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Works Cited

Primary Sources

Brady, Erik. “Daniel Snyder Says Redskins Will Never Change Name.” ​USA Today​, 9 May

2013,

www.usatoday.com/story/sports/nfl/redskins/2013/05/09/washington-redskins-daniel-sny

der/2148127/. Accessed 17 Feb. 2018. This is an article about Daniel Snyder in which the

Redskins owner made his famous quote, “We’ll never change the name. It’s that simple.

NEVER —you can use caps.” This is credible because his quote is well known and was

used by many news networks at the time he made that quote public. Also, USA Today is

a credible news source that is trusted by many people across the nation. I am going to use

this to further show how the teams feel, especially the Redskins.

Braves Logo​. 2018. ​Official Atlanta Braves Website​, MLB, 2018, www.mlb.com/braves.

Accessed 12 Feb. 2018. This is the logo of the Atlanta Braves, which is another team that

has received some criticism because of their choice of name and logo. I know this image

is credible because it came off of the team’s official website, which is sponsored by the

league in which it plays, the MLB. I will put this image on The Sides page to keep the

theme of showing pictures of the teams/activists next to their impact.

Charlene Teters​. 2015. ​Charlene Teters​, 2015,

www.charleneteters.com/Charlene_Teters/About_Me.html. Accessed 12 Feb. 2018. This

is an image of Charlene Teters, another activist who has criticized the Redskins and the

Indians. I know this is credible because the image comes from Charlene Teters’ personal
website that she created. I will use this for The Sides page in order to keep the theme of

the pictures of major characters in this movement.

Charles Somers​. ​Society for American Baseball Research​, SABR, 2006,

sabr.org/bioproj/person/ee856cc8. Accessed 31 Jan. 2018. This is an image of former

Cleveland Indians owner Charles Somers. I know this is credible because I have found

similar images on other websites, and also, this website and organization is based at

Arizona State University. I plan to use this image on my background page to show who

Charles Somers was while readers view my student composed words.

Chicago Blackhawks Logo​. 2018. ​Official Chicago Blackhawks Website​, 2018,

www.nhl.com/blackhawks. Accessed 12 Feb. 2018. This is the logo of the Chicago

Blackhawks, one of the five main teams receiving widespread criticism from Native

Americans around the country. I know this is credible because I retrieved it from the

official site of the Blackhawks, which is published by the NHL. I plan on using this for

The Sides page, to show the logo of the team next to its place in the issue, as I have done

with all of the other activists and teams.

Chief Wahoo​. 7 July 2008. ​Wikimedia Commons​, Wikimedia, 7 July 2008,

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_Wahoo#/media/File:Cleveland_Indians_logo.svg. Accessed

12 Feb. 2018. This is the Cleveland Indians logo that has received so much criticism from

Native Americans. Named ‘Chief Wahoo’, it features a red-faced indian with a feather

cap and a big smile. I know this is credible because event though it came from

Wikimedia, the Indians used to feature the same logo on their website before they took it
down out of respect. I will use this on The Sides page to show what logo has been

drawing all the criticism.

Duncan, Mark. ​Native Americans Protest in Minneapolis outside Super Bowl XXVI in 1992​.

1992. ​Think Progress​, 27 Jan. 2015,

thinkprogress.org/super-bowl-protesters-will-draw-ties-between-redskins-name-and-dom

estic-violence-7d752dba49d6/. Accessed 19 Feb. 2018. This is an image of Native

American activists protesting outside the Super Bowl in 1992, trying to change the name

of the Redskins. I know this is credible because the image was taken by an AP

photographer, and AP is famous for having good pictures and they are trusted by many

people. Also, the author of the article featuring the image is a writer at the Huffington

Post, another credible site. I will use this to add evidence to my website on the Major

Moments page.

“Ending the Era of Harmful ‘Indian’ Mascots.” ​National Congress of American Indians​, 2017,

www.ncai.org/proudtobe. Accessed 7 Dec. 2017. This source is a detailed and

paragraphed timeline stating the history of Native American team names deemed

offensive through the eyes of the negative side. Written by the National Congress of

American Indians, this page offers praise by noting how far they had come, but it also

continues to take rips at the affirmative side, registering their disliking of names like

‘redskin’. This source is credible because it is written by the National Congress of

American Indians, a national society that has been very active in protests against the

word ‘redskin’, firmly planting themselves on the negative side. I would recommend this
source to anybody looking to find in depth information about the history of the Redskins

and other offensive names that the NCAI dislikes.

