ∀œ ∀œ ‹œ ∀œ
∀œ ∀œ ˙

∀œ ι ∀œ œ ι
œ
108 109

Vln. % ‹œ ∀œ − œ− ∀œ

% ∀ ∀∀ ˙˙œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œµ α µ ˙˙˙œ α œ œ µ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
108 109

˙ ∀ ˙œ œ œ ∀ œ
3 3
œ œ
3 3 3 3

˙
Pno.
> ∀ ∀ ˙˙ ∀˙ ∀ œϖ ∀œ
3
3

α˙

50
110
= =
Ó
111
112

Œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ
Vln. % ∀˙ ˙ ∀œ œ 3

111 = = 112 = =
œ œ
% ∀ œœœ∀ œ œ œœ µ œ œ œœœ ∀ œœ ∀ ∀ œœœ α œœ Œ œœœ −−− œœ ∀ ∀ œœ µ œœœ Œ ∀ œœ −− µ œœ
110

α œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ− œ œ œ −œ
θ
Pno.
> œ ∀œ ˙ θ
3 3

œ œ −−
3

œ
3

ϖ ∀œ ‹ œ − œ −− œ˙

∑ Œ œ œ ∀œ œ Œ œ− œ
113 114 3 115

% œ œ œ , ∀ œ, œ œ œ
3 3
Vln.

Œ
Œ Ó œ
% œœ œ˙ œ œ œ
113 114 115

∀ œœ œœ −− µ œœ œœ
3

œ œ œ− œ œ œœ
∀œ ∀ ˙˙ −−− 3
ο3 Œ œœœœ œ
Pno.
> ∀œ œ µœ œ
3

œ ∀œ œ œ œ
3 3 3

œœœœ œœ œœœ ϖ

α œ α œ œœ
œ ,œ − œ, œ − α œ œ Œ ∀œ − œ œ œ œœœ œ
% ∀œ Œ Œ
116 117 118

Vln.

Œ
cresc.

∀œ µœ Œ œ œ α œ˙˙ ∀ œ œ œ
œ˙ −œ œ − œ Œ α œœ œ œ α ˙˙
116 117 118

%
3 3 3

∀ ˙˙ −− α œœ œ ˙ αœ
Œ ∀œ − µœ œ Œ œ ∀œ Œ αœ œ œ− αœ œ
Pno. cresc.

œœœ
3

> œœœ œ
3 3

ϖ ϖ ϖ

51
=œ =œ œ 120œ − œ ∀ œ − œ œ− œ œ− œ
α œ œ œ
Œ œœœœ
119

Vln. %
ε
œ αœ œ
α œ œ œ ˙˙ − œœ ∀ œ œ ˙˙˙
3

%Œ Œ
119 120

∀œ ∀˙
3

α œœ
˙ ß
œ− αœ œ œ
3

αœ œ œ ∀ œœœœ ∀ œ ˙˙˙
Pno. 3

>Œ Œ
ϖ ϖ
αœ œ œ
∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ 122œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ
‹œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ œ µœ µœ œ œ
121 123

Vln. %
3 3 3 3

ϖϖ œœ
% ϖϖ œœ Œ Ó ∑
121 122 123

Pno. ϖϖϖ œœœ


> ϖ œ Œ Ó ∑

œ œ ∀œ ∀œ œ
œ ∀œ µœ ∀œ − œ œ − œ ∀œ œ œ œ
Ι ˙ œœ œ œ ∀œ ≈ Œ Ó
œ ∀œ ∀œ œ
124 125 126

Vln. %
= =
3 5

∑ ∑ ∀ œœœ œœœ Œ œœœ −−− œœœ


124 125 126

% ∀œ œ ] œ −œ
Pno. ƒ ˙
> ∑ ∑ ˙
˙ Ó
˙

52
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
127 128 129 130

Vln. %
œ œ −− œ − ∀ œ 129◊
œ ∀ œœ Œ ∀ œ − œ 128œœ −− α œ œœ −− œ œœ −− œ − ∀ œ µ œ − œ œ œ œ α œ 130 œ œ
œ œœ − œ ∀ œ œœ −− ∀ œ µ œœ −− œ œ œ œ α œ œ œ α œœœ œœœ Œ œ −− œœ
3

% œœœ ∀ œœ
127

∀œ − ∀œ œ − α œ œ − ] œœ œ
œ ] ] œ ˙
œ − œ ˙υ œ ] ] ] Ó
Œ œ
Pno.
˙
3

> œ œ− œ ˙ œ œ œ >
˙ ϖ œ % œ ˙ ˙
˙ ϖ œ œ ˙
Ó

∑ ∑ ∑ ∀ =œ =œ Œ œ − œ−
131 132 133 134

Vln. %
œ − αœ œ œ ∀œ œ
α œ − œ − œ
œ − œ œ −− 133α œœ œœ œ ∀ œ œ œ α œ 134ε
œœ ∀ œœ − œ ∀
œ− œ œ œ− œ œ œ œ œ − œœ œ
% œ ∀œ Œ œ − œ α œ − œ ∀œ − œ − œ αœ αœ œ œ Ó Œ
131 132

œ œ
α œœœ
œ œ− œ ] θ =œ =œ ε
3

=
3

α œ −−
> œ œ − œ −− œ ∀ œ α œ
Pno.
œ αœ ˙
3

œ œ ∀œ α œ œ αœ > Ó
ϖ %
αœ ˙ œ Œ
ϖ αœ œ
α œ œ œ α œ œ œ œ αœ œ
œ− œ œ œ œ œ œœœœ
Œ ∀œ − œ ∀œ µœ œ œ œ αœ œ œ
135 136 137 3

Vln. %
=
3 3 3 3 3 3

= =œ
3

%Ó Œ Œ Œ Œ α œœ œœœ œœœ
135 136 137

α œœœœ α œœœœ œœœ


œ
œ œ
=œ =œ =œ
Pno.

œ Œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ

53
α œ αœ œ œ αœ αœ œ œ
3

% œ œ Œ œ− œ αœ− œ œ Œ α œ α œ
138 139 140

œ αœ œ œ
3

Vln.
œœ
3 3

α α œœœ Œ
œœ Œ Ó Œ Œ Œ α œœ
138 139 140

% œ α œ œ
α œœ α α œœœ α α œœœ œœ
Pno.
> œ Œ Œ Ó Œ Œ Œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ
αœ−
œ αœ αœ αœ œ œ œ œ œ − −
α œ œ œ œ ∀œ
141 142

%
∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ œ
3 3 3 3
Vln.

= ο
3 3

= =œœ α œœ
%Œ α α œœœ œœ œœ Œ
141 142 cres poco a poco

αœ α œ
œ œ
œ œœ
Pno. = = = ο ∀œ œ œ
>Œ œ œ œ Œ
cres poco a poco

œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ

− œ œ−
œ − −
œ ∀œ œ œ œ α œ µœ ∀œ œ œ œ œ œ
α œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ
3

œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ
143 144
145

%
3 3 3

Vln.
− − − 3
3
3 3 3 3
3 3

Œ Œ Œ
143 144 145

% œ œœ œœ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ
œœ
2

Pno.
∀ œœ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ
> Œ Œ αœ œ Œ œ
∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ

54
œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ − œ
∀œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ
˙
Ι ˙
146 147 148

Vln. % ∀œ ∀œ
3 3 3 3

ι ι ι
% ∀ œœœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ∀ œœ œœ œ ∀ œ ‰ œ œ œ
146 3 147 3 148
3

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œœœ œœ
Pno.

> œ œ ‰ œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ ‰ œ œ ‹ œ œ ∀œ µœ
3

Ι Ι
3

œ ∀œ ∀˙ − œ œ œ ∀œ µœ ∀∀∀ 152 œ ˙
% Ó ∀œ
149 150 151

Vln.

∀∀∀ 152
rit.

% ∀ ∀ œ˙ œ Ó Œ ∑ Œ œœŒ ∀ œœœœ
149 150 151
3

˙ ∀ œœ ∀ ˙˙ œœ
rit.

∀œ
Pno.
> ˙ ∀∀∀ œœŒ œœ
3

Ó Œ αœ µ˙ ∑ œ Œ
˙ αœµ˙ 3

∀∀∀ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ ∀˙ ∀œ œ ∀œ
153 154 155

Vln. % ˙

∀∀∀ ∀ œ
Œ Œ ∀œ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ ‰
153 154 155 3

%
œœ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œœ œ ∀ œœ œ œœ ∀ œ ∀ œœ œ
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

∀ œ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œœ œœ
µœ œ œ µœ
> ∀∀∀ œ œ Œ œ œ ∀ œ Œ œ
Pno.
œ œ œ
∀ ∀ œœ œ
3

œ œ œ œ
˙
3

55
µ˙ ∀œ œ œ œ
∀∀∀ œ
156
œ ˙ œ
157
œ
158

œ œ
Vln. %
ο
∀∀∀ Œ œœ
Œ Œ Œ α µ œœ ‰ ‰ œ‰œœ‰œœ
156 157 158

%
3

œœ ∀ œ œ 3 œœ ∀ œ œ
3 3 3 3 3

œ œœ ∀ œ œœ œ œ
ο 3
œ œ
αœ Œ
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ œ µ œ Œ ∀ œœ œ
3

œ œ
œ Œ œ ∀œ Œ µœ αœ
œ œ
3

∀∀∀ œ œ ∀ œ œ ∀ ˙

159 160

Vln. %
µ =œœœ
∀∀∀ µ ∀ œœœ ∀ œœœ
œ
µ œœœ œ
‰ α œœ ‰ œœ ‰ µ œœ ‰ µ œ
159 3 3 3 160

%
3

œ œ œ œ œ œ
Pno.
œ œ œ œ =œ µ œ œ
> ∀∀∀ µ œœ œœ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ
µœ ∀œ
œ 3 3 3
3

161
∀∀∀ ∑
162

œ µœ œ µœ
Vln. %
œ œ œ µœ
∀∀∀ µ ∀ œœ ∀ œœ ∀ œ µ œœœ µ œœ œ œ
œ αœ œ œ µœ œ αœ
œ œ ∀œ µœ œ œ
161 162

% œ œ αœ
œ œ œ œ µ œ µœ œ œ œ
œ œ œ
Pno. 3

> ∀∀∀ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ µ œ
3

Œ µœ œ
µœ 3 3
3 3 3 3

56
163
∀∀∀ α œ αœ µœ αœ
164

Ó Œ αœ
Vln. % αœ−
µœ µœ − αœ
∀∀∀ α œ µ œ αα ˙˙ −− œ αœ
αœ µœ − αœ
œ
163 164

% αœ Ι
α œ αœ œ αœ
Pno.
αœ αœ œ œ œ αœ œ αœ œ œ œ
> ∀∀∀ α œ œ œ œ
3 cresc.

αœ œ αœ
αœ 3 3
αœ 3 3 3
3

α œ 166α ˙ œ
3

∀∀∀ α ˙ œ− œ−
Œ Œ
165

Vln. %
αœ− αœ œ− αœ µœ αœ αœ− µœ
∀∀∀ œ αœ œ− αœ µœ αœ αœ− µœ
œ αœ−
165 166

% Ι Ι

α œ œ œ αœ œ µœ œ α œ αœ œ αœ µœ œ œ
αœ œ œ œ
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ µœ œ œ œ
µœ αœ
3 3 3 3 3 3

˙−
3 3

167
∀∀∀ Œ ∀œ
168
œ œ µœ œ œ œ œ
Vln. %
œ− œ ∀œ − µœ
∀∀∀ ∀ œ œ− œ ∀œ − µœ
∀œ
167 168

% µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ι
3 3 3 3

µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ ∀œ œ œ œ µœ œ ο
œ œ œ œ
Pno.
> ∀∀ ∀ Œ
cresc.

