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56 Mednarodna žirija Jaime Serra 57

← → I N T E R VJ U
Prekrivane ljubezni (detajl) S Jaimejem Serro se je
Reči, ki so paru pomembne v
njunem čustvenem razmerju
pogovarjal Aljaž Vindiš.
Statistika
zajema vse, zato ni
Jaime Serra (ocenjene od 0 do 10).


Overlapping loves (detail)
Importance, on a scale of 0 predstavnica nikogar
to 10, that the members of
a couple give to a series of

Sociabilization
concepts in the frame of an

Commitment

Appearance
Intelligence

Complicity

Sensitivity
emotional relationship.

Audacity

Ideology
Physical

Respect
Fidelity

Loyalty

Affinity
Money
Love
Sex
10

Kakšna je bila scena na področju infografike, ko ste začenjali


kariero? Ste imeli na voljo dovolj domačih in tujih referenc ali
ste se morali znajti bolj ali manj sami?
9

Leta 1982 je začel izhajati časopis USA Today,


ki se je posluževal nekaterih novih prijemov v časopi-
8
snem novinarstvu: več prostora so namenjali slikam,
manj pa besedilom, povečali so velikost pisav in redno
7
uporabljali ilustrirane statistične grafikone – obliko, ki
bi jo danes lahko obravnavali kot protoinfografično.
Čez dve leti, 1984.-ega, je Apple lansiral svoj prvi ra-
6
čunalnik macintosh, orodje, ki je olajšalo oblikovalsko
delo in omogočilo hitro produkcijo v skladu s potre-
Jaime Serra (1964, Lleida), bami dnevnega časopisa. Ta tehnološka inovacija je
multidisciplinarni infogra- 5 omogočila razširitev kulturnega pojava, ki so ga začeli
pri USA Today.
fik in umetnik, je v letih
V osemdesetih letih je bila Španija potopljena v
1995–2001 delal za argentin- 4 proces politične tranzicije iz diktature v demokratično
ski časopis Clarín in po- ureditev, kar je vse nivoje družbe zavezalo h globoki
membno preoblikoval pomen etični in estetski preobrazbi. Novinarstvo je verjetno
3
eden od akterjev, ki se ne le spremeni sam, temveč
infografik tako glede estet-
spremembam celo načeluje: demokratične ureditve
skih kriterijev kot obravnava- ni mogoče predstaviti, pojasniti, zgraditi z uporabo
nih tem. Je dobitnik več kot 2
fašističnih medijev ali medijev, ki močno spominjajo
stotih pomembnih nagrad, na socialno-politično zasnovo, od katere se družba želi
posloviti. Tako je v poznih sedemdesetih in zgodnjih
tudi Malofiej in Laus, mar- 1

Aljaž Vindiš (1987) je obliko- osemdesetih prišlo do razcveta novih španskih


ca 2012 pa mu je prestižna valec digitalnih produktov in
medijev (El Pais, El Mundo, El Periodico), obstoječi pa
strokovnjak za vizualizacije,
organizacija SND (Society 0
zaposlen v podjetju 3fs. so doživeli spremembe takšnih razsežnosti, da so se
Raznoliko strokovno ozadje, ki
for News Design) podelila zajema tako računalništvo kot
pravzaprav ponovno rodili v drugačni, novi obliki (ABC,
vidna sporočila, mu omogoča La Vanguardia).
naziv najvplivnejšega ustvar- poglobljeno raziskovanje člo-
Temu prerodu je sledil nastop omenjenih novih
jalca infografik v obdobju veško-računalniške interakcije
in sprememb na področju tehnologij in konceptov, iz česar se je rodila infografika
1992–2012. V zadnjih letih medijev. Med strokovne
Š PA N I JA   /   S PA I N

