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Information - Saharawi Student prisoners Group Companions of El Uali Isabel Lourenço 14th February 201

Information - Saharawi Student prisoners Group Companions of El Uali

Isabel Lourenço 14th February 2018

Information - Saharawi Student prisoners



1. Introduction

2. Western Sahara Legal Status

3. Background

4. Accusations/Charges, evidence file, convictions

5. Arbitrary detention

6. Tortures

7. Hunger strikes

8. Conditions in Oudaya Prison

9. Appeal process

Annex I - List of Saharawi Students - political prisoners

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1. Introduction

My name is Isabel Maria Gonçalves da Silva Tavares Lourenço, I have Portuguese nationality, and am a member of Fundación Sahara Occidental and collaborator of

Since February 2013 I attend the trials of Saharawi Political Prisoners as an International Observer with accreditation from Fundación Sahara Occidental. In 2015 when I was travelling to attend the trial of two Saharawi journalists that where illegally detained I was expelled from El Aaiun Airport by force by the Moroccan authorities without any explanation other that I was "persona non grata". A few months afterwards I have attended another trial in Agadir, always under huge pressure and surveillance. In 2016, 2017 and 2018 I continued to attend trials of Saharawi political prisoners in Agadir and Salé, Rabat and Marrakesh, as well as issued reports on this matter and follow up with the families of the detainees the situation of several prisoners. The situation of the group of Students held in Marrakesh, since 2016, I have been following up through contacts with several organizations on the ground as well as close relatives, as well as attending the appeal process in January and February 2018.

During my visits police and other representative of the Moroccan authorities, in uniform as well as in plain clothes, continually followed me. I was filmed and photographed and even detained (2014), and my passport was repeatedly taken for long periods of time by the police officers.

These visits gave me an insight, and a very clear perspective of the current situation in Western Sahara and the general feeling of the population, as well as the situation of the political prisoners.

It is obvious that the occupation is only possible due to the huge presence of military, police and auxiliary forces and their brutal tactics, and also due to the fact that the international community is complicit with the silence about the occupation and the stalemate in the United Nations Security Council.

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27 years after the ceasefire that was never broken by the Saharawi, who resist peacefully, the patience of the population is coming to an end and a peaceful and just solution must be implemented in the last African colony.

As a Human Rights Activist I work with a number of Saharawi human rights activists and Organizations who are based in the occupied territories of Western Sahara as is the case of CODAPSO, CODESA, AFRAPEDESA, CSPRON, and with Saharawi media and journalists that work mainly underground as is the case of Equipe Media, RASD TV, Nouchaat, Bentili, Red de Activistas, Boujador press, Intifada May, Smara News and others. My main goal is to denounce the grave violations of human rights and all agreements and covenants signed by the Moroccan Kingdom to decision makers and authorities, and follow up on the situation of the political prisoners.

For the last six years I have been gathering information and denouncing the situation of the Saharawi political prisoners in Moroccan jails in the occupied territories as well as in the Kingdom of Morocco. My reports are based on direct observation during trial and visits, interviews with family members of current political prisoners, and ex-political prisoners, as well as several international observers who attend trials of Saharawi political prisoners. In some cases it was possible to have direct phone contact with Saharawi prisoners.

Arbitrary detention, abductions, ill-treatment and torture, are a reality vastly documented by numerous national and international NGOs including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch and present in the reports submitted by Mr. Christopher Ross, special envoy of the Secretary General the United Nations and the 2013 report of special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Juan E. Méndez . Mr. Méndez reaffirmed in a press conference, 1 on the 18th October 2016, in the UN headquarters in New York , in answer to the question of InnerCityPress about torture of Saharawi Political Prisoners, that it is a common practice in Morocco and his request for a follow-up visit to Morocco and Western Sahara was unsuccessful.

Neither the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, which Morocco ratified on 14 June 1993 nor the



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Mandela Rules (UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners) are respected in the case of Saharawi political prisoners.

Western Sahara is illegally occupied by the Moroccan Kingdom and Saharawi citizens are forced to carry Moroccan Identity and Passports, the whole judicial process is corrupted from the start since Moroccan authorities have no legal jurisdiction over the territory.