George Preston Marshall​. 2018. ​Pro Football Hall of Fame​, 2018,

www.profootballhof.com/players/george-preston-marshall/. Accessed 31 Jan. 2018. This

is a picture of former Redskins owner George Preston Marshall. I know this site is

credible because the Pro Football Hall of Fame is endorsed by the NFL and trusted by

many people around sports and in the National Football League. I plan to use the image

for my background page to show what Marshall looked like and to form an image in the

reader’s mind of what may have been going on at that point of time.

“Harjo: Get Educated.” ​ESPN​, ESPN Internet Ventures, 3 June 1999,

www.espn.com/otl/americans/harjochat.html. Accessed 19 Feb. 2018. This is a chat

session conducted in 1998 by ESPN for their Outside the Lines series on Native

Americans and sports. Suzan Shown Harjo is asked questions by people and responds,

and in one of her responses, she says something that I would like to use as a quote for my

website. I know this is credible because ESPN and Outside the Lines are trusted around

the world for their work and information. I am going to use this for my Major Moments

page to show evidence of her feelings.

Hollywood Films Shown as Evidence of ‘Redskin’ Used as a Slur​. Washington Post, 2016. This

source is a compilation of excerpts from movies that use the word ‘redskin’ as a

derogatory term. The Native American protesters used this compilation in a petition to

revoke the federal trademarks owned by the Washington Redskins. Five movies are

shown in this video. Due to the way in which the side against the names used this source,
it is a primary source and I plan to use it to help explain the ways in which the negative

side have proved their case. I know that this is credible because the Washington Post is a

very well-known and honest news source that has been trusted in the United States for

many years. Also, this source is credible because the movies in the video are cited and

they are real. I would recommend this source to any person who really wants to learn

about the Native American side or even just a person that wants to learn about where the

word ‘redskin’ comes from.

Lapchick, Richard E. “Mascots Are a Matter of Respect.” ​ESPN.com​, ESPN Internet Ventures,

2009, www.espn.com/espn/page2/story?page=lapchick/050825&num=0. Accessed 21

Nov. 2017. The source is an opinion piece by an ESPN writer that explains the whole

controversy from beginning to 2013. Because it is an opinion piece, it can be very

influential in describing one side of the story, in this case being the side of the teams. The

source is credible because it is by ESPN, sports’ most used and trusted website for

information. I would recommend this source to anybody looking to gain knowledge

regarding why the team names are showing respect and not tearing down the Native

American culture in any way. Lastly, the source will help me explain the teams’ side of

the story and why they believe that their actions are right, specifically for background.

McLellan, Dennis. “Russell Means Dies at 72; American Indian Rights Activist, Actor.” ​Chicago

Tribune​, 23 Oct. 2012,

www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/la-me-russell-means-20121023-story.html.

Accessed 12 Feb. 2018. This is an article about Russell Means, who died in 2012. He was

an activist and he sued the Indians in 1972 during the build up of the tensions regarding
the use of the Chief Wahoo logo by the Cleveland Indians. I know this is credible

because the Chicago Tribune is a trusted newspaper nationally and especially in Chicago.

I would recommend this to anyone wanting to learn more about Russell Means and

Indian activism. I plan to use this on The Sides page to explain Russell Means and his

part in the controversy.

Miller, Jason. Protestors voice their opinion about Cleveland Indians mascot Chief Wahoo

outside Progressive Field prior to the game between the Cleveland Indians and the

Minnesota Twins, April 4, 2014, in Cleveland, Ohio. 4 Apr. 2014. ​ABC News​, ABC, 26

Oct. 2016,

abcnews.go.com/Sports/world-series-outrun-objections-cleveland-indians-red-skinned/sto

ry?id=43045970. Accessed 6 Feb. 2018. This image shows Native Americans outside

Cleveland’s Progressive Field before an Indians game protesting the logo of the team.