œ œ αœ œ− œ
3
3 3 3
œ αœ œ− œ

57
µœ œ œ µœ œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ µœ œ
169
∀∀∀ œ µ œ œ α œ œ œ 170

Vln. %
3 3 3 3

169
∀∀∀ 170

% µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
αœ− œ
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ œ œ µ œ −
cresc.

œ Œ α œ
œ− αœ αœ− − œ œ− œ αœ− œ
œ œ œ œ− œ µ œ − œ
œ− αœ
α œ172 µ œ α œ œ œ α œ œ œ œ αœ œ
œ
∀∀∀ µ œ œ œ œ œµœ œ œ œ œ
α œ œ œ
3 6

œ
171

Vln. % µœ αœ µœœ
3 6
Í3 3 3 3

∀∀∀ œ œ œ
µ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ α µ α œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ
171 172 3 3 3 3

%
3 3 3

µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Pno.
∀œ œ 3
Í
> ∀∀∀ ∀ œ œ Ó −
α œ − µ œ œ − œ α œ − µ œ αα œœ − µ œ
αœ − µœ œ − œ αœ − µœ µœ
µ œ α œ œ œ œ α œ 174 µ =œ α =œ
∀∀∀ µœ œ αœ
α œ œ µ œ œ œ µœ ∀œ Ó µœ αœ
µœ αœ
173

Vln. %
=
3 6

µ α α œœœ œ œ
3

∀∀∀
6

αœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó ˙
µ α ˙˙˙
173 3 3 3 174

% α µ α œœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ
ƒ 3
œ αœ Œ œ− œ
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ œ µœ Ó
œ µœ œ αœ œ− œ

58
µœ œ αœ œ αœ µœ µœ œ αœ µ =œ α =œ =œ =œ
∀∀∀ Œ œ αα œœ µ œ œ α œ
œ Œ œ αœ µœ µœ œ αœ µœ αœ œ œ
175 176 177

Vln. %
= =
∀∀∀ Ó
3

˙ α˙ Œ µ α œœ œœ œœ ˙˙
3

µ α ˙˙˙ Ó
175 176 177

% µ α ˙˙ αœ œ œ ˙

Œ œ œœ œ ∀ œ œ œ α œ µœ ∀œ œ
Pno. 3

> ∀∀∀ œ œ œ Œ œœœ


3

Œ
œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ α œ µœ ∀œ œ œœœ

µ =œ α =œ ∀ œ, œ, ∀œ œ ˙ ∀œ œ ∀˙
∀∀∀ µ œ α œ œ ˙ œ ∀˙
∀œ œ ∀œ ∀œ
178 179 180

Vln. %
ε 3
3 3

œœ ‰ ∀ œœœ ‰ œ 180 3 œœ ‰ ∀ ∀ œœ
3

œ
3 3

∀ ‰ ‰
3

∀∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ œ ∀ œ ‰ œœ
3

Œ œœœœ œ ∀ œœœœœ œœ œœ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œ
178 179

% œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ Œ ∀œ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œ µ œ œœœ œ ∀ œœ
œ
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ œ œ œ œ œ ϖ
3

œ œ œ œ œ œ ϖϖ ϖ
œ

œ ∀ œ œ œ µ œ ∀œ œ œ µœ œ
∀ ∀ œ œ œ ˙
% ∀ ∀œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ
181 182 183

Vln.
3

œ
œœ ‰ œ œ
3 3
espress.

∀∀∀
3

œœ ∀ œœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ ‰
3

‰ œœ ‰ œœ ‰ œ∀ œ
3

œ
3


3 3 183 3

œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœ œœœ ∀ œœ
181 182

% œœ µ œœ
3

œ ∀œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ
∀œ œ
3 3
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ ϖ Ó ∀œ œ œ œ ϖ
3

ϖ
3

59
œ œ µœ œ
µ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ
∀∀∀ œ œ œ µœ
∀œ
184 185

Vln. %
3

‰ œœ
3 3 3 3

‰ µ µ œœ
3

∀ ‰ ‰ œ
3

∀∀ ‰ µ œœ µ œ ‰ œœ œ ‰ œœ œ ‰ µ œœ œ
3

œ œ
3 3

œ µ œ œ µœ
3

œ œœœ
184 185

% œœ œœ
Pno.
Œ œ µ œ 3

> ∀∀∀ œ œ µœ
ϖ ϖ

∀∀∀ œ œ œ
œ œ ∀œ œ œ µ œ œ œ 187
∑ ∑
186 188

%
= = =
Vln.
= = =
˙
187∀ œ œ ˙ 188 ∀ œ œ ∀ ˙˙
3

∀∀∀ œ œ µ œ œœ ˙ ∀ ∀ œœœ œ ˙
3

‰ α α œœ ‰ µ œœ µ œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ ∀ œœœ œœ ∀ ˙˙ œœœœµ ∀ ˙˙˙


186 3 3

% œœ
3

µ œ œ ∀ α œœ œœ œœ µ œœ ∀œ œ ˙ ∀
Pno. ƒ ] ]3 ] ] ]3 ]
> ∀∀∀ αœ œ œ ˙− œ œ œ Ó Œ œœ œœ œœ
3

αœ œœ œ ∀ œ
µœ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
œ œ œ

∀∀∀ œ œ αœ œ ∀ , œ, œι µ œ −
œ
3

œœ
3

œ œ µœ ∀œ ∀œ
189 3 190

Vln. % œ

∀∀∀ Œ
3

µœ µœ œ
µ œ α œœ
189 190

% µœ
‰ œ µœ œ œ µœ œ œ µœ ‰ α œ œ œ œ ˙Ó˙˙ 3
µœ œ
‰ µœ
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ œ αœ œ
3 3
3 3 3 3

µϖ ϖ œ
3

µϖ

60
191
∀∀∀ ∑
192


193

Ó
Vln. % µœ ∀œ

∀∀∀ ι ι
œœ œœ − ∀ œ œ ‹ œœ ∀ œœ µ œœœ − ∀ ∀ œœ œ µ œœœ α µ œœœ µ α œµ ˙œœ ∀ µ ∀ œœœ
191 192 193

% ∀ œ
∀œ œ αœ µ œ α œœ œ
Pno. ο œ

> ∀∀ ‰ ‰ 3 ‰ 3 ‰ ‰
cresc.
3 3 3 3 3 3 3

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙− œœœ

∀∀∀ œ œ
œ ˙ œ œ œ œ µœ œ œ œ œ œ
194 195

% œ
3 3

Vln.
3 3

∀∀∀
œœ −− α α œα œœµ µ œ˙œ
194 195

% œ µ ∀ ∀ œœ ∀ µ µ œœœœ µ œœœ œœ œœœ


µ œœ α œ− œ œœ œ
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ 3
œ œ
˙− œ œ œ œ œ

∀∀∀ αœ œ œ
œ œ µœ œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ α œ µœ α œ œ œ ∀œ œ
196 197

Vln. %
3
3
3
3
ε 3 3 3 3

196
∀∀∀ 197

% µœ œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ
3 3

µ œœœ œœœ œœ œœœ µ ∀ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ


œ œ
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ 3
œ 3

61
œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ ϖ
198
∀∀∀ œ œ œ œ µœ œ œ ∀œ 199

%
ç3
Vln.

œœ œœ œœ
3

α α œœ œœ α µ œœ
3 3 3

œœ α œœœ œœœ ∀ œœœ ∀ œœ œœ


3

∀∀∀
3
198 199

% µ ∀ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ


3 3 3

œœœ ‰ α œœœ œœœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ


œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Pno. ƒ
> ∀∀∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ
3 3 3
3

œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙
3
˙
œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ
∀∀∀ ∀œ ∀œ − œ
Ι
200 201

Vln. %
3


∀∀ œ œ µ œœ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ
α œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ µ œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ
3

% αœ œ
200 201

3 ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ
‰ œœœ œœœ œœœ
3

> ∀∀∀ ‰ α œœœ œœœ œœœ Œ 3 œ 3 µœ 3 œ 3


33 3
Pno.

˙ ˙ ϖ

∀∀∀ ∀ œ µœ
œ− ∀œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ œ
œ
202 203

Vln. % Ι ∀œ
∀∀∀
˙ ∀ œ µ µ œœ œœ œ ∀ ∀ œœ œœ µ ˙ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œ ∀ œœ œœ ∀ œ
202 203

% ∀ œ œ œ œ œ
‰ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ µ˙ ∀œ œœ œœ œœ
∀œ
ι ˙ œ Œ ˙
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ ‰ œ µœ 3
3
3 3

ϖ ˙ ˙

62
204
∀∀∀ 205 206
= =
Ó
% œ œ µ˙ œ œ αœ œ− ι
œ œ œ
Vln.

∀∀∀ ] ] œ− œ
˙ −œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ ‰ œœ œœ œ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œ œ Œ œ − œ
204 205 3 3 206

%
3

‰ œ œœœœœœœœ œœœ œœ œ
Pno.
Œ ι µ œœœ

> ∀∀ ϖ ∀œ œ œ œ − µ œ µ˙
3

œ œ Ó µœ Œ
3

˙
3 3 3 3

ϖ ˙ µœ

αœ µœ
∀∀∀ µ œ α œ α œ µœ µœ αœ
Ó αœ αœ Œ Œ œ− œ
207 208

% µœ
αœ µœ αœ αœ µœ
Vln.

αœ−
µ œ − α œ α œ − αα œœ α œ − œ µœ − αœ œ œ
∀∀∀ µœ − αœ α œ − œ µœ − αœ œ œ Ó
207 208

%
Pno.
α µ α œœœ ˙˙˙˙ œœœœ µ œœœ
> ∀∀∀ α œ Ó µœ Œ
µœ

]
∀∀∀ µ œ − α œ α œ − α œ œ, œ, œ, œ, ] œ œ µ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ
œ œ µ œ µ œ œ œ œ œ œ µ œœ µœ
209 210 3 3 211

%
3

Vln.
œ 3 3
œ
] ]
3

∀∀∀
Œ µµ œœœ œœ œœ µ œœœ µµ œœœ œœ α œœ œœ
209 210 211

% ˙ œœ
µ ˙˙ œ œ œ αœ œ œ
Pno.
] ]
> ∀∀∀ Œ µ˙ œ µœ œ œ µœ µœ œ œ
µœ œ αœ µœ œ œ
µœ œ αœ µœ

63
œ œœ
œ œ œ
∀∀∀ ∀ ∀ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ ∀ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
3 3

œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œœ œœ
3

œ œ œœœ œ œ œœœ
212 213 214 3

%
3
Vln.
œ
=== = =œ = œ οœ œ œ œ œ
ε √3
∀∀∀ Œ Œ œœœœ œ 3
3 3 3 3
3

œœ Œ œ Œ œœ Œ ϖϖ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œœ œœ
212 213 214

% œ œ
µœ œ µ œœœ
ε ο
> ∀∀∀ ϖ œ ϖ œ
Pno.
ϖ
Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ Œ œ ϖ
œ œ ϖ
= =
œ œ
œ 216
∀∀∀ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ =œ œ
œ
Τ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ Œ
215 217

% œ
œ ϖ
Vln.