Saharawi citizens are abducted from their homeland by the occupying forces and transferred to prisons in the Kingdom of Morocco, the legal procedures and international requirements were not observed with the over 50 Saharawi political prisoners that are currently in Moroccan jails, their trials were faulty, with no evidences produced other than confessions obtained under torture. Currently almost all Saharawi political prisoners are detained in the Kingdom of Morocco, hundreds and thousands km from their homeland.

The present Information is far from exhaustive and gives only a partial view of the continues and grave ill treatment the Saharawi Students, detained in Oudaya Marrakesh were subjected to, as well as, the violations committed by the Moroccan authorities in this case. The information gathered were verified with CODAPSO, Mr. Sidi Haiba Habibi of the Saharawi League for the Defence of Political Prisoners, Mr. Sidi Mohamed Balla of AFRAPEDESA, the Student associations and family members, Mrs. Cristina Martinez Benítez de Lugo, observer at the trial session of the 9th of June and Mr. Emilio García, member of SOGAPS and accredited as International Observer on the session of 13th of June 2017 as well information of the families of the detainees in direct contact during my stay in Marrakesh during the appeal process in January and February 2018.

2. Western Sahara Legal Status

In 1963 Western Sahara was listed as a non-self-governing territory by the United Nations. In 1966 the United Nations General Assembly adopted its first resolution 2 on the territory, urging Spain to organize, as soon as possible, a referendum under UN supervision on the territory’s right to exercise its right to self-

2 UN General Assembly, 1966, Resolution 2229 (XXI).

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determination. In 1975, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) rendered an advisory opinion on the Western Sahara question, concluding by 14 votes to 2, that while there had been pre-colonial ties between the territory of Western Sahara and Morocco, these ties did not imply sovereignty.

Thus the Court has not found legal ties of such a nature as might affect the application of resolution 1514 (XV) in the decolonization of Western Sahara and, in particular, of the principle of self-determination through the free and genuine expression of the will of the peoples of the Territory. 3

Shortly thereafter, on 6 November, Morocco occupied and later annexed Western Sahara, through the famous “Green march”. This constituted an act of aggression in violation of the UN Charter. The same day, the UN Security Council, in Resolution 380, called upon Morocco “immediately to withdraw all the participants in the march.” Shortly thereafter, Morocco, Mauritania and the colonial power, Spain, entered into an agreement, which in convoluted terms transferred the administration of the territory to Morocco and Mauritania. The agreement did not, however, transfer sovereignty explicitly. (Mauretania later rescinded and left the whole territory to Morocco.)

The people of Western Sahara (the Saharawi) have a right to self-determination, which can be fulfilled through the creation of a fully sovereign state, if they so choose. Under that principle, they also have the right to “freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources”. 4 The Moroccan occupation and annexation of the territory is a serious breach of International Law. Western Sahara is not a part of Morocco and Morocco has no legal title or claim on the territory. Morocco has an obligation to respect the right of the people of Western Sahara to self- determination and to end its illegal annexation and occupation of Western Sahara.

§ UN General Assembly 1966

"Invites the administering Power to determine at the earliest possible date, in

conformity with the aspirations of the indigenous people of Spanish Sahara and in consultation with the Governments of Mauritania and Morocco and any other interested party, the procedures for the holding of a referendum under United

3 ICJ Reports, 1975, p. 68, para. 162. 4 Common Article 1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

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Nations auspices with a view to enabling the indigenous population of the Territory to exercise freely its right to self-determination and, to this end:

To create a favourable climate for the referendum to be conducted on an entirely free, democratic and impartial basis, by permitting inter alia, the return of exiles to the Territory; To take all necessary steps to ensure that only indigenous people of the Territory participate in the referendum; To refrain from any action likely to delay the process of the decolonization of "

Spanish Sahara;

§ UN-Security Council, 1975 (after the "Green March")

"Call upon Morocco immediately to withdraw from the Territory of Western

Sahara all the participants in the march;


§ UN Security Council, 1991

"Expresses its full support for the efforts of the Secretary-General for the organization and the supervision, by the United Nations in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity, of a referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara, in accordance with the objectives mentioned in this "