This is credible because ABC and Getty Images, two very credible and nationally trusted

sources, are the creators and providers of this image. I will use this as a backdrop for the

title of each page in the website. I would recommend viewing this for readers who would

like to see a protest and the signs that the Natives are holding up.

NFL commissioner Roger Goodell answers reporter’s questions. 24 May 2016. ​NBC News​,

NBC, 10 Oct. 2017,

www.nbcnews.com/news/sports/commissioner-roger-goodell-says-nfl-believes-everyone-

should-stand-national-n809511. Accessed 12 Feb. 2018. This is NFL Commissioner

Roger Goodell at a press conference in 2016. I know this is credible because NBC is a

national news service that millions trust and rely on for their news every day. I will use
this image on the Short Term impact to show readers who Goodell is and possibly give

them a chance to say ‘Oh that’s who that is“ when this issue may come up in future news.

“Poll: Native Americans’ Attitudes toward the Washington Redskins Team Name.” ​Washington

Post​, Washington Post Company, 19 May 2016,

www.washingtonpost.com/apps/g/page/sports/poll-native-americans-attitudes-toward-the

-washington-redskins-team-name/2034/. Accessed 30 Nov. 2017. This is a page

containing multiple different polls of 504 Native Americans on how they feel about the

Redskins name. It appears that many of the Natives aren’t disturbed by the name that the

Redskins use. The few that are, however, are the major representation of the negative

side. I know this source is credible because the Washington Post is a highly used news

website that is very trustworthy. The Post can also not be changed, and it has many

distinguished writers in its company. I will use these polls for Long Term Impact to show

how important the early controversy is to us now. I would recommend these to people

who are interested in the Redskins name, because the polls show just how a few Native

Americans take offense to the name, and that is an intriguing fact.

Redskins Logo. ​Official Site of the Washington Redskins​, Washington Redskins, 2017,

www.redskins.com/index.html. Accessed 14 Dec. 2017. This is the official logo of the

Washington Redskins football team, retrieved from the official site of the Redskins. The

logo shows a Native American with red skin, thus the name ‘redskin’. The logo has

caused controversy over if the logo is offensive or honorable to American Indians. I

know this source is credible because the site I retrieved it from in the official site of the

Redskins. I plan on using this to show what Native Americans think is wrong in the logo
and how they deem it racist. I would recommend this source to any NFL fan or player

that wants to know what the logo is and why it causes controversy.

Teters, Charlene. “American Indians Are People, Not Mascots.” ​National Coalition on Racism in

Sports and Media​, American Indian Movement, www.aimovement.org/ncrsm/. Accessed

13 Dec. 2017. This article is an opinionated article by Native American activist Charlene

Teters that explains how she and some other Native Americans feel about the names of

United States sports organizations, specifically the Cleveland Indians, Atlanta Braves,

Washington Redskins, and Kansas City Chiefs. She poses the question “How are the

names honorable?”, and gives her take on the offensive nature of the names and mascots.

I know this is credible because the author, Charlene Teters is a famous Native American

activist and artist that has written many articles like this for these purposes before. Also,

the NCRSM is a real coalition for the discontinuing of use of racist names and mascots. I

will use this source to explain an influential person in the conflict over the names. I

would recommend this for anybody willing to find out a bit more about the Native

American side of the debate.

Waldstein, David. “Battle over Indians’ Name and Logo Moves to the World Series.” ​New York

Times​ [New York City], 22 Oct. 2016, Baseball sec. ​New York Times​,

www.nytimes.com/2016/10/23/sports/baseball/cleveland-indians-native-americans-world

-series-protest.html. Accessed 7 Dec. 2017. This article is an informative piece that

reveals times in which the Cleveland Indians and other teams using derogatory terms in

their names were taken to court. This is written from a neutral writer’s perspective on the

protests strictly based on facts and truth. This source is credible because the New York
Times is one of the most known and trusted newspapers in the country and it is not

question for falseness. I will use this to explain the court summons for the teams that are

said to be insulting Native Americans. I would recommend this to anybody wanted to

know about the legal side of this issue and what lengths the negatives are going to in

effort to end this issue.