∀∀∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ
3 33 3 3

œœ Τ
3 3

Œ Œ
3

œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ
215 216 217

% ϖϖ œ ϖϖ
œ ƒ
œ Τ
œ
Pno.
> ∀∀∀ ϖ Œ Œ ϖ
ϖϖ œ ϖ

64
II Nicanor Abelardo

α 2
Andante
Violin %αα 3 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

α 2
%αα 3 µœ µœ
∑ ∑ œœ
œ œœœ αœ
µ˙− œ ˙− œ
Piano
> α α 32 µ œ ∀ œ >
œœ >
œ αœ
α µœ % %

α œ ι
Vln. %αα ∑ ∑ ∑ µœ − œ œ ˙

α ι‰
% α α α˙ α œ
œ œ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ
œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ˙œ œ œ œ œ
Pno.
> αα œ ˙− α˙− ˙ Œ œ
α œ ˙˙ −− ˙˙ −−
œ ˙

α ι œ œ œ œ œ− ι
% α α œ œ µœ œ œ
3

Vln. œ œ œ Ι µœ œ œ µœ œ œ œ œ

α
%αα œœœœœœ œœœœœ œ œ œœœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ
œ œœœ œ œœ œ
Pno.
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ε ο
> α α ˙ œ œ œ − œœ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ
α − − ˙−
˙−
˙−
ε

65
α œ αœ œ œ
Vln. % α α œ α˙ œ œ œ œ Ι œ œ œ
Ι
α
% α α œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ αœ œ αœ œ œ œ œ
αœ œ œ œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ œ
> α ˙ α˙ œ− œ ˙
Pno.

αα œ œ α˙−

α αα α œ œ œ œ œ œ œ − œ œœœ œœ œ œ
Ι µœ œ− œ œ œ µœ
Vln. % œ Ι
˙
3

µœ œ
3 3

αα
% α α œœ œ œœ œ œœ α œ Œ ˙ œ Œ ∀œ
œ œ
œ
µœ œ œ
œ αœ œ ε
α œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ µ œœ œœ œ
œ œ œ µ œœ ∀ œœ œœ
Pno.
> αα ˙ − αœ œ œ œ œ
α œ œ
α˙− αœ

α œ
% α α œ µœ œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ µœ
œ œ ι œ ∀œ œ− ι
µœ − œ œ œ
Vln.

α α ˙ œ Œ œ− œ µœ ˙ Œ
% α ˙ œ Ι ˙− œ− ι
µœ
œ œ œ œ œ ο œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Pno.
> α
αα œ œ œ µœ œ œ
œ œ
œ œ œ
œ µœ

66
α œ µœ œ Œ Œ
Sul G

%αα œ
3

œ œ œ œ œ µœ œ œ œ ˙
œ− œ
Vln.

œ ι œ ˙
α œ œ œœ ˙
%αα ˙ œ œ ˙ ι ‰ œœ µµ œœ˙˙− œ œ ˙
œ −
œ œ ι αœ ι Ε œœœœœ œ œœœ œ œ
‰ µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Pno.
> α α ˙ − œ œ œ ˙‰ œ œ œ œœ µ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
αα
α˙− ˙ œ µœ œ œ

α
%αα ˙ œ− œ ˙ Œ
œ ˙− ˙
Vln.

αα œœ
œ
œœ µ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ
œ œ œ œœ µ œ œ œ α œ œœ
% α œ œ œ œ œ œ µ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ αœ
µœ Ι µœ Ι µœ
œ œ= œ œ= œ =3
Pno.
œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ α µ œœ œ µ œœ œœ œ œ
> αα œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
α œ œ œ
œ
Ι
α œ− ι ∀˙ œ − µœ µ˙
Vln. %αα ∑ Œ ∀œ ∀œ
∀ œœ œœ ∀ œœ ∀ œ ∀œ œ œ
αα ∀ œœ
µ ∀œ − œ ∀ œ˙ ˙ µ
∀ œœ œ œ µ œ ∀ ∀ œœ ∀ œœ œ
% α ∀ œ ˙−µœ ∀œ − ˙ ∀œ µ œ
œ
Ι ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ
œ µ ∀ œœ œ µ œœ œ µ œ
œ µ œ œ œœ œ œ µœ œ œ œ œ µ œ œ ∀ œœ œ
> α ∀œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ œ œ
Pno.

α α ∀œ œ ∀œ ∀œ

67
α œ ∀œ
Vln. % α α µœ ˙
∑ Œ
œ
µ
œœ
œ ∀ œ µ œ ∀ œœ µ œœ ∀ œœ ∀ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ ∀ ∀ œœœ −−−− ∀ œ œœ œ ∀ œ
∀œ œ ∀œ ∀œ
α œ œ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œœ µ œœ ∀ œœ œ œ
% α α Ι ∀ œ µ œ ∀ œΙ Ι
œ ∀œ œ µœ œ œ œ ∀œ œ µœ œ œ ∀œ œ µœ œ
3

> α µœ µœ œ œ œ œ µœ µœ µ œ œ ∀ œ
µ µ œ œ œ œ
3

œ ∀œ
Pno.

α α µœ œ
Μœ
Ι
∀˙ ˙
∀œ œ µœ αœ œ µœ œ
% ααα µœ
ι
Vln.
∀œ
∀ ∀ œ˙ ∀ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ α œœ œ œ œ˙ œ œ œ µ œ
3

œ−
α α ∀œ ∀œ œ œœŒ ˙œ − œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
% α ∀ œ ∀ œœ œ α œœ α œ œ
œ
œ
œ
œ œ α œ œ µ œœ α œ
∀œ œ
αœ œ œ œ
ι œ ι œ œ αœ µœ œ
Pno.
> αα ι
α ∀œ œ αœ
∀œ œ αœ

αα œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ ι œ− ι
Vln. % α µœ − œ œ œ µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
3

α ι‰
% α α ‰ œ αœ œ œ œ ‰
œ α œœ œ œœ œ

œ œœ œ œœ œ ‰œ α œœ œ œ œ‰ œœ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ι
Ι
> α α ˙ −α œ µ œ œ œ œ
Pno.

αα ˙− Œ
˙− ˙− ˙− ˙

68
α œ µœ œ œ œ αœ œ œ ∀œ œ œ µœ œ œœ
Vln. % α α œ αœ œœœ œ
3 3 3

α œ œ œ α œœ œ œ
% α α œ α œ∀ œ œ œ œ œ α œ œ µ œœ α œ œ œ œ œ œµ œ œ
‰ œ µœ œ ‰ œ œ œ ‰ µœ µœ œ ‰ œ œ œ
Pno. Ι Ι Ι Ι
> α
α α µ˙− ˙− ∀˙ − ˙−
µ˙− ˙− ∀˙ − ˙−
αα α œ − µ œ− α œ œ ∀œ œ œ− µœ αœ œ œ œ
Vln. %
3 3

α αœ− œ αœ œ αœ œ− αœ œ µœ œ
3

%αα œ œ
αœ− œ αœ œ αœ œ− α œ œ µ œ ιœ
œ ι
‰ œœ œœ œœ ‰ α œœ œ œ
œœ œœ
Pno.
> αα œ œ œ œ
α ˙− µ˙−
˙− ˙−
œ œœœœœ
α œœι
œ œœœœœ
%αα œœ
œ œ œ œ œ
6

œ œ
Vln.
œ ∀œ
œœ] œœ] µ ˙˙˙]
6

α œœœ
6

%αα œ œ µ˙ œ
Ι
‰ Œ
Pno.
] ] ] ι œ ∀ œœ
> α ‰ Œ
αα œ µœ ˙ œ µ œœœ α œ
œ µœ ˙ œ œ

69
α µœ œ αœ œ
Vln. %αα Œ œ œ ∑ ∑ œ α˙

α
% α α µ˙− Œ œ ∀ ∀ œ˙˙ − µ ˙
˙ ∀ ∀ œœ µ œœ œœ − α ˙˙˙ −−−
˙ µœ ∀œ œ
> α µ ˙˙ −− ˙−
Pno.
∀˙ Œ
α α ∀˙ − µ˙ ˙−
∀ ˙− ˙

α œ œ œ ι
Vln. %αα œ Œ Œ ∑ Œ Œ œ− αœ µœ œ ‰ Œ

α ι ι ι ι ι ι ι
% α α œι œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ‰ α œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ α œœœ œœœ œœœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ œœ
œœ µœ œ œ œ
œ αœ œ
> αα œ ‰ Œ µ œ − œ ˙− ˙−
Pno.

α œ ˙ ˙− µ˙ ∀œ − œ
Ι α ˙ −− ˙− µ˙
αœ œ αœ
α œ− œ ˙ Œ Œ ∀œ − œ
Vln. %αα ∑ Œ Œ Œ

α ι ι ι ι ι ‰ ι ι ι
% α α œœ œœ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œœ œ œ
œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
œ œ
œœ œœ
œ µœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ
αœ œ
> α ∀œ µœ µœ µ˙ − µœ
Pno.

αα ˙− µœ − œ œ œ µœ
µ˙− ˙ µœ − œ
˙

70
µœ αœ µœ
αα ˙ œ − œ ∀œ µœ ‰ µœ − œ ∀œ µœ
Vln. % α Ι Ι ‰ µœ − œ

α ι ˙ œ− µ œ
% α α ‰ µ µ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ‰ ˙ −µ ∀ œœ œœ œœ ‰ œ µ ∀ œœµ œ œœ œ œœ
µœ œ œ œ ˙ œΙ− µ œ Ι ˙− Ι œ µœ œ Ι
Pno.
µœ αœ µœ ˙−
> α ˙
αα µœ − œ µœ αœ µœ ˙− ˙−
˙ µœ − œ ˙−

œ ∀œ µœ ∀œ µœ µœ
% ααα Œ Œ
Vln.
3
œ − ∀œ ∀œ µœ µœ
µ˙
α ι ι ˙ι ι ι
% α α œœœ µ ∀ œœ µ œ œœ œ œœ µ œœ œœ
∀ µ œœ
œœ œœ œœ œœ µ œœ œœ œœ ‰ µ œœ œœ œœ œœ
œ œ œ œ
œΙ µ œ œ Ι ˙−
Pno.
> αα ˙ − µ˙− ˙− ˙˙ % −
œ œ
α
˙− µ˙− ˙−

α œ αœ œ
Vln. %α α ∑ Œ Œ
œ− œ ˙ Œ ∑

ι ι ι ι
αα
% α œœœ µ œœ œœ œœ ∀ ˙‰− µ œœ œœ œœ œœ ˙ − œ œ œ
œœ µ œœ œœ œœ ‰ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œœ œ œ
œ œ œ ∀˙ − Ι˙ − Ι œ œ œ œ œ œ
µœ µœ œ > œ
αα α ˙ œ − œ œ µµ œœ αα œœ
Pno.

% ˙− ˙−
˙− ˙− ˙ % œ− œ

71
α Œ Œ œ αœ œ œ − œ œ œ œ
α
% α µ˙ Œ Œ Œ
Vln.
œ− œ
αα α ‰ œ œ œι ‰ œ œ œι ‰ µ œœ œœ ι ι
œœœ ‰ α µ œœœ œœœ œœœ ‰ α œœ œœ œœ
ι
% αœ œ œ œ œ œ αœ œ
œ œ œ ˙ −œ œ œ ˙ − œ œ œ ˙− α ˙− œ œ œ
α
Pno.