§ UN-Security Council, 2013

"Reaffirming its commitment to assist the parties to achieve a just, lasting, and mutually acceptable political solution, which will provide for the self- determination of the people of Western Sahara in the context of arrangements consistent with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, "

and noting the role and responsibilities of the parties in this respect,

§ European Court of Justice

On 21 December 2016 the European Court of Justice delivered its judgment, 5 in the Appeal in Case C-104/16 P, under Article 56 of the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union, filed by the Council of the European Union on 19 February 2016, supported by some EU member states and the Commission, as well as the Confédération marocaine de l’agriculture et du développement rural (Comader), as interveners in the appeal, The Respondent in the proceedings was Front Populaire pour la Libération de la Saguia-el-Hamra et du Rio de Oro (Front Polisario), the applicant at first instance. The Appeal was



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against the judgment of the first instance Court that annulled, as requested by the Polisario Front, the Agreement between the European Union and the Kingdom of Morocco concerning liberalization measures on agricultural and fishery products from Morocco and Western Sahara European Court of Justice found that the Agreement between Morocco and the EU Commission in the form of an Exchange of Letters between the European Union and the Kingdom of Morocco concerning reciprocal liberalization measures on agricultural products, processed agricultural products, fish and fishery products applies only to the internationally recognized borders of Morocco and does not apply to Western Sahara. Furthermore, .the Court also found that Western Sahara is a separate territory in North-West Africa, bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the north-east, Mauritania to the east and south and the Atlantic to the west.

3. Background

In the occupied territories of Western Sahara there are no higher education institutions of any kind except one private school "Université Internationale à Lâayoune". Those young people who wish to continue their studies are forced to go to Universities and Institutes in the Moroccan Kingdom. This forced displacement has from start a bias effect since the families have to gathered the economical means to send their children to at least 620km to Agadir the nearest University, which has a nucleus in Guelmin with only few courses.

The majority of the Saharawi University Students are therefore in Agadir and Marrakesh. Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, Pharmacy and aeronautics are courses that the Saharawi Students are prevented from pursuing, since they are considered key to national security. There is no official ban since the Moroccan Kingdom claims that Saharawi are Moroccan, but obstacles are put in place to prevent Saharawi Students to pursue these careers.

In class the Students suffer discrimination and harassment. In the campus university the Moroccan authorities raid their rooms frequently, destroying their belongings.

Saharawi Students are organized having groups inside each Campus to help

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them with logistical problems and harassment they suffer from the Moroccan authorities and professors who try by all means to make their studies harder or even impossible, in a clear apartheid tactic.

The Saharawi student movement also organizes non-violent protests and demonstrations in the different campus, as well as in the occupied territories to demand their rights as students and also the right to self-determination of the Saharawi people.

The segregation of the Saharawi students is also evident in the fact that their scholarship is identical to the Moroccan students who study in their own cities, where they live, whilst the Saharawi have forcefully to displace themselves, which represents a completely different economical effort.

In 2014/2015 the different student associations of the "Amazigh" (Moroccan ethnicity), the Moroccan left wing youth organizations and the Saharawi

students associations had several meetings and worked together to achieve improvements in the University life. This cooperation was not seen as positive by the Moroccan authorities according to different NGO's, and therefore a manoeuvre was started to bring a wedge between these organizations. In 2015

a student that was member of a left wing youth organization was killed in the

University of Fez.

In December 2015, Lazar Yahia, a Saharawi student of Marrakesh university was

brutally attacked with knifes and swords by a group of Amazigh students, he had life threatening injuries and had to spend over 20 days in hospital. Racism

was the sole reason for this attack.

After this attack the Saharawi students in Marrakesh and Agadir discussed and analysed the situation, and the escalation of racism and harassment against them by Moroccan students.

The group that had injured Lazar Yahia enjoyed impunity and the Moroccan authorities did not act to punish the act nor prevent future attacks. In light of this the Saharawi students decided to make a non-violent sitting protest demanding justice and denouncing the situation, in the campus of Marrakesh university on the 23rd January 2016.

During the sitting protest several groups of Moroccan students arrived and started a confrontation with the protesters, a fight broke out between the two

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groups. Among the Moroccan groups was Omar Khalek, a Moroccan, who was not a student at the time in the University, but who joined the fight with his friends and ended up dead. It is not possible to clarify how he died nor who the perpetuators were.

In the aftermath over a dozen Saharawi Students and activists were detained in the first trimester of 2016 and the following months.