Secondary Sources

Dan Snyder​. 2008. ​ESPN​, ESPN Internet Ventures, 8 June 2008,

www.espn.com/espn/page2/story?page=easterbrook/060808. Accessed 12 Feb. 2018.

This is an image of Redskins owner Dan Snyder, who has repeated refused to change his

team’s name when asked to by Native American activists. I know this is credible because

ESPN is one of the most trusted sports sources on the internet, and people rely on it for

information everyday. I am going to use this for the Short Term Impact page to get the

viewers of my website to visualize Snyder while processing information on the

controversy.

King, C. Richard, and Charles Fruehling Springwood, editors. ​Team Spirits: The Native

American Mascots Controversy​. U of Nebraska P, 2001. This book is a collection of

different viewpoints going through the history of different sports teams, including high

school, college, and professional, that have dealt with controversy about their choice of

mascot. The book was very interesting and provided some insight from many different

sources on how the controversy started and what schools have done to address the issue. I

know this source is credible because it is published by a famous university. Also, the
editor, C. Richard King is a PhD in cultural anthropology and is currently a professor at

Washington State University. His fellow editor, Charles Fruehling Springwood, is also a

PhD in cultural anthropology, his profession currently being a Professor at Illinois

Wesleyan University. I will try to use this to explain that it wasn’t just professional teams

that are part of this controversy. I want to use this to explain that the American Indians

are trying to stop the issue at the high school and college level also. I would recommend

this book to people interested in learning about what colleges and high schools are doing

about this issue in addition to professionals.

McCartney, Robert. “1933 News Article Refutes Cherished Tale That the Redskins Were Named

to Honor Indian Coach.” ​Washington Post​, Washington Post Company, 28 May 2014,

www.washingtonpost.com/local/1933-news-article-refutes-cherished-tale-that-redskins-w

ere-named-to-honor-indian-coach/2014/05/28/19ad32e8-e698-11e3-afc6-a1dd9407abcf_s

tory.html?utm_term=.47f98e6c08a1. Accessed 14 Dec. 2017. This article is a piece in

which the writer found an article from 1933 stating in the words of the then-Redskins

owner that Washington’s team was, in fact, not named after the team’s Indian coach and

players. The owner claims that he actually chose the name to avoid confusion with the

Boston Braves (baseball) team and also so that he could keep the logo. This refutes a

common claim by the Redskins that the name was chosen for members of the team. This

article supports the negative side of the controversy. This is credible because the

Washington Post is a trusted and famous news source used nationally. The writer of the

story, Robert McCartney is the Senior Regional Correspondent for the newspaper. I plan

on using this source to refute the Redskins claims and explain that maybe the sports team
isn’t right after all. I would recommend this for anybody looking to find out if the

Redskins are telling the truth while trying to keep their name.

Mendoza, Mary Kate, and Dale Kruzie, producers. ​Charlene Teters: The Rosa Parks of the

American Indian Movement​. KNME-TV, 1994. ​Creative Resistance​, Popular Resistance,

www.creativeresistance.org/charlene-teters-the-rosa-parks-of-the-american-indian-move

ment-video/. Accessed 14 Dec. 2017. This video is a documentary about Charlene Teters

and her life in activism and her beliefs of how American Indians should be treated. She

also states her position on the mascot controversy several times. I know this is credible

because it features Charlene Teters and she talks about her art and stance in the conflict

repeatedly. She explains many things during the film. Also, the producer, Mary Kate

Mendoza, is a Fox newsperson, and Fox is a trusted news source and movie producer.

Fox is trusted by many people across the United States. I will use this to explain Charlene

Teters and the impact that she has on the American Indian Movement and the sports

mascot controversy. I would recommend this film to anybody interested in Charlene

Teters or how a person can use art to take a stand.

Russell Means in 1989​. 1989. ​New York Times​, 22 Oct. 2012,

www.nytimes.com/2012/10/23/us/russell-means-american-indian-activist-dies-at-72.html

. Accessed 12 Feb. 2018. This is an image of Native American activist Russell Means. He

announced a suit against the Cleveland Indians in 1972. The suit was filed by the

Cleveland American Indian Center. I know this is credible because the New York Times

is a famous newspaper known for being trustworthy and useful. I am going to use this
image on The Sides page, as I am using images for each of the major characters and

teams in this conflict.