izkušnje šteje tudi vodenje


kot sveža, obetavna zgodba. To nam lahko pomaga
redno sodeluje s španskim razumeti, zakaj imamo danes tako močno špansko šolo
Overlapping loves
(Detail) infografičnega deska časopisa
Dnevnik, kjer je s sodelavci
Importance, on a scale of 0 to 10, that the members
infografike, ki usmerja oddelke nekaterih najpomemb-
dnevnikom La Vanguardia of a couple they give to a series of concepts in the
frame of an emotional relation
v slovensko novinarstvo
uvedel napredne metode nejših medijev v svetu.
in francoskim tednikom She He Both
podatkovne analize in vizuali-
Takšno je bilo stanje, ko sem iz sveta ilustracije
zacije ter zanje dobil številna
Courrier International. mednarodna priznanja. stopil v svet novinarske infografike. V medijskih hišah
58 Mednarodna žirija Jaime Serra 59

sprva ni bilo jasne predstave, kako naj bi se stvari lotili. precej večji meri pa grafično oblikovanje, kiparstvo, → Se čutite poklicanega, da razkrinkate družbo, obsedeno
Nihče si ni bil na jasnem: ne infografiki (še tega ne film, literatura in zlasti glasba. Morda zveni nenava- Spolno življenje v trdnem z dejstvi in podatki?
odnosu. Jaime in Francisca,
morem trditi, da smo takrat bili infografiki) ne ured- dno, vendar menim, da so bili pisanje Boba Dylana, 2010 (detajl: junij–december) Res je, sporočilo mojega predavanja je bilo jas-
niki ne lastniki medijev. Eksperimentirali smo, iskali filmi Davida Lyncha, poezija Walta Whitmana, slike V obdobju 1 leta sta Jaime no: kolektivni podatki nimajo za posameznika nobene
Serra in njegova žena beležila
pot. Sodim v generacijo, ki je zgradila infografiko Francisa Bacona, oblikovanje studia Tomato ali misli in razvrščala svoje običajne vrednosti. S tem ne mislim, da njihov doprinos k druž-
kot stroko. Infografika je medij, ki je povezal različne Andree Fraser zame odločilnejši kot pa delo drugih spolne prakse. Prikazani so bi ni dragocen, a jih ne smemo tolmačiti kot odraz
zasebni podatki. Vsak dan
poklice, ki prej niso imeli jasne opredelitve. Sodobna infografikov. Prav tako je treba ločevati med vplivi in leta je predstavljen kot črn želja posameznikov, predvsem pa moramo paziti, da
infografika se jih je naučila obvladovati in kombinirati referencami. Na srečo je referenc malo in jih je težko pas, razdeljen na 9 tanjših se z njimi preveč ne identificiramo, saj to lahko vodi
črt, po ena črtica za vsako
tako, da so skupaj ustvarili nekaj novega. najti. Reference globlje spremenijo naš pogled na spolno prakso. zgolj v zmedo in frustracije. Statistika zajema vse,
Vzorčnih primerov, ki se zdaj zdijo samoumevni, svet in na naše delo. zato ni predstavnica nikogar. Je mit, nekakšna laž.