α > ∑ Œ œ αœ œ
% α ˙− αœ œ− œ ˙
˙− œ− œ
αœ
˙ œ ˙ œ ˙−
α œ − œ œ µœ αœ − ∀œ − œ œ µœ α œ − ˙−
Vln. %αα

αα ‰ α œ œ œι œ œ œι ‰ α œ œ œι œ œ œι ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ µœ − œ
% α ˙ − œœ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ α ˙ − œœ œœ œœ ‰ ˙œœ− œœ œœ ‰ ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ µœ − œ
˙− ˙ − ι
∀ œœ œœ œœ
œ œ œ
Pno.
> αα œ α œ α œ αœ œ αœ µ ‰˙ −
α µ ˙−
˙ ∀œ − œ ˙−
œ ∀ œ, ,
œ œ ∀ œ, ∀ œ, ,
αα ∀œ œ
% α , ∀ œ, ∀ œ ∀ œ
Vln.
, , œ − ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ − µœ ˙ −
˙˙ −− ∀ œ
α ˙−
% α α φ ∀ ˙˙˙ −−− ∑ ∑ ‰
µ œœ α œœ œœ, œœ,
œœ
œ,
φφφ ˙ − , , ,
φ , , α œ α œ, œ,
œ
Pno.
> α ∑ ∑ ‰ œ
α α ˙ −−
˙

72
œ µœ œ µœ œ µœ − œ œ ˙
% α αα œ œ αœ œ µœ œ œ Ι
œ œ
Vln.

˙˙ −− œœ ι
3

αα α α ˙˙ ˙˙ −− œœ µ œœœ −− œ
% ˙ Œ ∑ µ œ −− œ
˙ œ ˙ œ
‰ œœœ œ œ œœœ
Pno.
> α Œ ∑ œ
αα ˙ −œ œ ‰œ œ‰ œ
˙ −3 3 3 3 3 3

œ œ œ œ
αα α œ µœ œ œ Ι µœ œ œ
Ι
Vln. %
˙˙ œœ œ œ
α α œœœ ˙˙ Œ œœ µœ œ œ
œœ œœ œ
% α œ µ œœ œœ
Pno. ˙ œ œœ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ µœ αœ
> αα œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
α ‰ ‰
3
3 3 3 3 3 3

œ
3 3

œ µ œ œ œ α˙
αα α œ µœ œ œ œ œ− œ
Ι
Vln. %
ι œœ ι
œœ œ α ˙
˙ α œ
œœ œœ œœ œ α ˙˙
α œ µœ α œœ µ œ −˙
% α α œ µ œœœ
œœ œœ œ œ Œ œ −˙ œ
Ι αœ ˙
‰ α œ œ œ œ œ α œ œ œœ
α œ œ α œ œ
Pno.
> α œ
3

αα œ œœœ œ œ α ˙˙ −− œ œ
œ œ ˙ − 3 3 3 ‰ 3
3 3
3
3
3

73
œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ
œ œ œ
Vln. % α αα Ι œ Ι
α ˙˙ œ αœ œ
œ
αα α α œœœ α α œœœ µœ œœ œ
% α ˙˙ Œ α œœœ œœ œœ α œœ œ
α˙ α œ œœ œ ˙ αœ œ œ œ αœ αœ œ ααœ
œ œœ œ œ
Pno.
> α αœ œ œœ œ œ
α α ‰ αœ ‰
αœ œ

3 3 3


3 3 3

αœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
3 3 3

œ œœœ œ œ œ œ µœ
α Ι
Vln. %αα
œ œœ œœ œ α œ œ œ µ œœ œ œ
3

œœ
3

αα œ α œœœ œœ œœ œ œ Œ µ œ œ α œœ œ µ œ œ œ œ µ œœ
% α Ι œ Ι µœœ œ œ
ι ι
œœ œœ œ œ œ
œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ µœ œ
3
Pno.
> αα α œ œ œ αœ œ œ
α œ œ œ αœ α˙− 3 ˙− 3
3 3 3 3
3

œ œ œ œ œ œ µœ œ œ
3

œ− œ œ ∀œ µœ œ œ
3

∀œ
Vln. % ααα Ι
3 3

∀ œ œ œ œœ
3

œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ
αα œœ α˙ œ œœ
% α ˙− ∀œ œ œ œ œ
αœ
> α ‰ œ œ œ œ αœ œ œ ‰ œ œ αœ œ œ œ αœ µœ œ
3

œ ‰ œœ œ œ œœ
Pno.

α α α˙−
3 3 ˙− 3 3 3
µ ˙− 3 3
3 3

74
œ œ œ µœ
α œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ µœ œ
% α α œ− µœ œ œ œ œ
Vln.
Ι 3 3

αœ µœ œ œ − œ
3

α
% α α α˙ œ ˙− œ αœ µœ œ œ − œ
ι ι ι ι
œ œ αœ œ œ
> α ‰ œœ œœ œœ ‰ œ µœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ
Pno.

α α ˙− αœ œ µœ
˙−
3 3 3
˙− 3 3 3
3 3 3

αα α œ œ µ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ µœ œ αœ αœ
µœ − œ
% Œ Œ Ι
ι
Vln.
3 3 3
ι ˙œ − œ œ ˙˙
α ˙ ‰ œ œ− œ œœ
œœ ˙
% α α ˙˙ œ
œ
Pno.
αœ œ œ µœ αœ œ µœ œ œœ œœ œ αœ œ œ œ œ œ
> αα œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ
α
œ 3 3
œ 3 3
œ 3 3

œ ˙ αœ œ œ µœ œ œ − œ œ αœ œœœ
3 3 3

Vln. % ααα
œ −− œ œœ ˙˙ œœ −− œ ˙˙
œ α œ
3

αα ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ − œ œ ˙ œ− œ˙
% α œ œœ œ
Ι
œ œ αœ œ œœ αœ œ µœ œ
œ œ œœ œ œ
3
Pno.
> α œ œ
αα œ œœ œ œ
œ
œ œ œ
œ 3 3
œ 3 3 œ 3 3

3 3

75
˙− œ œ œ
œ− œ αœ œ œ œ œ αœ œ œ
α œ αœ
%αα œ
œ3
Vln.

œ −− µ œ ˙ œ −− œ œ œ œ
œœ − œ œœ œ œ α œ œ œ˙ −
3 3

αα α œœ − µ œœ ˙˙ œœ
3

% œ œ αœ œœœ œœ
3 Ι œ
µœ œ œ œ
œ αœ œ œ œ œ ‰ αœ œ αœ œ œ αœ
3 3
Pno.
> α œ
αα œ œ ˙−
œ 3 3 ˙− 3 3 3

α ˙− œ œœ
%αα œ œ αœ αœ
3 3
Vln.
α œ œ œ œ œ, œ,
α
3

% α α α œœœ Œ Œ Œ
µ œœœ ∀ œœœ ∀ ˙˙ −−
˙−
Pno.
> αα œ Œ Œ Œ ∀ œœ α œœ µ ∀ œœ µ˙−
3

α œ œ ˙−
αœ µœ

α
% α α ˙− µœ α˙
3
Vln.
˙− ˙ µœ œ œ
œœ œœ µ ∀ ˙˙
α µ µ œœœ ∀ ∀ œœœ µ α α œœœ ∀ œœ œ ∀ œ œ
œ
µ œœ ‰ œœ µ œ œœ µœ α ˙
%αα ‰ Ι œ
Ι ∀œ ˙ −
∀ ˙˙˙ −−
œ ∀œ œ
> α ‰ ∀ œΙ µ œ
Pno. 3

Ι ‰ ∑ ∑ œ
αα µ˙
3
µ˙ œ

76
˙− œ
α œ ˙−
%αα ˙ œ− Œ
Vln.
œ− œ
α
% α α œœ α ˙œ œ ˙− œ Œ Œ ∑
µœ ˙ œ ι
ι ι ι ι
µ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ µ œ œ œ
œœ œ α œ œ œ œ ˙œ − α œœ œœ œœ
Pno.
> α œ αœ
αα œ œœ Œ µ Ι˙ − œ œ œ
œ αœ œ œ− œ

α œ αœ œ œ ∀œ
Vln. %αα ˙ Œ ∑ Œ Œ œ − œ µœ

α œ œœœ ι ι ι
%αα ∑ ‰ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ ‰ ∀ œ œ œι ι
œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ µ œœ œœ
ι ι µ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ µœ œ
œ œ œ œ œ µœ αœ
œœ œœ œœ œœ
Pno.
> αα ˙− ˙−
α µ˙− ˙ œ− œ
µ˙− ˙
œ œ œ αœ œ µœ œ µœ œ œ αœ œ µ˙ œ ˙−
œ œ −
α Ι
Vln. %αα
∀˙ − ∀˙ − ˙−
α ∀ ˙˙ −− ∀ ˙˙ −− ˙˙ −−
% α α ˙˙ −− ˙− ˙˙ −− ˙−
˙˙ −−
˙− ˙− œœ
˙− ˙− ˙− ˙− ˙−
œ
Pno.
> α
α α ˙− ˙− µ œ̇ œ ∀ œ ˙ −− ˙− ‰ œ
˙− ˙− − µ˙ ˙− œ

77

˙− ˙− ˙−
αα
% α
µ˙− ˙−
Vln.

œ œ
α œ
%αα
Pno.
> α ∑ ∑ ∑
αα

78
III
Score

5 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Allegro con moto Nicanor Abelardo
Violin %7
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙− œ œœœœ
5 œ œœœœ œ œœœœ − αœ œœ −− ∀ œœ −− œ œœœœ
%7 Ι Ι Œ̇ ‰ ∀ œœ −
− α œœ −− œœ −−− αœ− µ œ− Ι
ε
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙− αœ− œ œœœœ
œ− αœ−
Piano
> 5 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙− ˙− œ œœœœ
7 Ι Ι Ι

Vln. % ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
œ œ œ œ œ ˙− œ œœ œœ œ œœœœ
œ œœœœ − ∀ œ˙ −− µ œ − œ œœ œœ œ œœœœ
% Ι Œ̇ ‰ ∀ ∀ œœ −− œœ −− ∀ ∀ œœœ −−− ˙− Ι Ι
ε
Pno.
œ œ œ œ œ ˙− œ− αœ− œ− α˙− œ œœ œœ œ œœœœ
> œ œ œ œ œ ˙− œ œœ œœ œ œœœœ
Ι Ι Ι

∀œ ∀œ œœœœ œ œœœœ
ι ∀ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œΙ ∀ œ œ Ι œœœœ
Vln. % œ ∀œ ∀œ œ Ι Ι
ο˙ − cresc.


% Œ̇ œ œ œ œ œ œι œ œ œ œ œι œ œ œ ι ‰ ∀ œœœ −−−−
œ œœœœ œ œ
Ι
ο˙ − ι ι ι ι
cresc.

αœ
> ˙ − œ œ œ œ ∀ œ˙˙ −− œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ ∀ ˙˙˙˙ −−− œ œ œ œ œœ ‰ α œ −−
Pno.

α ˙− ˙˙ − − œ

79
œ œ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œ œœ −− œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ
III
œ œœœœ œ œœœœ œ œœ
œ œœœœ œ œœœœ œ Ι
% Ι Ι
ƒ−
Vln.

œœ −− œœ −− œ
œœœ −−− œœ
∀ œœ −− ∀ œœœ −−− ∀ ∀ œœœ −−− ∀ œœœ −−− ∀ œœ −− ∀ œ
œ −−
œœ ∀ œ
œ œ ∀ œι œ œ œ
% ∀ ∀ œœ −− ∀ œ − ∀œ − œ− ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ
ƒ œ
Pno.
> ∀œ − ∀œ − œ− œ− œ−
∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ
œœ
∀œ − ∀œ − œ− αœ− œœ −− œœ Ι
œ− œ− αœ− œ− œ
œ − œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ
œ œ œ − œ ∀œ
% œ− œ Ι œ œ ∀ œι œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œœœ
œ œ −
Vln.