The students denounced that their detention was mainly due to their political beliefs towards the cause of Western Sahara. They were arrested and suffered torture and ill treatment on the hands of the Moroccan police. In the absence of a serious investigation and a fair trial, as well as the respect for their status as political prisoners, they decided to enter several hunger strikes during their detainment.

The trial of theses students was postponed twelve times. The majority was in prison for 501 days without trial, which is far more than allowed by Moroccan law.

4. Accusations/Charges, evidence file, convictions

The trial of the students was postponed 12 times before the proceedings started on 9th of May 2017 in the court of Marrakesh. The prisoners were charged with articles 392, 393, 394 and 395 of the Moroccan Penal Code, concerning murder with the intent to kill and with sentences from life in prison to death penalty. This charges were altered in the last trial session.

According to the declarations of Mrs Cristina Martinez Benítez de Lugo, International Observer at the trial on May 9th, all the accused present, declared their innocence, that they are pacifist and they are only detained due to their political opinions and demand of the right to self-determination of the Saharawi people. They also denounced that they had been tortured and that during the police interrogation the question were only about their political beliefs and actions. The accused also stated that they were only informed of the

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accusation of murder by the judge. Some of them demanded a medical expertise to verify the tortures they were submitted to, this was denied by the judge.

Abedmoula Elhafidi said that he was abducted in Boujador and that he was not in Marrakesh on the 23rd of January, but in Agadir. He regretted that his witnesses were not summoned to testify by the court.

During the session three of the accused had to leave the room since they were sick.

4 Defence attorneys were present at this session.

The 4 International Observers present (Mustapha Mohamed; Fernando Magán, Unai Orbegozo and Cristina Martínez) had difficulties to receive authorization to enter and had to stand outside the court for over two hours, their translator was not allowed to enter.

The trial was postponed to the 13th of June 2017. On the 13th of June, Mr. Emilio García, accredited by Fundación Sahara Occidental, went to Marrakesh but was not allowed to enter the court room as well as his translator, Mr. Sidi Mohamed Balla. The trial was scheduled for 10 a.m. but the session started one hour earlier, only so that the Judge informed that the trial would be postponed to the 22nd of June. Mr. García wanted to contact with the defence lawyers inside the court.

On the 22nd of June 2017 no International Observers were present, the trial lasted for 8 hours, starting at 13h00. The charges presented were not the initial ones, but instead murder without intent to kill, namely articles 401, 402 and 403 of the Moroccan Penal code with sentences between 2 to 20 years.

The lawyer of the civil party demanded that messages published in Facebook would be included in the file of evidence but the court did not accept it. The whole case was solely based on the minutes that were written by the police and which the accused denounced as being false and signed under torture.

The trial ended with the sentencing of 4 accused to ten years in prison and 11 to

3 years in prison. Laghdaf Lakan and Mustafa Hmaidat had not been sentenced

yet, since they were only detained in June 2017, they were released 4 month later.

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Mr. Laghdaf Lakan was released on October, 20th 2017 and Mustafa Hmaidat on Ocotber 6th, 2017.

This was a first instance trial and the days after sentencing the prisoners received a document to sign, in order to present an appeal.

5. Arbitrary detention

According to the information given by the detainees none of them were shown any warrant for their detention when they were taken by the police nor any warrant to enter their residences in the cases they were detained inside their living quarters.

They accused were not informed about their rights when detained.

6. Tortures

The first group of 11 students detained in January 2016, denounced that they were tortured during18 days, during which the police redacted the minutes that are the base of this case, obtained false confessions and forced the signature of the documents.

The remaining prisoners were tortured for the time span needed for them to sign the minutes that were already redacted based on the minutes of the first group.

The tortures used were: grilled chicken; beating with batons, beating of the foot soles, psychological torture and threats of sodomy and rape, sleep deprivation, starvation, beatings with fists and boots in the whole body, including the head.

7. Hunger strikes

The El Uali group made 5 hunger strikes during their detention so far. One of the strikes lasted for over 40 days. The Students demanded medical attention, improvement of their detention conditions in jail, treatment according to their status as political prisoners, separation from the criminal offense inmates and immediate release since they proclaim themselves innocent of all charges.

Aziz Aluahidi, who has a degree, made an individual hunger strike that lasted for

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43 days, demanding his right to continue his studies in prison to obtain his master. The Moroccan authorities did not comply with his demand although it is a right according to law.