recimo Zemljevid kolere Johna Snowa, statistični grafi Med referencami vedno navajam pisatelja Sexual life of a stable Ko je moje delo na ogled v galeriji ali objavljeno v
Williama Playfaira ali dela Charlesa Josepha Minar- W. S. Burroughsa in umetnika Marcela Duchampa. relationship. Jaime and medijih, ta »svarila«, kot jim praviš, niso razvidna. Vsaj
Francesca, 2010 (detail:
da, večina oblikovalcev, ki so se začenjali ukvarjati Oba sta bila in ostajata katalizator sprememb mojega June–December) ne za večino in ne na prvi pogled. Seveda lahko ljudje
z infografiko, takrat ni poznala. Pozneje pa so bili videnja sveta nasploh in zlasti v komunikaciji. Drugi Over a one-year period, Jaime sklepajo o absurdnosti, če ne celo o nevarnosti, ki jih
Serra and his wife recorded
natanko ti vzorčni primeri tisto, kar nam je, med prihajajo in odhajajo, k Burroughsu in Duchampu pa and categorised their usual lahko prinese tovrstno upodatkovanje (datafication)
drugim, pomagalo začrtati smernice v tem novem se vedno vrnem. sexual practices. This personal posameznika, ampak to je le del sporočila mojih del, ki
data is visualised here. A black
komunikacijskem mediju. band was used to represent pa ni niti najbolj poudarjen niti najbolj pomemben. Ni-
Strokovnjaki, ki smo se takrat usposabljali, smo Se je v skoraj dvajsetih letih vaše kariere infografika, each day of the year, which mam posebne želje opozarjati na morebitne nevarnosti
was then divided into nine
za novinarsko infografiko imeli malo neposrednih vaših potovanj in srečevanj s kolegi z vsega sveta poklic thinner lines to reflect each podatkovništva (dataism). To so vprašanja, s katerimi
referenc. Jih ni bilo! Kopirali smo drug od drugega. kaj spremenil? type of sexual practice. naj se ukvarja stroka, ne pa običajni bralec ali gledalec,
Večinoma smo se zatekli k metodi poskusov in napak. Izraz infografika je zdaj populariziran: če danes za katerega dvomim, da take stvari sploh opazi.
Vseeno bi rad omenil kolega, ki sta s tovrstnim rečem, da se ukvarjam z infografiko, si ljudje vsaj Podatke poskušam uporabiti za raziskovanje
delom začela že nekaj let prej in močno vplivala na približno predstavljajo, kaj počnem. V preteklih dvaj- posameznika. Podatki so zgolj orodje (lahko bi bilo
mojo generacijo. Nigel Holmes, na primer, ki se je že setih letih smo videli, kako se je infografika imple- tudi kakšno drugo), s katerim se lotevam teme, ki se
pri Time Magazinu izkazal kot strašen talent, je delo mentirala v vseh medijih. Najprej v tiskanih, nato še mi zdi bistvena: posameznik. Sodobno obsedenost s
na področju statističnih diagramov pri USA Today v digitalnih. Uveljavili so se določeni koncepti, merila, podatki izkoriščam, da ustvarim želeni učinek na gle-
dvignil na povsem novo raven, tako s komunikacijske- ki opredeljujejo stroko, okvir, znotraj katerega se dalca. Podatki sami po sebi me ne zanimajo – zanima
ga kot z likovnega vidika. Moja Kruhova grafika zago- gibljemo. Od metode poskusov in napak smo prešli pa me, kako ti podatki zanimajo druge.
tovo ne bi bila mogoča brez Nigelovega prispevka. k skoraj znanstvenim parametrom. V večini medijev Za tiste, ki niso seznanjeni z pripovednimi
Verjetno pa je najbolj pomemben predstavnik je infografik presegel vlogo grafičnega oblikoval- tehnikami infografike, je osrednje sporočilo vsebina,
tega obdobja John Grimwade; kako je barvno paleto ca in postal tudi novinar z edinstvenim orodjem ki jo pojasnjujejo podatki. Ko operiram s podatki ene
uporabil v komunikacijske namene, pa navidezna za opravljanje poklica. osebe (ponavadi sem ta oseba jaz), vsebina govori o
preprostost njegovih strogih ilustracij in predvsem V osemdesetih letih je pogosto prihajalo do tem, kaj določena oseba počne v določenih okolišči-
njegov preplet estetike in informativne vsebine – vse nespametne uporabe infografik; ali so pretiravali z nah v določenem trenutku.
to je bilo ključnega pomena za stroko. Menim, da je velikostjo in količino ali pa so jih ustvarjali s pomanj- Sexual Life of a Stable Relationship.
Jaime y Francisca, 2010
Sex without penetration
Sex with penetration

Grimwade postavil nekaj temeljnih meril, ki še danes kljivimi informacijami. Še do nedavnega so se zlorabe
(Detail: July to December)