% œœ −−− œœ ∀ œ œ œ ∀ œι œ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
œ œ œœ
ο
œœ −− œœ ∀ œ œ œ ι œœ ‰ Œ − œœ ‰ Œ − œœ ‰ œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ œœ ‰
dim.
Pno.
> ∀œ œ œ œ œ
œœ −− œœ ∀ œ
œ œ ∀œ œ œ
œ
œ ‰ Œ−
œœ œ α œœ
œ œ ‰ Œ− œ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰αœ ‰

% œ œ œ œ− œœœœœœ œ œ œ œ−
Vln.
œ œ œ œ− αœ œ œ œ œ αœ
=
œ =
% œœ ‰ œœ ‰ œœ ‰ œ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ œœ ‰ α œœœ ‰
œ œ œ œ œ œ α œœ α œœ
œ
> œ α =œ ‰ α œœ ‰ Œ − ‰
‰ œ ‰ œœ α œœœ
Pno.

œ ‰αœ ‰ α œœœ œ α œ ‰ œ ‰
œ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰α œ ‰ œ

80
III

αœ œ œ œ œ αœ œ αœ œ œ αœ œ αœ œ œ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ œ αœ
Vln. % œ œ

=œ αœ
cresc.

α œœ
αœ
% œœ ‰ α œœ ‰ α œœœ ‰ α œœœ ‰ α œœœ ‰ α α œœœ α
‰ αœ ‰ α œœ
α ‰

œ αœ œ αœ œ αœ αœ
cresc.

αœ
Pno.
> œ ‰ αœ ‰ œ ‰ αœ ‰ œ ‰ αœ ‰ αœ ‰ αœ ‰

αœ αœ œ αœ ∀œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ œ
αœ αœ ∀œ ∀œ œ− œ œ œ
Vln. % Ι
œ œœ ∀ œœ
α α α œœœ α α α œœœ œ
∀ ∀ œœ
œ
∀ ∀ œœ œ−
% ‰ ‰ ‰ œœ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ ∀ œœ ‰ œœ −−
αœ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ αœ−
αœ ∀ œœœ
Pno.
> αœ ‰ αœ ‰ ∀œ ‰ œ ‰ ∀œ ‰ œ ‰ ‰

œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ
∀œ ∀œ œ œ œ ∀ œ ‹œ œ œ ‹ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ
Vln. % Ι

œœ −− œ− œœœ
∀ ∀ œœ −− œœ −− ∀ œœœ −− ∀œ − ∀ ∀ œœœ −−− ∀ œœ −− œ œ œ ∀ œœ −− œœ −− ∀ œœœœ −−−−
% ∀ œ− œ− − œœ −− ∀ œœ −−
ε
œ− αœ− œ− œ− αœ− αœ− œ− αœ−
œ−
Pno.
> œ œ œ αœ− œ− αœ−
œœœ

81
III
œ
∀œ ‹ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ ‹ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ ‰ Œ−
Vln. % ‰ Œ−

œœ −− œ− œ œœœœ ι
∀ œœ −− α ∀ œœœ −−− ∀ œœœ −−− œ œœœœ œ œœœ
% ∀ œœ −− ∀ œœ −− ∀œ − Ι ∀ ∀ ∀ ˙˙˙ −−− ∀ œœ œ‰ œŒ − œ œ
œ
ε
œ− œ− αœ− œ œ œ œ ρεψ
œ−
Pno.
> œ− œ Ι ∑ Œ œœœœ
œ− αœ− œ− œ Ι

œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ
ι ∀ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œΙ ∀ œ ∀ œ œ ∀ œ
Vln. % ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ ∀œ œ Ι
ρεψ œ ∀œ ∀œ
∀œ ∀œ
% ∑ Œ œι œ œ œ œ œι œ œ œ œ œι œ œ œ œ ‰ œ
ρεψ
ι œ−
œ ∀ œœ ‰ Œ −
Pno.
> ∀ ∀ œ˙ −−
∀ ˙−
œ
œ œ ‰ Œ− œ ‰ Œ− αœ ‰ œœ −−

œ ‰ Œ− œ œ αœ
œ− œ
Ι ‰‰ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
%
ƒœ − œ ∀ œ
Vln.

œœœ −−− œœœ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ − œ


∀ œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œœ − œœ ∀ œ œ
œ œ −− œ ∀ œ œ œ ∀ œι œ œ œ =
% Ι œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ − œœ œ œ α œœ −œ œ
ƒ ∀œ œ−
œ œ ∀œ œ œ =
œ − œ œ œ − œ ∀œ œ
Pno.
> œœ −− œœ Ι œœœ −− œœœ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œœœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ œœœ ‰ α œœœ ‰
œ− œ − ∀œ œ œ Ι œœœ œ

82
III

Vln. % ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
=
% œ œ œ œ− α œ œ œ œ œ αœ αœ œ œ œ− α α œ
œ α œ œ œœ α œ α œ
αœ− œ αœ α œœ α œœ −− αœ αœ œ αœ
= =
α œ
Pno.
œ œ œ œ œ
> α œœ ‰ œ œ œ α œœ ‰ α œœ ‰ α œ ‰ αœ−
œ œ œ α œ α œ œ œ αœ−
αœ αœ œ œ α œ − αœ−

αœαœ αœαœ œ œ αœ œ œ αœ
Vln. % αœ œ αœ œ αœ αœ αœ œ αœ œ αœ αœ œ αœ
cresc.

% α α œœ ‰ ∫ α œœ ‰ α α œœ ‰ ∫ α œœ ‰ α α œœ ‰ α œœ ‰ α œœ ‰ α œœ ‰
αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ
Pno.
œ
cresc.

> ‰ αœ ‰ ‰ αœ ‰ ‰ αœ ‰ ‰ αœ ‰
αœ αœ œ αœ

˙ œ ˙−
αœ œ œ œ œ œ αœ œ œ αœ œ œ − œ αœ œ αœ αœ
Vln. %
ρεψ ρεψ
αœ œ œ œ œ œ œ αœ ι
% α α œœœ ‰ µ œœœ −−− α α œœœ −−− α œœ −−− ˙˙ − α œœ α œ œ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ
˙ −− αœ ρεψ
}}}}}}}}

Pno.
> αœ ‰ œ− αœ− œ− α˙− œ ‰ Œ− ∀ ˙˙ −−
αœ œ− αœ− œ− ∀ ˙˙ −−
}}}}}}

ρεψ

83
III
œ œ −
œ αœ œ αœ œ α œ µœ œ α œ α œ œ ∀œ
Ι Ι œ œ αœαœ
% œ ∀œ œ
œ αœ œ αœ µœ œ œ
Vln.

% αœ ‰ Œ− α ˙˙ −− α œœ −− αœ− œœ −− αœ− ˙˙ −−
˙− α œ− µ œœ −− α
α œ− µ œœ −− α
α ˙−
Pno.
> α œœ œ œ œ œ α ˙ − œ− αœ− œ− αœ− œ ‰ Œ−
α α œœ Ι α˙− œ− αœ− œ− αœ− œ

% œ α œ µœ œ ∀œ œ α œ − ‰ Œ− ∑ ∑
Poco Meno et expressivo

αœ− œ
Vln.

Poco Meno et expressivo

% α α ˙˙ −− ˙− αœ œ ∑ αœ œ
˙− α α ˙˙ −− αœ αœ
αœ œ αœ œ
α œ αœαœ α œ αœαœ
Pno.
> ∑ αœαœ αœ αœαœ αœ
αœ αœ

œ− œ−
% œ− œ− αœ− αœ œ αœ− αœ αœ αœ−
œ−
cantabile
Vln.
Ι Ι

% ∑ αœ œ ∑ αœ œ ∑
αœ αœ
ο œ œ œ
Pno.
α œ αœ αœαœ α œ αœ αœαœ α œ αœ
>
αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ Œ− αœ αœ αœ αœ

84
III

% œ− αœ αœ αœ− œ− œ− Œ− œ− œ− αœ− αœ œ
Vln.
Ι Ι

% αœαœαœ αœ α œ α˙− ∑ αœ œ
αœ
œ
œ
αœαœ α =œ − α œ ‰ > αœ αœ αœαœ
Pno.
>
αœ αœ αœ αœ %
αœ αœ α œ αœ

œ− αœ− αœ αœ αœ−
αœ− œ− ι
% Ι œ− œ αœ œ−
broad

œ−
Vln.

% ∑ αœαœ α œ αœαœ ∑
αœ αœ œ œ
αœ œ ∀œ
α œ αœαœ αœαœ œœœ
Pno.
>
αœ αœ αœ œ αœ œ œ
αœ αœ ∀œ

% ‰ Œ− ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
œ
Vln.

ι œœ −− ∀ œ −−
% ˙− ∀ ∀ ˙œœ−−− ∀œ − ∀ ∀ œœœ −−− œ ∀ œ˙˙− −− ∀ œ − α˙− ∀ œ
∀œ − ‹œ
∀ œ œ − ∀œ −
> œ− œ œ αœ œ œ
Pno.

œ ‰ ∀œ ‰ œ ∀œ ‰ œ ∀œ ‰ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ

85
œ−
III

αœ−
Vln. % ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
ε
œ˙ − ι α œ˙− ∀ œ −
œ− œœ −− α αα œœ˙ −− α œœ −−
∀œ œ −− −
% αœ− œ− ˙
œ − œ − ∀œ − αœ− ∑
α œ αœ œ αœ
œ œ œ œ α œ œ αœ œ α œ
> œ ‰ œ αœ ‰ œ œ œ ‰ œ αœ
Pno.

αœ œ αœ α œ
αœ α œ
αœ
αœ− αœ αœ œ−
œ αœ œ− αœ− œ−
Ι œ− œ− αœ−
Vln. % Ι

αœαœ
L.H
∑ αœ αœ ∑
% αœαœ
αœ œœ
αœ œ αœ
Pno.
αœαœ αœ αœαœ
> œ œ œ αœαœ
αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ
αœ αœ
αœ− αœ αœ αœ− αœ−
Ι œ− œ− αœ− œ ∀œ
Vln. % Ι

% α α œ˙ −− αœ− α ‰œ −α œ œ µ ‰œ − œ œ α ‰œ −α œ α œ µ ‰œ − œ œ
αœ− αœ−
α α ˙œ −− αœ− α œ− αœ− µ œ− α œ− µ œ−
αœ−
Pno.
α œ α œ œ α œ α œ œ − ∀œ −
> αœ œ αœ αœ α œ αœ αœ αœ œ
αœ αœ αœ α œ
αœ

86
αœ−
III

œ− αœ− αœ œ αœ−
αœ ‰ Œ− œ− Ι
Vln. %
αœ− αœ−
œ− αœ− αœ œ αœ− αœ−
αœ αœ
œ− αœ œ αœ− αœ αœ αœ−
% œ− œ− αœ− Ι Ι
ε
αœ >αœ αœ αœ >αœ αœ
Pno.
> α œ α œ α œ α œ
αœ αœ %αœ œ œ αœ αœ αœ αœ %αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ

αœ− αœ αœ αœ− œ− œ
αœ− αœ− Ι Ι ‰ ‰ Œ−
Vln. %
α=œ − œ
αœ− œ− œ− αœ− œ− αœ− αœ− œ ‰
% αœ− œ− œ− αœ− œ− αœ−
Pno.
α œ =
> œ œ
αœ αœ %αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ α œ α œ % α œ α α ˙˙ −−
> >
αœ αœ αœ
∀œ −
∑ œ− ∀œ ∀œ œ−
Vln. % ∀œ − ∀œ − Ι
∀œ − œ− ∀œ ∀œ √ ∀œ − ∀œ − œ
∀œ − ∀œ ∀œ œ − ∀œ − ∀œ − œ
% ∀œ − ∀œ − œ− Ι œ− œ œ
Ι
œ > œ ∀œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ
Pno.
> ∀œ ∀ œ ∀ œ ∀œ ∀ œ ∀ œ > ∀œ
% œ ∀œ ∀œ œ %œ œ œœ
∀œ ∀œ

