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K 11 K12 u1 F1

=
K21 K22 u2 F2

ANALISIS DE LA BARRA

POR ECUACIONES DEFORMACIONALES

σx= N/A = E Ɛx = E ∂u/∂x


N= (E )( du/∂x) ( A) = EA∂u/∂x

∫ N∂x = ∫ EA∂u

Nx= EA u + C ] de 0 a L

Cuando X = 0
N (0) = EA u1+ C C = -EA u1
cuando X = L
NL = EA u2+ C
NL = EA u2 + ( -EA u1 )
N= (EA/L) * (u2-u1)
F2 = - F1
F1 = EA/L (u1 -u2 )
F2 = EA/L (-u1 + u2 )

1 -1 u1
EA/L =
-1 1 u2

1 -1
K = EA/L
-1 1

Por Energía de Deformación


U = 1/2 u K u Ecuacion de la Energía
F
De Teoria de Vigas

U = 1/2 ∫ σ Ɛ dV = 1/2 A ∫ (E Ɛ ) Ɛ dx

σ = EƐ
E constante A constante

U = 1/2 EA ∫ Ɛ ² dx

U = 1/2 EA ∫ ( du/∂x)² dx

u1 u2

u(x)
x
u ( x ) = u1 +( ( u2 - u1 )/L )* X
cuando x = o u(o) = u1
cuando x= L u(L) = u2 OK

u ( x) = ( 1- x/L ) u1 + u2 x/L

Segundo teorema de castigliano

K ij = ∂² U /∂ui ∂uj coeficiente de rigidez

a ij = ∂² U /∂Fi ∂Fj coeficiente de flexibilidad

K 11 K12

K21 K22

K11 = ∂²U /∂u1 ∂u1 i=j=1

K12 = ∂² U /∂u1 ∂u2 i=1 j=2


K22 = ∂² U /∂u2 ∂u2 i=j=2

K21 = ∂² U /∂u2 ∂u1 i=2 j=1

u ( x) = ( 1- x/L ) u1 + u2 x/L U = 1/2 EA ∫ ( du/∂x)² dx

∂u /∂x = -u1/L + u2/L

U= 1/2 EA ∫ ( -u1/L +u2/L)² dx

∂U /∂u1= 1/2 EA ∫ 2 ( -u1/L +u2/L)(-1/L) dx

K 11 = ∂²U /∂u1 ∂u1 = EA ∫ ( -1/L +0 )(-1/L) dx

K 11 = ∂²U /∂u1 ∂u1 = EA ∫ ( 1/L)² dx = EA ( 1/L)² x

K 11 = EA ( 1/L)² L

K 11 = EA/ L

U= 1/2 EA ∫ ( -u1/L +u2/L)² dx

∂U /∂u1= 1/2 EA ∫ 2 ( -u1/L +u2/L)(-1/L) dx

∂²U /∂u1 ∂u2 = EA ∫ ( -0 +1/L)(-1/L) dx

K 12 = ∂²U /∂u1 ∂u2 = EA ∫ (- 0+1/L )(-1/L) dx

K 12 = ∂²U /∂u1 ∂u2 = EA ∫ - ( 1/L)² dx =- EA ( 1/L)² x

K 12 = -EA ( 1/L)² L

K 12 = - EA/ L

U= 1/2 EA ∫ ( -u1/L +u2/L)² dx

∂U /∂u2= 1/2 EA ∫ 2 ( -u1/L +u2/L)(1/L) dx


K 22= ∂²U /∂u2 ∂u2 = EA ∫ ( 0 + 1/L)(1/L) dx

K 22= ∂²U /∂u2 ∂u2 = EA ∫ ( 1/L)² dx = EA ( 1/L)² x

K 22 = EA ( 1/L)² L

K 22 = EA/ L

U= 1/2 EA ∫ ( -u1/L +u2/L)² dx

∂U /∂u2= 1/2 EA ∫ 2 ( -u1/L +u2/L)(1/L) dx

∂²U /∂u2 ∂u1 = EA ∫ ( -1/L+0)(1/L) dx

K 21 = ∂²U /∂u2 ∂u1 = EA ∫ (- 1/L+0 )(1/L) dx

K 21 = ∂²U /∂u2 ∂u1 = EA ∫ - ( 1/L)² dx =- EA ( 1/L)² x

K 21 = -EA ( 1/L)² L

K 21 = - EA/ L

1 -1
K = EA/L
-1 1

MATRIZ DE FLEXIBILIDAD POR ENERGIA DE DEFORMACION

N = F1
F1

U = 1/2 ∫ (N ²/EA) dx

U = 1/2 ∫ (F1 ²/EA) dx

a ij = ∂² U /∂Fi ∂Fj
∂ U /∂F1 = 1/2 ∫ 2 (F1 /EA) dx

∂² U /∂F1 ∂F1 = ∫ (1 /EA) dx


∂² U /∂F1 ∂F1 = ( 1/ EA ) X x varia de 0 a L

∂² U /∂F1 ∂F1 = ( L/ EA )
a11 = ( L/ EA )