Schmidt, Madeline. “Washington Redskins Feel Heat in Native American Mascot Debate.” ​The

Daily Universe​, Brigham Young University, 14 Oct. 2014,

universe.byu.edu/2014/10/14/washington-redskins-feel-heat-in-native-american-mascot-d

ebate1/. Accessed 14 Dec. 2017. This article is about the teams in the 2010s that are

being asked to change their team names because they are offensive to Native Americans.

The author, though, takes a look at the side of the teams, and the article features quotes

by American Indians saying that they are proud of the nickname. I know this source is

credible because it was published by a university (BYU), which means that the source is

true. I will use it to show the side of the teams in the controversy and why they believe

they are right.

Shapira, Ian. “A Brief History of the Word ‘Redskin’ and How It Became a Controversy.”

Washington Post​, 19 May 2016, Local sec. ​Washington Post​,

www.washingtonpost.com/local/a-brief-history-of-the-word-redskin-and-how-it-became-

a-source-of-controversy/2016/05/19/062cd618-187f-11e6-9e16-2e5a123aac62_story.htm

l?utm_term=.e3ce91a0eac0. Accessed 30 Nov. 2017. This website article is a brief

history of how the word ‘redskin’ became. The timeline covers 247 years and shows

when the first protests were made against it by the negative side. The source will be very

helpful in providing base events in Background, Short Term, and Long Term because of

all the points it lists, including the first protest, and the first petition for change by the

negative side. I will use this for basing my research around the important events that
occurred and stringing events together to create the picture of background, short term,

and long term. I would recommend this for anybody wanting to know how the word

‘redskin’ came into play and when it became such an issue in our culture.

Suzan Shown Harjo​. ​Business Insider​, 18 June 2014,

www.businessinsider.com/meet-the-native-american-grandmother-who-just-beat-the-reds

kins-2014-6. Accessed 18 Jan. 2018. This is an image of Suzan Shown Harjo featured in

an article by Business Insider, explaining her life and activism. I know this is credible

because the image is by AP, a very credible image source. Also, the article was on

Business Insider, a frequently used website for information on business. I will use this on

my Two Sides, One Issue page to show what Suzan Shown Harjo looks like and to create

an image in the reader’s mind of what the court case may have looked like.

Vernon Bellecourt Papers Weren’t Destroyed​. 13 Nov. 1972. ​Getty Images​, 2018,

www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/vernon-bellecourt-papers-werent-destroyed-cre

dit-denver-news-photo/837002306#/vernon-bellecourt-papers-werent-destroyed-credit-de

nver-post-picture-id837002306. Accessed 12 Feb. 2018. This is an image of activist

Vernon Bellecourt, a lead organizer of the 1988 Super Bowl protest and a popular Native

American who commonly opposed the Redskins. I know this is credible because Getty

Images is trusted by many sports leagues and news stations across the country. I plan on

using this to show what Bellecourt looked like on The Sides page.

Walker, Hunter. “Meet the Native American Grandmother Who Just Beat the Washington

Redskins.” ​Business Insider​, 18 June 2014,

www.businessinsider.com/meet-the-native-american-grandmother-who-just-beat-the-reds
kins-2014-6. Accessed 14 Dec. 2017. This article is about another Native American

activist, Suzan Shown Harjo. The piece is about how activism began for her and what

compelled her to attack the Redskins for their choice of name. Harjo’s actions from 1992

to 2017 are described in the article with input from Harjo herself. I know this is credible

because the information here is backed up by other sources. Also, Harjo has quotations in

the article that she has not questioned, symbolizing a true story. Lastly, the writer of the

story, Hunter Walker, graduated from the Columbia University Graduate School of

Journalism, a prestigious college for writing and overall academic excellence. Walker

also served as a senior editor at the ​New York Observer​. I will use this source to explain

another influential figure in the controversy over if names like ‘redskin’ are racist to

Native Americans.