87
III

∀œ − œ ∀œ
∀œ ∀œ − œ œ αœ− ‰ Œ−
%
broad
Vln.
Ι œ− œ
∋ √( ∀œ œ ‹œ−
∀œ − ∀œ ∀œ − =˙ −
% ∀œ − œ ∀ œ− ∀œ −
Ι œ œ ∀œ
œ α =œ −
> œ ∀œ œ αœ
Pno.
> ∀œ ∀œ % ‰ ∀œ œ ‰>
∀œ ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ œ ∀œ %

αœ− œ− αœ−
% ∑ ∑ œ αœ
Vln.
Ι
stringendo et affrattando

αœ− α œœ − α œœ −− ι αœ−
% α α œœ −− αœ− − α œ œ α α ˙˙ −− αœ− ˙˙ −
˙− −
ο
α œ œ αœ αœ αœ œ œ
stringendo et affrattando

α œ α œ
poco

αœ αœ œ αœ œ
Pno.
> α œ œ αœ αœ œ
αœ α œ œ αœ œ

œ− œ− œ−
αœ− œ− œ ‰ Œ− ∀œ œ œ œ œ ‰
Vln. % Ι Ι
ι
œœ −− œœ − œœ −− ι αœ− œ
œœ œ œœ œ
% αœ− α œ −− œ
α˙− œ α ˙˙ −− œ − α ˙˙ −− œ œ œ −∀ œ

œ αœ œ ∀ œ œ œ αœ œ œ ∀œ œ œ α œ œ
œ œ ∀ œ
512 a poco
α œ œ α œ α œ
Pno.
> œ αœ œ
αœ œ α œ œ œ ∀œ

88
III

œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ − œ− ∀œ œ
Ι ∀œ ∀œ Ι ‰ Œ ‰ Ι Œ ‰ Ι
Vln. %
ι ι=
cresc.

œœ ∀ œ œ − = =
% œ− œ− Œ ‰ œ œ œœ −− œœ −− Œ ‰ œ ∀ œœ µ œ œœ −
œ −
α œœ −− œ œ − œœcresc.
−− ∀ œœ −− œ œ œ œœ −−
∀œ œ œ ρεψ œ− ∀œ −
œ Œ ‰
Pno.
> œ ∀œ Œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ−
˙− œ œ œ œ œ ˙−
Ben moderatto il basso
œ œ œœœ
˙− œ œ œ œ œ ˙− œ œ œœœ
œ αœ œ− Ι œ −Ι œ −
∀œ œ œ − œ − œ œ œ
Ι Ι œ œ œœ œ
Vln. % Œ ‰ Œ ‰ ‰

= = =
Œ
% ‰ œœ − œ œ α œœœœ −−−− ∀ œœœœ −−−
Œ ‰ αœ œ œ α œœœ −−− œœ −−
œœ −−
Œ ‰ αœ œ
αœ− ∀ œ −− œœ −− œœ −− œ
=
= œ− Œ− = œ− Œ−
Œ ‰ œœœ
α Œ ‰ αœ œ œ
Pno.
> Œ ‰ œœœ
˙− œ œ œ œ œ ˙− œ œ œ œ œ ˙−
˙− œ œ œ œ œ ˙− œ œ œ œ œ ˙−
Ι œ œ œ Ι
œ œ α œ œœ
œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ œ
œœœ Ι Ι Ι Ι
Vln. % Œ ‰ ‰
ι= œœ =œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ =œœ œœ œœ œœ
œ αœ − Œ ‰ ∀ œœ ∀ œœ œœ
% α œœ α œ œœœœ −−− œ œ œ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
Ι Ι
Pno.
œ Œ− Œ ‰ œ ∀œ µœ œ− œ−
> œ− œ −
œ œ œœ œ ˙− œ− œ− œ − œ−
œ−
œ œ œœ œ ˙− œ−
Ι

89
III
œœœ œœœ
∀œ œœ ‹ œ ∀œ œ œ œ ∀œ
∀ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œΙ ∀ œ œ œ œΙ ∀ œ œ
Vln. % Ι Ι Ι
calando

œœ =œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ =œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ]


% ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œœ ‰ Œ− ∑ ∑
Ι Ι
Pno.
œ− œ−
> œ− œ− ‰ Œ− ∑ ∑
œ− œ− œ− œ
œ−
œ
= =
œ = œ ∀ =œ ∀ =œ œ
œ
œ ∀œ œ ∀œ ∀œ Ι Allego
% Ι Ι ‰‰ Œ ‰ ∑ ∑
con Moto
Vln.

=œœ −− œ − = = œ ∀œ œ œ = ]
a tempo

œœ −− œ œ œœœ=∀−œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ − = = œ =∀ œ
rall.

∀ œœ −− œœœ œœœ œœœ −− œ œ ∀ œ œ


% ∑ Œ ‰ − œ œ œ − œ œ œœ∀ œ œ
‰ Ι ‰ œœœ œœœ œœœ −−−− œ
ε ƒ√
ι ι ]
rall.

ι œ ∀ œι œ œ ∀ œ ι œ ∀ œι
Pno.
> ∑ Œ ‰ œ− ∀œ
œ œ ∀œ œ œ
a tempo

œ− œ ∀œ
œ œ œ ∀œ œ = = = œ œ œ ∀œ

= œ œ œ =œ œ œ
% ∑
œ œ œ œ œ œ−
Vln.
œ œ œ œ− œ
œ œ œ
=ι ο =
œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ − ∑ ‰ ∀ œœœ ‰ µ α œœœœ ‰
% œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ ‰ œœœ œ
œ
=
=ι = =ι ο œ ‰ œ ‰ α œœ ‰ ι ι
œ œœœ œ œœœ
Pno.
> œ œ ∀œ ∀ œ œ œœœ ∀ œ œ
œ
œ
œ ∀ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ αα œœ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ αœ
œ Ι œ œœœ œ œ œ αœ
Ι

90
III

œ œ œ œ− α œ œ œ =œ œ α œ
Vln. % œ œ œ œ− αœ œ œ œ œ αœ
= =œœ
% ∑ ‰ œ ‰ œœ ‰ α œœœ ‰ α œœœœ α
‰ α œœ ‰
α œœ αœ
œœ α α œœœœ
œ ‰œ α œœœ ‰ ι ι= ι =
cresc.
Pno.
> α œœœ œαœ œ œ
œ œ αœ αœ œ œ αœ œ œ œ αœ αœ
œ œαœ œ œ œ αœ αœ œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ αœ αœ
œ Ι œ œ œ

= œ α œ œ α œ =œ œ α œ αœ αœ = œ αœ αœ αœ = œ αœ
œ αœ
œ œ œ αœ αœ αœ αœ
Vln. %

=œœ =œ α œ α α =œœ αœ α α =œœ


αœ α α œœ ‰ α α œœœ ‰ α œ ‰ α α œœ ‰ α α œœ
α œ
% œœ ‰ α œœ ‰ œ ‰ α α œœ ‰
ι = = = =
α œœ α œœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ
Pno.
> œ œ œ αœ αœ α œœ œ α œ
œ œ αœ αœ α œœ α œœ α œ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ
œ α œœ Ι œ αœ αœ Ι αœ Ι
∀œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ
∀œ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ œ− œ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ ‹ œ œ œ œ œ
Vln. % Ι
ƒ π
œ =œœ =œœ ∀ œœ ∀ œ − œœ −−
∀ ∀ œœ œ ∀ ∀ œœœ œ ∀ œ
œ œ − ∀ œœ −− ∀ œœ −−− ∀ œœœ −−
− ∀œ −
% ‰œ ‰ ‰œ ‰ ‰ œ− ∀ œ− œ
π
∀œ = ∀ œ =œ œ œ œƒ α œ − œ− αœ− œ−
> ∀œ ∀œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ−
Pno.

∀œ œ œ œ œ ‰
∀œ Ι œ œ œ ∀œ Ι

91
III

∀ œ ‹ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ− œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ ‹ œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ ‹ œ œ œ œ œ
Vln. % Ι
Ρœ œ œ ο
∀ ∀ œœœ −−− ∀ œœœ −−− œ œ œ ∀ œœ −− ∀œ − ∀ œœœ −−−− ∀ œœ −− œœ −− ∀ ∀ œœœ −−− œ−
∀ œœœ −−−
% œœ −− ∀ ∀ œœœ −−− œ ∀ œœ −− ∀ œœ −− ∀œ −
Ρ ο αœ−
œ− αœ− œ−
> αœ− œ− œ− αœ− œ−
Pno.

œ− αœ− œ− αœ− œ− œ− αœ− œ−


œ−
œ
∀œ ∀œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ = ι ∀œ
Vln. % ‰ Œ− ‰ Œ − ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ ∀œ œ
εœ œ œ œ œ ρεψ˙ − œ ρεψ
œ œœœœ ˙− œ ι ρεψ ι
% Ι œ œ œ œ ˙− œ œ œ œœ
ε ρεψ œ œ œ œ ∀œ − œ œ ∀œ
∀ ˙˙ −− ∀ œ
œ − Ι
∀ −
∀ ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ = ‰
Pno.
> œ ‰ Œ− œ−
}}}}}}

Ι ∀ ∀ ˙˙œ −− œ œ œ œ œœ
œ ‰ Œ− œ œ−
Ιa tempo
= =
=œ =œ ∀ =œ ∀ œ œ − œ œ œ œ œ œœœ
∀œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ
œ œ œ œ ∀ œ Ι
Vln. % ∀ œ Ιœ Ι
ι
rall.
=ι = = = ƒ calando

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ− œ
% œ œι œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ− − œœ−− − œœ −−
ƒœ −a tempo œ − œ−
œ −−
œ
Pno. rall.

> œ− œ− œ− œ−
calando

αœ− αœ− αœ− œ − ˙−


˙
œ− œ− αœ− αœ− ˙ −−
αœ− œ−

92
III

œ− œœœ œ
œ œ œ αœ œ ‰ Œ− ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
%
Tranquillo
Vln. Ι
= = = =
% œœ œœ œœ œœœ −− œœ −− ∀ œœ −− œœ −− ‰ Œ−
Tranquillo

− œ− œ − œ− œœ −− ˙˙ −− ˙˙ −− ˙˙ −− œœ
ο ο= ‰
αœ− œ œ œ œ− ˙˙œ−− − œ=− ˙˙œ−− − œ=−
Pno.
> œ œ œ œ− œ− œ− ι
œ− αœ− œ œ œ œ− œ œ αœ
˙− ˙− ˙− ˙−
= =

% ∑ ∑ ∑ ι
œ− œ− œ α œ ∀œ − œ −
Vln.
∀œ −

% ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ ‰
œ− ∀œ − œ œ αœ œ− œ−
Pno.
> ∀ œ − ∀ œœ− α œ ∀ œœ −− œœ − ∀œ − œœ− α œ ∀ œœ −− œ− ∀ œ − œœ− α œ
œ− œ− œ− Ι − œ− Ι œ− œ− Ι

% ˙− œ− œ œ œ ∀œ Œ ι αœ œ
2

œ− œ− œ−
2

Vln.
∀œ Ι
espress.