LEYES DE EQUILIBRIO
Ʃ Fx = 0 Ʃ Fy = 0
σy + ( ∂σy/∂y) dy
Ƭ yx + ( ∂Ƭxy/∂y) dy

Ƭ xy + ( ∂Ƭxy/∂x) dx
σx dy σx +( ∂σx/∂x) dx

Ƭ xy

Ƭ yx

σy
dx

Ʃ Fx = 0

( ∂σx/∂x) + ∂Ƭxy/∂y + bx = 0 (1)

Ʃ Fy = 0
∂Ƭyx/∂x+( ∂σy/∂y) + by = 0 (2)

Ƭ xy = Ƭ yx
PRINCIPIO DE SUPERPOSICION

CAUSA EFECTO
Pa Δa
Pb Δb

Pa + Pb
Pa + Pb
Pb Pb
Pa Pa

Δa Δb Δa+Δb Δa Δb Δc > Δa+Δb


coportamiento Lineal coportamiento NO Lineal

TEOREMA DE RECIPROCIDAD ( DE MAXVEL O DE BETTY )

CAUSA EFECTO
Pa Δa Pb Δa = Pa Δb
Pb Δb

1
i +ji
+ij 1
j j

RIGIDEZ Y FLEXIBILIDAD

KΔ = F
Rigidez : Es la fuerza requerida para producir un desplazamiento unitario

Flexibilidad : Es el Desplazamiento que resulte por la aplicación de una fuerza u


Δ = (1/K ) F

u1 u2

N = k ( u2 - u1 )

N N F1, u1 F2, u2

F( vectorial)
F1 = K ( u2- u1 ) magnitud ( - por la direccion )
F2 = K ( u2- u1 ) (+ coincide con dirección )

K -K u1 F1
=
-K K u2 F2
Matriz de Rigidez Desplazamiento Matriz de fuerza

K11 K12 K13 …...K1n u1 F1


K21 K22 K23 …...K2n u2 = F2
K31 K32 K33 …… K3n u3 F3

Kn1 Kn2 Kn3 …. Knn un Fn

NOTA IMPORTANTE: Kij coeficiente de matriz de rigidez


LA COLUMNA j DE LA MATRIZ DE RIGIDEZ PUEDE INTERPRETARSE COMO
LAS FUERZAS QUE SE REQUIEREN EN CADA UNO DE LOS GRADOS DE LIBERTAD
PARA MANTENER EL ESTADO DE DESPLAZAMIENTOS EN QUE
Uj = 1 Y EL RESTO DE LOS DESPLAZAMIENTOS SON CEROS
( entendiendose desplazamientos y giros )

Ejemplo para tres resortes: ( Calcular matriz de Rigidez)

F1, u1 F2, u2 F3, u3 F4, u4

K1 K2 K3
columna ( 01)

u1 = 1 u2=0 u3=0 u4 =0

f1= K1 f2= K1 f3 = 0 f4=0

F1 = K1 K11
F2= -K1 K21
F3= 0 K31
F4= 0 K41
Columna ( 02)

u1 = 0 u2=1 u3=0 u4 =0

f1= K1 K1

K2 K2
F1 = -K1 K12
F2 = K1 + K2 K22
F3 = -K2 K32
F4 = 0 K42

Columna ( 03)

u1 = 0 u2=0 u3=1 u4 =0

K2
K2
K3 K3

F1 = 0 K13
F2 = - K2 K23
F3 = K2 + K3 K33
F4 = - K3 K43

Columna ( 04)

u1 = 0 u2=0 u3=0 u4 =1

K3 K3
F1= 0 K14
F2=0 K24
F3= - K3 K34
F4= K3 K44

LA MATRIZ DE RIGIDEZ QUE REPRESENTA AL SISTEMA ES

K1 -K1 0 0
K= -K1 K1 + K2 - K2 0
0 -K2 K2 + K3 - K3
0 0 - K3 K3

PARA SECCIONES VARIABLES

F1, u1
A( x ) = A1 + ( A2 - A1 )/L x
A1 A2
L U = ∫ ( N²/2EA) dx
N = -F1
x

a ij = ∂² U /∂Fi ∂Fj
a 11 = ∂² U /∂F1 ∂F1 = ∫ dx/EA

a 11 = ∂² U /∂F1 ∂F1 = ∫ dx/EA

a 11 = ∂² U /∂F1 ∂F1 = L/E(A1-A2)Ln ( A1/A2)