Abedmoula Elhafidi made two individual hunger strikes demanding to see an ophthalmologist since he has severe problems in his eyes.

8. Conditions in Oudaya Prison

The prisoners were in a very dire situation and only due to their hunger strikes they were separated from the remaining prisoner and divided in two cells. One cell with 7 members of this group and two Moroccan prisoners (non violent offenders), and another cell with remaining members of the group and again two non violent Moroccan prisoners.

Each of the prisoners sleeps in a bunk bed.

The family visits were extremely difficult at the beginning, and the visitation right were not respected, being arbitrarily refused for several times. After the hunger strikes visits from the families were normalized and at the present family members may visit twice a week. In 2018 the problems with visit increased again, the families denounced that several times they were harassed and the visits delayed for so long that they could only see the detainees for brief moments. According to the families this situation arises always after complaints are presented to the Moroccan authorities.

The prisoners denounced that they continue to have no medical care, several of them have health issues due to the hunger strikes and due to the tortures they have been submitted to.

Ahmed Abba Ali, suffers from severe asthma crises, Mohamed Dada has stomach and intestine problems, Abdelmula Elhafidi has problems on his left eye.

Abedmoula Elhafidi stated in front of the judge in the appeal court of Marrakech on the 13 of February they all had severe health problems and were not given the necessary medical attention, he asked who would be responsible in case something would happen, and stated that the prison administration had the responsibility to take care of their medical needs.

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El Wafi Wakari is the one who health is most affected with heavy weight loss constant fever, vomiting, lack of appetite, lost of hearing on his left ear and varicocele.

9. Appeal process

The appeal process begun on the 12th of December 2017 being postponed to the 16th of January 2018.

On the 16th January 2018, 5 international observers (Isabel Lourenço and Joana Ramos from Portugal, Michele Joly from France, Ana Sebastian and Pablo Jimenez from Spain) attend the session. The students entered the court room chanting slogans for self determination of Western Sahara and declared their solidarity with the prisoners of the Gdeim Izik group.

The session was postponed to the 13th of February since 4 of the accused where in Agadir for the university exams. No defence lawyer was present.

For over two hours the families and members of Saharawi Human Rights Associations as well as fellow students protested in front of the Court of Appeal of Marrakesh.

The Demonstration was filmed and photographed and heavily guarded by police officers in uniform and in plain clothes.

On the 13th February 2018, 6 international observers (Isabel Lourenço from Portugal, Sébastien Boulay from France, Pablo Jimenez, Aritz Rodríguez, Sandra Gómez de Garmendia and Amaia Arenal from Spain) attended the trial.

The prisoners were brought into the court room at 9h30 chanting slogan for self- determination (Labadil Labadil Antkrir El Massir / Viva la lucha del pueblo Saharaui) and also "Our mothers and siblings are our reference" and "Freedom for the Gdeim Izik Group". Their handcuffs were removed inside the room. The accused were dressed in the traditional saharawi costum "Daráa".

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The families of the prisoners were not allowed inside the court room, although it was a public hearing and three rows of the benches of the room were occupied by Moroccan civilians.

At 9h35 the panel of 5 judges entered the room and started the hearing.

Defence lawyer Laazouzi Abdrazak asked for a postponment of the trial so that the new defence lawyers could prepare the case files. The new defence lawers are: Mohamed Fadel Leili; Ali Salem Ejellali and Bazid Zehmad.

Abedmoula Elhafidi, sentenced to 10 years in prison, asked the judges where the families of the accused where and why they were not allowed to enter. He said that he was in a prolonged hunger strike and ill, that the accused had all health issues and who was to be responsible for their medical attention.

He said that the administration of the prison was responsible for anything that would happen.

The judges announced the postponement to the 13th of March 2018.

At 9h50 some family members entered (mothers, sisters and brothers). Ghali Laajna, brother of Omar Laajna said that this was not a democratic procedure and not fair. The mothers of Salek Baber and Mohammed Dada also protested that this was unfair and that they were always treated in this way, the sister of Ibrahim Almasih also denounced that they were prevented from entering the courtroom.

The judges exited.

The prisoners exited the room chanting again slogans and saying that "justice is absent in the Moroccan courts ( Lâ shcariyya fi l-mahkama-t el-maghrebiyya ).