% ι ι ι
œ œ− αœ− œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ
Pno.
∀œ œ œ α œ œ− œ αœ ∀œ − œ −
> ∀œ − œ− ∀œ − œœ− α œ ∀ œœ −− œ− ∀ œ − œœ− α œ ∀ œœ −− œ−
œ− œ− œ− œ− œ− œ−
Ι Ι

93
III

α œ − =œ −
œ
œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ α œ − œ − œ ‰œœ œ
% αœ−
4

Vln. œ− Ι
leggiero stringendo et affrattando

ι
% œ œ œ œ œ αœ− œ− œ− α œœ −−− œ œ α œœ
œ− œ − œ ∀ œ œ α œ˙ −− œ− œ ∀œ œ
Pno.
> ∀œ − œœ− α œ ∀ œœ −− œ− œ− ι
∀ œ − œœ− α œ ∀ œœ −−
stringendo et affrattando

œ− œ− œ− œ αœ
∀ œ− Ι œ− Ι œ− œ αœ
= =
œ œ œ α =œ − œ ∀œ œ œ α œ œ œ α œ − œ œ œ αœ−
% œ œ œΙ α œ Ι Ι
Vln.
Ι
= ι
ι =− ι
œœ ∀ œœ α œœ œœ α α œœœ −−−
œ œ œœ
% α œ œœ œœ − œœ ι œι α œ œœ œœ α œœ −− œ
µ
α œ−œ
œ ∀ œœ œœ α œ œ
Pno. cresc. ε

> œ α œι œ − œ œ œ œι œ ι
œ− œ− œ− œ αœ œ−
œ− œ œ œ œœ œ œ
œ− œ− œ− œ− œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
= œ ∀œ ˙− ˙− œ αœ
œ œ œ αœ− œœœœ ‰ œ œ
? ? Ι
Vln. %
ε
αœ− α œ ∀ œ œœœ œ α α œœœ œœ œ œ œ œœ α œ œ œ α œ −
% α α œœœ −−− µœ œ œ α œœ ∀ œ œ œ αœ œ œ α œ œ œ œ α œ −− Œ−
α œ− αœ Ι Ι Ι œ Ι αœ αœ
ε
œœ −−
Pno.
> ι œ− Œ−
œ œ œ− œ−
œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ α œ œ− œ− œ− œœ −−
œ œ œ œ œ œ αœ œ− œ− œ−

94
III

αœ œ œ , , ,
% ∀ œ œ α œ œ œι œ œ œ œι œ œ α œ α œι œ œ α œ ι
œ αœ œ œ
Vln.
− ∀œ ∀œ αœ

œœ −− α α œœ −−−
∀ œ − œœ − α œ
% α ˙˙ −− ˙˙ −−
∀˙ − ∀ œ −−
α ˙ −
α α ˙˙ −− α α α œœœ −−−
α˙−
rΨ rΨ

α˙− ˙−
Pno.
> ∀˙ − ˙− ˙−
˙− ˙− ˙− ˙− ˙−
˙− ˙− ˙−

% œ− œ− ιœ αœ αœ œ−
broad Poco Meno et expressivo
Vln.
œ− œ− œαœ œ œ− ∀œ œ œ−
ο
α œœ œ œ Œ ‰ =œ œ =œ
% Œ ‰ œ œαœ Œ ‰αœ œ œ Œ ‰ œœ α œ α œ α œœœ −−− œœ
Poco Meno et expressivo

= =
˙ −
α ˙˙ −−− ο ˙˙ −− α ˙˙˙ −−−− ˙˙ −− ι
> ˙ α ˙˙ −− ˙ α ˙˙ −− α œ
Pno.

rΨ rinε œœ
œ− œ− œ− œ− œ− œ− œ− œ− œ
œ− œ− œ− œ− œ− œ− œ− œ− œ
Ι
Vln. % œ ‰ Œ− ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
ι
œ œ
α ˙ œ− − œ− α αα ˙˙œœ −− œ
% œ œαœ α œ œ œ œαœ α ˙œ− − œ− œ
αœ œ œ
ι œ
αœ œ αœ œ αœαœ αœ αœ
Pno.
> œ œœ œ œœ œœ
œ œ

95
III

% ˙− ι ‰ œ− œ ι
broad
Vln.
œ− œ œ œ− αœ− œ œ œ œ œ
α α œ˙− œ− α œ −
α œ− αœ ι α œ œι α œ −

α α œ˙ − œ − œ
− œ − α œœ
œœ œ α αα œ˙œ −−− œ− œ−
α œœ − œ α α ˙œ −−
œ−
% αœ œ− œ− œ−
αœ œ αœ αœ
α œ αœ œ œœ αœ œ œ
Pno.
> œ œ Œ− œ œ αœ œ œ œ
œ œ αœαœ αœαœ œ

‰ œ œœ ∑ Œ ‰ αœ− œ− ι
%
broad
Vln.
œ αœ
ι √œ −
œ α α œœœ −−
2 2

− œ− αœ œ
α ˙˙˙œ −−− œ− α α ˙˙œ −−−−
espress.

α α ˙˙œ−− œ− œ œ α œ −− œ−
%
Pno.
α œ] − ˙− αœ αœ œ αœ
> Œ− œ œ œ œ > œ œ œ
œ %αœ œ αœ œ %αœ αœ

œ ι ι ∀œ α œ œ
Vln. % œ α œ œ Ι œ α œΙ œ œΙ ∀œ − œ œ ˙− ‰
∋√œ(− ] espress.
α œ œ œ − œœ −− œ−
2 2

α œœ − œ α œ œœ −− ˙˙ −− =
% − α œ α œ α œœœ −−− œ − œ− œ α œ ∀ œœ −− œ− ∀˙ − œ
Ι Ι ∀œ − α œœ −−−
α œ α œ œœ œœ
αœ œ œœ
Pno.
> œœ œœ
% œ αœαœ ‰ œ ∑
∀œ >
%αœ
œ œ

96
III

αœ− αœ−
αœ− œ− αœ−
% œ αœ αœ− µœ − ∑
Vln.
Ι
ο
= ∀ œ˙ −− œ− ˙œœ−−− œ−
% α α ˙œ −− œ− α α ˙œ −− α ˙˙ − œ−
œ− α ˙ −−
ο αœ µœ œ ∀œ œ œ œ
α œ œ α œ œ
Pno.
> αœ ‰ œ αœ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ ∀œ œ œ ‰ œ
œ
αœ œ αœ
œ
αœ− œ− αœ−
œ α œΙ
Vln. % ∑ ∑ ∑
œ− œœ −−
œœ −− ∀ œ œι œ˙− − ∀ œ − α œ˙ −− α α ˙˙ −−
α˙− αœαœ
% αœ− ∀ œ− œ˙− − ∀ œ − αœ α œ αœ
ε
œ œ œ œ
> ∀œ α œ ‰ œ œ œ ‰ œ α œ α œΙ αœαœ
Pno.

œ > α œ αœ
αœ % œ αœ œ œ αœ
∀œ ∀œ œ − œ− αœ αœ
œ− ∀ =œ − œ− œ− œ− œ−
Ι Ι
Vln. %
, ,
∑ αœαœ αœ αœ−
% αœ ∀œ
œ œ
αœ α αα œ˙˙œ −−−− αœ−
αœ αœ
œ αœ œ
αœ œ œ œ œαœ αœ œ œ αœ αœ
Pno.
> œ œ œ Ι
œ œ αœ
αœ

97
III

œ− αœ− œ− œ− œ− αœ− œ œΙ
% œ− œ−
espress.
Vln. ∀œ −
, , , , , ,
α œ −œ µ œ −œ œ − α œœ∀ œ −œ œ α α ˙˙˙ −−− œ− œ−
œ − αœ−
% ˙œ − α œ − α œ − œµ œ − œ œ − ∀ œ − ˙− œ− œ−
œ œ œ œ − ∀œ −
> αœαœαœαœ œ αœ >αœ
Pno.

œ œ œ œ œœ œœ
αœ œ œ %αœ œ αœ

αœ− αœ− , , α œ αœ− œ


αœ− αœ œ αœ− œ
Vln. % Ι œ− œ αœ
αœ− αœ−
αœ− œ œ αœ− αœ− αœ−
œ œ αœ− œ− α α œœ− αœ−
% αœ− Ι œ− α œ
αœ− αœ αœ−
αœ αœ œ αœ αœ œ
Pno.
> œ œ œ > œ œ œ > Œ ‰ œ
œ %αœ αœ αœ αœ œ %αœ αœ

œ−
αœ− œ− œ αœ œ αœ−
‰ Œ− αœ− œ− αœ− Ι
%
= =
Vln.

œ œœ −− ο
α α œœ −−− œœ −− αœ œ
% α œœ −− œ α−− œ α œ α œ − ∑ œ− œ− αœ− Ι
αœ− œ
ε ο αœ αœ
α œ αœ ∫œ
Pno.
> œœ Ι ∑ αœ αœ αœ αœ α œ αœ
œ αœ αœ αœαœ αœ αœ
αœ αœ

98
III
αœ− αœ ∫œ αœ−
Ι œ− αœ− œ αœ œ−
Vln. % Ι œ−
œ
αœ− ∫ œœ −−− −
α αα œœœ −− αœ œ œ− α œœ −− œ−
αœ œ œ− αœ− œœ −− Œ−
%
αœ ∫œ œ αœ ∀œ ∀œ
αœ αœ αœ œ αœ αœ œ
Pno.
> αœ αœ œ œ
αœ αœ αœ αœ αœ %
αœ αœ

œ− œ− œ−
% ∑ ∑ ∑ œ œ
Vln.
Ι
√=œ −
∀ œœ −− =œ − œ −−
% ∀ ∀ œœ −− α α α œœœ −−− œœ − α α œœœ −−−
œ µ œ α α œ˙˙ −−− œ − α ˙˙ −

Ι
ο α œ œ œ œ ∀œ
∀ =œœ −− = œ œ œ
cres. e affretando

α œ œ α œ α œ œ
Pno.

% ∀œ − ∀ ∀ œœœ −−−
>
α œ αœ αœ œ œ œ αœ
αœ œ α œ œ

αœ− œ− œ− œ− œ œ ∀œ œ ‰
œ− œ ‰ Œ− ∀œ Ι
Vln. % Ι
ι
œ −− ι ∀ œ
∀ œœœ ∀ œœ œœ −∀ œ œ
poco a poco cres.

œœ −− œœ −− œ œ˙˙ −−− œ−
% αœ− œœ − α˙− ∀œ α ˙˙ −−
œ αœ œ œ
œ ∀œ œœ œ ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ œœ
poco a poco cres.

αœ œ α œ ∀œ œ œ αœ ∀ œ œ
Pno.
> œ œ ∀œ
αœ œ œ ∀œ

99
œ œ
III
œ
∀œ ∀œ œ œ αœ œ œ œ αœ œ œ
Ι ‹ œ ∀œ Ι ‰ Ι Ι ‰
% ι
ι
Vln.