si A1 = 1.2 A2

a 11 = 0.84118 L/EA2
K11 = 1.1888 EA2/L

F1, u1 F2, u2

K = 1.1888EA/L 1 -1 u1 = F1
L/2 L/2 -1 1 u2 F2

2 1 3
4
1.1 A 3
1.3 A Yˈ
u1 = 1 Xˈ

A = A
2
1 3
F1=1.3 EA/L/2 + 1.1EA/ L/2 k11
F2= - 1.3 EA/L/2 k21
F3 = -1.1 EA/ L/2 k31

u2 = 1

F1 = -1.3 EA /L/2 k12


F2 = 1.3 EA/L/2 Yˈ k22
F3= 0 k32

Vxˈ Vyˈ Vy cos (θ)



Vy 2

2
u3 =1
Vx 2
F1 = -1.1 EA/L/2 Vx k13 2
F2 = 0 k23
Vx Sen (θ)
F3 = 1.1 EA/L/2 k33
Vy Sen (θ)
1.3+1.1 -1.3 -1.1 u1
E AL/2 -1.3 1.3 0 u2 =
-1.1 0 1.1 u3

2 1
1.3 -1.3 2
EA/L/2
-1.3 1.3 1

1 3
1.1 -1.1 1
EA/L/2
-1.1 1.1 3

1.3+1.1 -1.3 -1.1


EA/L/2 -1.3 1.3 0
-1.1 0 1.1

ROTACION DEL SISTEMA DE REFERENCIA


|
j

Sistema Local
Y
1

X Sistema Global

4
4
3 3

Xˈ θ

2 2
2 2
1 θ
1

Vx Cos (θ)

Vy Sen ( θ )
Vxˈ = Vx Cos ( θ ) +
(1)
Vyˈ = Vy Cos ( θ ) - Vx Sen ( θ )

Vyˈ = - Vx Sen ( θ )+ Vy Cos ( θ ) (2)

Vxˈ Cos ( θ ) Sen ( θ ) Vx


=
Vyˈ - Sen ( θ ) Cos ( θ ) Vy

R ( matriz de rotación )

vRˈ = RR * vR
RR ᵀ * RR = I

KRˈ ṵˈ = fRˈ Sistema Local


ṵˈ = RR ṵ Relacion desplazamiento local con global
fRˈ = RR fR Relacion fuerza local con global

KRˈ RR ṵ = RR fR

( RR ᵀ KRˈ RR ) ṵ = RR ᵀ RR fR

KR ṵ = fR Sistema Global

KR = RR ᵀ KRˈ RR

1 0 -1 0
KRˈ = EA/L 0 0 0 0
-1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0

Considerando los dos extremos de la barra ( i y j)

uˈ1 = RR u1
uˈ2 u2

uˈ3 = RR u3
uˈ4 u4
Local Global

uˈ1 RR 0R u1
ṵˈ = uˈ2 = u2
uˈ3 u3
uˈ4 0R RR u4
ṵˈ = TR ṵ
ṵˈ = TR ṵ

fˈ1 Cos ( θ ) Sen ( θ ) f1


=
fˈ 2 - Sen ( θ ) Cos ( θ ) f2

fˈ3 Cos ( θ ) Sen ( θ ) f3


3 =
fˈ 4 - Sen ( θ ) Cos ( θ ) f4

3
3 5fˈ1 RR 0R f1
2 2
fRˈ = fˈ2 4 = f2
fˈ3 f3
5
fˈ4 0R RR f4
3 4 fRˈ = TR fR
6
Considerando todo el elemento
1
KRˈ ṵˈ = fRˈ 1 Sistema Local
ṵˈ = TR ṵ Relacion desplazamiento local con global
fRˈ = TR fR Relacion fuerza local con global