Outside the court dozens of family members and Saharawi students and human rights activists demonstrated during the proceedings and a few hours after the postponement was announced. The police surrounded them and they were filmed and photographed by agents in plain clothes.

The following day, 14 February, the families of the prisoners sent a complaint to the Ministry of Justice and the Minister of Human Rights by mail and tried to deliver the same complaint to the Court of Appeal, regarding the impossibility of attending the hearing. This complaint was refused by the administration of the

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court of appeal, forcing the families to send a new complaint to the Moroccan Ministry of Justice by mail and to the Minister of Human Rights.

Isabel Lourenço

14th February 2018

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Annex I

List of Saharawi Students - political prisoners Group Companioins of El Uali and defence lawyers

Ahmed Abba Ali, detention No. 4327, student in Agadir, detained in Marrakesh, responsible of contacts with Moroccan students and student groups born in 1992 in Tantan, arrested 24/01/2016; sentenced to 3 years

Mohammed Rgueibi, detention No. 4331, student in Agadir, detained in Marrakesh, born in Guelmin in1994, arrested 24/01/2016; sentenced to 3 years

Ali Shargui, detention No. 4335, first year student in Agadir, detained in Marrakesh, born in 1994 in Assa, arrested on 24/01/2016; sentenced to 3 years

Ibrahim Almasih detention No. 4329, student in Agadir, born in Assa in 1993, arrested on 24/01/2016 in Marrakesh; sentenced to 3 years

Hamza Rami, detention No. 4330, student in Agadir, spokesperson of the Saharawi Students in the Science university of Agadir, born in 1992 in El Aaiun, arrested on 24/01/2016 in Marrakesh; sentenced to 3 years

Salek Baber, detention No. 4332, student in Agadir, born in 1993 in Tantan, spokesperson of the first year Saharawi Students in Agadir, arrested on 24/01/2016 in Marrakesh; sentenced to 3 years

Mustafa Burkah, detention No. 4326, student in Agadir, born in Tantan in 1989, arrested on 24/01/2016 in Marrakesh, sentenced to 3 years

El Kantaoui Albar, detention No. 4328, student in Marrakesh, coordinator of Saharawi Students in Marrakesh, born in 1992 in Assa ,arrested on 24/01/2016 in Marrakesh; sentenced to 10 years

Omar Laajna detention No.4325, student in Marrakesh, member of the Saharawi student association, born in Tantan, arrested on 24/01/2016 in Marrakesch; sentenced to 3 years

Aziz Aluahidi, detention No. 4400, student in Agadir, member of the student association of Agadir, born in 1989 in Emhamid Elghezlan, arrested on 06/02/2016; sentenced to 10 years

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Mohammed Dada, student in Marrakesh, detention No. 4482, born in Smara 1993, arrested in El Aaiun 29/02/2016; sentenced to 10 years

Omar Beijni, student in Marrakesh detention No. 4661, born in 1991 in Guelmin, arrested in El Aaiun 15/03/2016; sentenced to 3 years

Abedmoula Elhafidi, detention No.4780, student in Marrakesh, human rights activist and former political prisoner, born in Boujador 1986, arrested on 16/04/2016 in Boujador; sentenced to 10 years

Nasser Amenkour, detention No. is not a student, he was in one of the student houses when he was arrested in El kantouai in Marrakesh, 24/01/2016 , sentenced to 3 years

El Wafi Wakari, detention No.4335 , student in Agadir (finished degree in prison), political activist, born in 1990 in Assa, arrested on 01/2017; sentenced to 3 years

Laghdaf Lakan - detention no. , born 1993 Zak, arrested in 06/2017 in bus station in Marrakech, student in Marrakesh - released in 20th October 2017

Mustafa Hmaidat - student in Agadir born 1993 in Emhamid Elghezlan, no detention 8516, arrested in 12/02/2017 in Emhamid Elghezlan - released in 6th October 2017


In first instance:

Abed Razak El Azouzi (AMDH) represents 11 accused Mustafa Rachdi represents Abedmoula Elhafidi Saída Ablagh represents Omar Beijni

In the appeal process after 13th of January:

Mohamed Fadel Leili Ali Salem Ejellali Bazid Zehmad

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