Bi lahko rekli, da je podatkovništvo postalo ideologija,


Sex whit third parties

Over a one-year period, Jaime Serra and his Orgasm for him

določajo okvire dela v infografiki. tega medija pojavljale pri vizualizaciji težko razumlji-
wife recorded and categorised their usual sexual Orgasm for her
practices. This personal data is visualised here.
A black band was used to represent each day
Orgasm for both
Anal penetration
morda celo prevladujoče prepričanje?
of the year, which was then divided into nine

Pa vendar sem omenil zgolj dve imeni in le ne- vih podatkov in informacij sumljive vrednosti. Menim, thinner lines to reflect each type of sexual
practice.
Other practices
Whitout sex Ideologija je močna beseda, vsekakor pa po-
kaj prijemov, ki so na novinarsko infografiko vplivali v da smo zdaj naposled našli pravo razmerje med datki še nikoli niso uživali tolikšne pozornosti, pa tudi
njenih povojih. Vplivi so zame zelo pomembna tema, količino in kakovostjo. ne veljave, kakršno imajo zdaj. V veliki meri iz zelo
saj menim, da je nemogoče ustvariti nekaj povsem Skratka, infografika je dozorela; danes je veliko preprostega vzroka: še nikoli nismo imeli na voljo
novega. Vedno gre za prilagoditev prilagoditve neče- resnejša in zanesljivejša. A je s tem izgubila tudi nekaj toliko podatkov in tako kakovostnih. Danes zbiramo
mu obstoječemu … improvizacije, svežine, presenečenja. Vidiki, ki se mi ogromne količine podatkov, ki se z naših računalni-
Pozorna, odprta in občutljiva oseba je ves čas ne zdijo zanemarljivi. kov pretakajo neposredno v podatkovne centre.
izpostavljena vsem vrstam vplivov z vseh področij. Včasih si moral človeka vprašati, kje je bil
Ne moremo se jim izogniti, kadar delamo. Večje je Vaše predavanje na mednarodni konferenci je temeljilo 3. marca ob 10:13, kje je kupil knjigo in kako se je po-
njihovo število in bolj raznoliki ko so, bolj se preple- na svarilnih primerih zbiranja, analize in posredovanja čutil ob poslušanju določene skladbe, kar ni obrodilo
tajo in bolj oseben se na koncu zdi rezultat našega podatkov. Občinstvo je bilo morda presenečeno, da jih sliši sila natančnih rezultatov, saj ljudje pozabljamo te
dela. Infografika sama je name vplivala zelo malo, v prav od mojstra na področju novinarstva in infografike. stvari. Vlade, javne ustanove in zasebna podjetja, kot
60 Mednarodna žirija Jaime Serra 61