KRˈ TR ṵ = TR fR

( TR ᵀ KRˈ TR ) ṵ = TR ᵀ TR fR

KR ṵ = fR Sistema Global

KR = TR ᵀ KRˈ TR c = Cos ( θ ) s = Sen ( θ )

c s 0 0
TR = -s c 0 0
0 0 c s
0 0 -s c

c -s 0 0
TR ᵀ = s c 0 0
o o c -s
o o s c

1 0 -1 0
KRˈ = EA/L 0 0 0 0
-1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0

c 0 -c 0
TR ᵀ Kˈ = EA/L s 0 -s 0
-c 0 c 0
-s 0 s 0

c² cs -c² -cs
KR = TR ᵀ KRˈ TR = EA/L cs s² -cs -s²
-c² -cs c² cs
-cs -s² cs s²
MATRIZ DE RIGIDEZ SISTEMA GLOBAL
EJEMPLO ENCONTRAR ESFUERZOS AXIALES EN CADA ELEMENTO
2000 KG
A = 10 cm2
E = 2.1 x 10 ⁶k/cm2

Continua adjunto.
Deformacion unitaria en las direcciones X, Y y Z

Ɛx= ∂u/∂x Ɛy= ∂u/∂y


Ɛz= ∂u/∂z

Ɛz

Ɛy

Ɛx

F1

F2
x ( variable) dx
A ( constante)

dV = A dx

Ɛx= ∂u/∂x Ɛx= du/∂x Por ser unico


/2 EA ∫ ( du/∂x)² dx

A ( 1/L)² x X varia de 0 a L

A ( 1/L)² L

EA ( 1/L)² x X varia de 0 a L

EA ( 1/L)² L
A ( 1/L)² x X varia de 0 a L

A ( 1/L)² L

EA ( 1/L)² x X varia de 0 a L

EA ( 1/L)² L
ƩM =0
Δc > Δa+Δb

desplazamiento unitario

or la aplicación de una fuerza unitaria


atriz de fuerza
F1
F2
F3
2000 KG
A = 10 cm2
E = 2.1 x 10 ⁶ k/cm2
3

3
3 3 5
2 2 4

3 3 4
6

1
1

Elemento 1 y 2
2 4
1 3

i j

E = 2100000 kg/cm2 cos(θ ) = 1


A= 10 cm2 sen(θ ) = 0
θ= 0 cos²(θ ) = 1
L = 300 cm sen²(θ ) = 0
EA/L = 70000 cos(θ ) sen (θ )= 0

c² cs -c² -cs
KR = EA/L cs s² -cs -s²
-c² -cs c² cs
-cs -s² cs s²

2 3 4 5
0 0 1 0
70,000.00 - -70,000.00 -
KR = - - - -
-70,000.00 - 70,000.00 -
- - - -
4
3

elemento 3 y 4
2 4
1 3 2 θ = 90
1

i j
E = 2100000 kg/cm2 cos(θ ) = 0.000
A= 10 cm2 sen(θ ) = 1
θ= 90 cos²(θ ) = 0.00
L = 300 cm sen²(θ ) = 1
EA/L = 70000 cos(θ ) sen (θ )= 0.000

c² cs -c² -cs
KR = EA/L cs s² -cs -s²
-c² -cs c² cs
-cs -s² cs s²

1 0 4 5
0 0 2 3
0.00 0.00 -0.00 -0.00
KR = 0.00 70,000.00 -0.00 -70,000.00
-0.00 -0.00 0.00 0.00
-0.00 -70,000.00 0.00 70,000.00

4
3
elemento 5
2 4
1 3 2 θ = 45
1

i j

E = 2100000 kg/cm2 cos(θ ) = 0.707


A= 10 cm2 sen(θ ) = 0.7071067812
θ= 45 cos²(θ ) = 0.50
L = 424.2640687119 cm sen²(θ ) = 0.5
EA/L = 49497.4746830583 cos(θ ) sen (θ )= 0.500

c² cs -c² -cs
KR = EA/L cs s² -cs -s²
-c² -cs c² cs
-cs -s² cs s²

0 0 4 5
24,748.74 24,748.74 -24,748.74 -24,748.74
KR = 24,748.74 24,748.74 -24,748.74 -24,748.74
-24,748.74 -24,748.74 24,748.74 24,748.74
-24,748.74 -24,748.74 24,748.74 24,748.74

4
3
3
elemento 6
2 4
1 3 θ = 135

i j

E = 2100000 kg/cm2 cos(θ ) = -0.707106781


A= 10 cm2 sen(θ ) = 0.7071067812
θ= 135 cos²(θ ) = 0.50000000
L = 424.2640687119 cm sen²(θ ) = 0.50000000
EA/L = 49497.4746830583 cos(θ ) sen (θ )= -0.50000000

c² cs -c² -cs
KR = EA/L cs s² -cs -s²
-c² -cs c² cs
-cs -s² cs s²
1 0 2 3
24,748.74 -24,748.74 -24,748.74 24,748.74
KR = -24,748.74 24,748.74 24,748.74 -24,748.74
-24,748.74 24,748.74 24,748.74 -24,748.74
24,748.74 -24,748.74 -24,748.74 24,748.74