ι œ œ ι œœ œœ œœ œ
œ ∀œ œ − α α α œœœ œœ α œ œ œ α α œœœ − œ α œœ −− œ œ œ ∀œ œ
œ− − −
% œ−
∀ œ −∀ œ
∀œ ∀œ œ œ αœ
αœ αœ œ αœ œ αœ œ
αœ µœ αœ œ œ œœ
Pno.
> œ ∀œ αœ µœ ‰
αœ

œ œ− œ œ− œ œ− œ− œ œ−
% Œ ‰ œ œΙ œ − œ œ œ− œ œ Œ ‰ Ι
Vln.
ιœ œ Ι œ Ι ƒ
œ œ œœ œœ
œœ
œ œœ œœ ∀ œ œ ∀∀ œœœ œœ œœ ∀ œ œ ∀∀ œœœ− œ ∀ œ œ
œœ œœ ∀ œ œ ∀∀ œœœ œ−
œœ −− œœ ∀ œ œ
% œ− ∀œ œ Ι ∀œ œ Ι ∀ œ œ œ− œ ∀ œ œ œ ∀œ œ
œ−
ƒ
Pno.
œ œ œ
œ œ− œ − œ œ − œ œ− œ−
> œ ‰ œ α œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ − œ−
αœ αœ œ− œ− ∀œ − œ−

∀œ − œ − œ− ‹ œ ∀ œ
œ
œ ι
% Œ ‰ Ι Ι ∀œ Ι ∀œ œ ‹œ ∀œ œ œ ‹ œ ∀ œι
Vln.
Ι Ι
=œœ − œ ∀ œ œ =œ − œ ∀ œ œ œœ œ =œ œ =œœœ œ =œœ œ =œœ ∀ œ œ =œœ œ œ
∀ œœ −−− œœ ∀ œ œ œœ −− œœ ∀ œ œ ∀ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ ∀ œœ ∀ œ œ œ œ œ
% Ι Ι Ι Ι
= = = = = = =
poco

> œ − =œ − =œ −
Pno. rit.

∀œ − œ− œ− ∀œ − œ− œ− œ−
œ− œ− ∀œ − œ− œ− œ− ∀œ − œ− œ− œ−

100
ι ≥œ − ≥ −
III

≥ ≥ ι
œ− œ− œ ∀ œ œ
% œ œ œ œΙ ∀ œœ −− œœ −− Œ ‰ ∀œ
œ œ− œ−
œ ∀ œ − œ œœ − − Œ ‰ ∀ œœ
œ
Vln.
Ι −
œa tempo œ
=œœ œ œ =œœ ∀ =œ ∀ =œ ƒœ − œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ− Ι œ
ο
∀ œœ œ œ œ ∀ œ œ œ− œ ∀œ œ œ ι
∀œ œ œ œ œ − œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ
% Ι ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ
ƒ a tempo œ
√ ο
= = ι ι
ι ∀ œι œ œι ∀ œ ∀ œ loco ι ∀ œι œ œι ∀ œ ∀ œ
pesante
Pno.
> œ− αœ− œ œ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œ œ œ œ ∀œ
œ− αœ− œ œ œ ∀œ
œ
œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ
ι ι √
ι œ œ α œ œ ι
œ α œ œ œΙ œ œ ∀ œ œ œœ
œœœ œ −−
% œ Ιœ œ− œ− œ− œ− œ α œœ −− œ
Vln.
œ− œ−
= = œ− œ œ αœ
= − œœ œ− œ œœ œ− œ œœ − − œœ œ
% œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ − œ œ − αœ
œ œ œ œœ −− œ
œœ − œ œ − œ œ−− œ − − œ −
œœ œœ −− œ −
Pno.
> œœ ‰ œ − œœ −− œœ −− ‰ œ −
œ œœ − œ− œ − œ œœ − œ − œœ −− αœ ι
œ
ι
− − αœ œ œ
ι œ− œ ∀œ œ œ αœ œ œ
œ œ αœ− ∀œ −
œ− Œ ‰ œ œ αœ Ι Ι Ι Ι
Vln. % Œ ‰ α œœ −− œ− œ−
Ι
ο
œ œ œœœ ι
œ− œ œ αœ
% œ œ œœœ œœ −− œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ− œœ − œ œ œœ − œ α œ
Ι ο α œ œ œ ∀ œœ −− αœ− αœ−
ι ι
ιœ ∀œ œ œ ‰ œ −
Pno.
> ι ι œ œ œ œ−
œ œ ∀œ œ αœ œ œ œ œ ∀ œ œΙ α œ
œ−
œ− αœ−
αœ œ œ œ− αœ−

101
III
√α œ œ α œ ∀œ œ
œ ∀œ œ
Ι Ι œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ œ
Vln. % Ι Ι Ι
œ
œ œ œ œ− ∀ œœ ∀ œœ œœ œœœ −α α œœ α œ œœ œœ œ œœ
% ∀ α œœ − œ œ ∀ œœ −− ∀ œ− œ
∀œ œ œ œ œ œ∀ ∀ œ œ
∀œ œ
Pno. ο = ∀œ −
> ∀œ − ∀œ − œ− œ− ∀œ ‹ œ œ œ − ∀œ − œ−
∀œ − ∀œ − œ− œ− ∀œ ‹ œ œ œ − ∀œ −
œ œ αœ œ
∀œ œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ ∀œ œ œ
Ι Ι Ι
Vln. % Ι Ι

∀ ∀ œœ ∀ ∀ œœ œ œœ
œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ −
% ∀œ
∀ œ œ œœ ∀ œ œ ∀ œœœ −−− ∀ œœœœ −−−− ∀ ∀ œœœœ −−− ∀ œœœœ −−−
− −
Pno.
= œ−
> œ ∀œ œ œ − œ− œ− œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ ∀œ œ œ − œ− œ œ œ œ− œ œ œ œ−
œ− œ−
œ œ œ œ α œ œ ∀˙ − œ
∀œ œ ∀œ œ œ
∀œ ∀œ ∀œ œ Ι
Vln. % Ι æ
ρεψ
∀œ œ ∀œ ∀œ
% ∀ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ −− ∀ œ œ œ œ − ∀ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œ œι œ œ œ
∀ œ
∀ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ −−−
œœ œœ œœ œœ −− − ∀ ∀ œœ −− ∀ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ
Pno. ρεψ
> œ œ œ œ œ œ œ % œι œ œ œ œ − > œ −
œ œ œ œ− œ œ œ œ− œ ∀ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ ∀ œœ −− ∀œ −
œ− œ−

102
œ œ œ
III
∀˙ − ∀œ œ
∀œ œ ∀œ œ
722

œ ∀ œ
∀ œ œ
% æ ι∀œ œ œ
œ
Vln.
ρεψ ƒ
∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ œœ −− œœ =
œ ι
rit.

% ∀ œœ ∀ œΙ œ œ ∀ œ ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œœœ ‰ ∀∀ œœ −− œ ‰ œœ −
œ − ∀ œ −−
œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
Pno. ρεψ ε =
poco a poco

> ι > œ− ∀œ ‰ Œ ‰ ∀œ −
% ∀ œœ œœ œœ œœ ∀ œ
œ −
œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ −− − œ − ∀œ ∀œ −
œα œ=

œ = =œ =œ ∀ =œ ∀ =œ œ ∀ œ œ ∀ œ
œ ∀œ α œ œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ ∀œ ∀œ œ Ι œ
% ι œ ∀œ α œ œ
Ι

αœ = rit.
Vln.

= , œ − ƒ a tempo
=
α œ − œ = = œ
œ − , ∀ œ
œ − ∀ œ−
∀ œœ −− œœ − − ∀ œ −
− œ − œ œ−
− − ∀ œ œœœ−−
α œ
% ∀ œ ‰ œ− α
‰ ∀ œ− œ œ
œ − œ − ∀ œ − ∀ œ ‰ ∀ −
œ œ− œ− ∀œ − œ− œ− ∀œ
= ƒ
=
Pno. rit.

> œ ‰ Œ ‰ œ− œ− œ− œ ‰
œ œ− œ− œ− œ
œ
œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ ∀œ
∀œ œ œ ∀œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ−
% œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ ∀œ œ œ ‰ Œ− œ
œ
Vln.

=œ − = 4= = = ∀ œ ∀ =œ −
seco

œœ − ∀ ∀ œœ − œœ − œ ∀ œœ œ − œ ∀ œœ ‰
4


% œœ−− − œœ −−− œœ −−− œœ −−−− œœ ‰ ∀ œœœ −−− ∀ œœ −− œœ −− œœ −− ∀ ∀ œœ −− ∀ ∀ œœ ‰
œ − œ − ∀œ − µ œ − ∀œ
Œ−
∀œ
= = seco œ
> ] ]
marcato

œ ‰ Œ−
Pno. seco

œ− œ− œ ‰
marcato

œœ ‰ Œ−
˙− œ− œ− œ− œ
˙− œ−

103
III

% ι ‰ ‰ Œ−
˙− ˙− ∀ œ˙ −
Vln.

˙− ∀œ
œ ∀œ
% ∀ ˙˙˙ −− œ œ ∀œ
˙ −−
œ ∀œ
Pno.
>
Grave
œ ∑ ∑
œ œ
rit.

œ
Ped.

Grave

104
CATALOGUE OF VARIANTS

First Movement

m50 Vln: B natural a mistake; B-flat correct


m84 Pn: F# quarter note stem is not original
m93 Vln: There is a bar line mistakenly written after two beats. The measure should have a
half-rest with two quarter notes.
m102 – 104 Vln & Pn: Pasted on, autograph correction
m178 – 179 Pn: Measure repeat not autograph

Second Movement

There are no measure numbers throughout the score notated in the second movement.

m76 Pn: There is no stem on the G#/E-natural chord in the right hand
m112 Pn: The accidental indicating C-flat on the first beat of the right hand is not autograph

Third Movement

The autograph numbering of measures is erroneously displaced by one measure beginning at


measure 195 through the end of the movement. What is indicated by the composer to be measure
195 is actually measure 196.
m288 Pn: E-natural to G-flat appear to be crossed out in the left hand
m327 – 328 Vln: It is not clear whether the composer intended the A to make double-stops
with the above melodic line
m331 Vln: It is unclear if the composer intended D to be the bottom note of the chord

105
REFERENCE LIST

Abelardo, Nicanor, Chicago, to Sixta Abelardo, Manila, 29 July 1931. Manuscript in the hand of Nicanor
Abelardo. Personal collection of Cecille Abelardo Quizon, Quezon City.

Baes, Jonas. "Composers in the Philippines: Counterstreams in a Post-Colonial Epoch," in Asian


Composers in the 20th Century. Tokyo: The Japan Federation of Composers, 2002.

Banas, Reymundo Castillo. The Music and Theatre of the Filipino People. Quezon City: Manlapaz
Publishing Co., 1969.

Bernardo, Fernando A. Silent Storms: Inspiring Lives of 101 Great Filipinos. Pasig City: Anvil
Publishing, 2000.

Constantino, Renato. A History of the Philippines: From Spanish Colonization to the Second World
War. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975.

Castro, Christi-Anne Salazar. “Music, Politics and the Nation at the Cultural Center of the Philippines.”
Ph.D. diss., University of California – Los Angeles, 2001.

Epistola, Ernesto V. Nicanor Abelardo: The Man and the Artist. Philippines: Rex Bookstore, 1996.

Galang, Zoilo, M., ed. Encyclopedia of the Philippines. Vol. 7: Art, National Self-Expression in Music
by Antonio Molina. Manila: Exequiel Floro, 1953.

German, Alfredo M. Ang Buhay at Musika ni Maestro Abelardo. Bulacan: Bulacan Cultural Arts and
Historical Foundation, 1993.

Guillermo, Artemio R. Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1997

Hamilton-Paterson, James. America’s Boy: A Century of Colonialism in the Philippines. New York:
Henry Hold and Co., 1998.

Hila, Antonio C. Musika: An Essay on Philippine Ethnic Music. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura Ng
Pilipinas, 1992.

Irving, D.R.M. Colonial Counterpoint : Music in Early Modern Manila. USA:


Oxford University Press, 2010

Japan Federation of Composers Inc., ed. Asian Composers in the 20th Century. Tokyo: Nihon
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