RIGIDEZ LATERAL DEL SISTEMA

94,748.74 -24,748.74 24,748.74 -0.00


-24,748.74 94,748.74 -24,748.74 -70,000.00
KR = 24,748.74 -24,748.74 94,748.74 -
-0.00 -70,000.00 - 94,748.74
-0.00 - - 24,748.74

MATRIZ DE FUERZA

0
fR = 2000
0
0
0

KR ṵ = fR

ṵ = KR⁻¹ fR

1.2806380134E-05 7.1428571E-06 -1.479334151E-06 5.6635229915E-06


ṵ = 7.1428571429E-06 3.4488765E-05 7.142857143E-06 2.7345908034E-05
-1.4793341513E-06 7.1428571E-06 1.280638013E-05 5.6635229915E-06
5.6635229915E-06 2.7345908E-05 5.663522992E-06 3.3009431025E-05
-1.4793341513E-06 -7.1428571E-06 -1.479334151E-06 -8.622191294E-06

0.0142857143
0.0689775304
ṵ = 0.0142857143
0.0546918161
-0.0142857143

FUERZAS EN CADA ELEMENTO

ELEMNTO 1

70000 0 -70000 0
0 0 0 0
-70000 0 70000 0
0 0 0 0

-1000
0
1000
0

ELEMNTO 2

70000 0 -70000 0
0 0 0 0
-70000 0 70000 0
0 0 0 0

1000
0
-1000
0

ELEMENTO 3

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


KR = 0.00 70000.00 0.00 -70000.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 -70000.00 0.00 70000.00

0.00
-1000.00
0.00
1000.00
ELEMENTO 4

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


KR = 0.00 70000.00 0.00 -70000.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 -70000.00 0.00 70000.00

0.00
1000.00
0.00
-1000.00

ELEMENTO 5

0 0 4 5
24748.7373415292 24748.7373415 -24748.73734153 -24748.737341529
KR = 24748.7373415292 24748.7373415 -24748.73734153 -24748.737341529
-24748.737341529 -24748.737342 24748.737341529 24748.737341529
-24748.737341529 -24748.737342 24748.737341529 24748.737341529

-1000
fR = -1000
1000 1000
1000 1000

1000

Cos ( θ ) Sen ( θ ) 1000

- Sen ( θ ) Cos ( θ )

fRˈ = TR fR
θ = 45 0.707106781 0.7071067812 0
fRˈ = -0.7071067812 0.707106781 0
cos(θ ) = 0.707106781 0 0 0.707106781
sen(θ ) = 0.7071067812 0 0 -0.7071067812

-1414.21
1414.21
fRˈ = 0.00
1414.21
0.00 TRACCION

1414.21

ELEMENTO 6
1 0 2 3
24748.737341529 -24748.737342 -24748.73734153 24748.737341529
KR = -24748.737341529 24748.7373415 24748.737341529 -24748.737341529
-24748.737341529 24748.7373415 24748.737341529 -24748.737341529
24748.7373415292 -24748.737342 -24748.73734153 24748.737341529

-1000
fR = 1000
1000
-1000

fRˈ = TR fR
θ= 135 -0.707106781 0.7071067812 0
fRˈ = -0.7071067812 -0.707106781 0
cos(θ ) = -0.707106781 0 0 -0.707106781
sen(θ ) = 0.7071067812 0 0 -0.7071067812
1414.21
1414.21
fRˈ = 0.00 COMPRESION
-1414.21 1414.21
0.00
0 2
0 3
1 4
0 5
0 1
0 0
2 4
3 5

0
0
4
5
2
1

1
0
2
3

-0.00
-
-
24,748.74
94,748.74

-1.4793342E-06 0
-7.1428571E-06 2000
-1.4793342E-06 0
-8.6221913E-06 0
1.280638E-05 0

0
0
0.0142857143
0

0.0689775304
0.0142857143
0.0546918161
-0.0142857143

0.00
0.00
0.0546918161
0.0142857143
0.0142857143
0
0.0546918161
-0.0142857143

0
0
0.0546918161
-0.0142857143

0 -1000
0 -1000
0.7071067812 1000
0.707106781 1000

1414.21
0.0142857143
0
0.0689775304
0.0142857143

0 -1000
0 1000
0.7071067812 1000
-0.707106781 -1000

1414.21