← naloge ali nehotenega pomanjkanja etike; rezultat zilskih strokovnjakov s tega področja, Marcela Pligerja:
Južnomorski kit je enako škodljiv. Gradnja ekspresivnosti v infografiki: študija o stvaritvah
Infografična predstavitev
ene od 11 vrst kitov na svetu, Jaimeja Serre.
južnomorskega kita. Navkljub bliskoviti širitvi podatkovnih vizualizacij španski (in
← latinskoameriški) infografiki še vedno slovijo kot odlični ilu- Vaše nedavno delo in predavanje na mednarodni konferenci
The Southern Whale stratorji, ki razlagalne grafike pogosto ustvarjajo tudi ročno. je v središče postavilo vaše osebno življenje. Kaj je spodbudi-
An infographic presentation
of the southern whale, one of Od kod izvira ta posebnost? lo vaš premik iz okvirov novinarskega dela?
11 whale species in the world. Čeprav lahko najdemo primere ilustriranih Razlika med delom, ki sem ga opravljal pred
infografik že v 18. stoletju, je vizualizacija podatkov dvajsetimi leti, in mojim sedanjim delom je jasna. Ven-
relativno nov pojav. Kot sem že omenil pri prvem dar tega ne doživljam kot prelom, temveč kot logični
vprašanju, je bila situacija v Španiji drugačna zaradi razvoj svojih interesov; med obema obdobjema vidim
popularizacije novinarske infografike v osemdesetih. veliko skupnih točk.
Takratne vizualizacije podatkov so bile drugačne od Prej, v poznih devetdesetih letih, me je bolj zani-
današnjih. Ponavadi so to bile opisne ilustracije in upo- malo posredovanje informacij kot pa informacija sama.
dobitve statistik. Zato je logično, da so prav španski in Moje delo je bilo takrat prepoznano kot inovativno,
posredno latinskoameriški strokovnjaki razvili posebno vendar ni šlo zgolj za prelom v načinu prikazovanja
spretnost v tej vrsti infografik. podatkov – to je zgolj najbolj očiten vidik. V mnogih
Ko že govoriva o razvoju tovrstnih ročno ilustri- primerih je bila edinstvena tudi obravnavana vsebina;
ranih infografik: mislim, da so imele ključen pomen teme sem izbiral sam. Vsakdanje, priljubljene tematike,
prav infografike, ki smo jih sredi devetdesetih delali pri o katerih se bralci morda nikoli niso niti spraševali in
argentinskem časopisu Clarín, ko sem tam ustanovil jih mediji nikoli niso pokrivali, so bile predstavljene z
oddelek za infografiko. Občutno so vplivale na večino vidika, ki je v središče postavljal bralca, ga včasih celo
latinskoameriške produkcije. V Španiji in ZDA so takrat povabil k sodelovanju.
prevladovale skoraj izključno računalniško izdelane Očitno je, da je v mojem delu prišlo do radikalne-
infografike. V Argentini jih sploh ni bilo, in odsotnost ga razvoja: bralca sem hotel potisniti še dlje kot zgolj
jasnih referenc je pomenila izjemno priložnost za preo- v središče, želel sem, da bralec sam postane tema. Če
brazbo konceptov, ki so v Španiji veljali za povsem us- je bila prej tema mate čaj, je tema zdaj postala količina
taljene. Odtod izvira serija popolnoma ročno izdelanih skodelic kave, ki jo konzumira določen posameznik;
infografik, ki so morda bliže umetnosti kot znanosti; če je tema prej bila »vse, kar je mogoče ugotoviti o
med katerimi je najbolj znana Južnomorski kit. naši spolnosti iz naše pisave«, je zdaj tema »spolno
Poudariti moram, da je bil Clarín takrat časopis življenje para«. Dejstvo, da sem se prej osredotočal na
z daleč najvišjo naklado v španskem jeziku na svetu, opisovanje, zdaj pa na analizo, je prineslo premik od
dnevno se je prodalo milijon dvesto tisoč izvodov. konkretnih predstavitev k bolj abstraktnim. Pa vendar
so Google, Instagram, Spotify, Facebook, Amazon … urejeni. Zato sem za vir vzel sebe, kar ima na ljudi Časopis je bil sredi celostne oblikovne in strukturne med njimi ostaja povezava: analogna obravnava.
pa si jih po zaslugi shrajevanja podatkov zapomnijo. močan učinek privlačnosti: v podatkih sem jaz, jaz prenove, vsi mediji v regiji so proces pozorno spre- Prej sem se s takim pristopom hotel približati
Kar se tiče izmerljivega vedenja, vedo o nas več kot sem podatek. mljali. V letih, ko sem vodil oddelek na Clarínu, sem bralcu; s toplino ročnega dela in s krepitvijo informa-
mi sami. Zato je nemogoče zanikati vseprisotnost In, nazadnje, učinkovita estetika infografike svetoval tudi drugim vplivnim medijskim hišam, na pri- tivne vsebine, kar sem dosegel s slogom in tehniko.
in pomembnost podatkov. V današnjem svetu živeti gledalca prevečkat zavede, da ima opravka z resnico. mer brazilskima Folha de São Paolo in Editora Abril ter Zdaj pa unikatnost ročnega dela poudarja predvsem
pomeni prispevati podatke. V tem pogledu so podatki prevzeli vlogo slike – še perujskima El Comercio in La República. Upoštevanje sporočilo: podatki, ki jih predstavljam, ustrezajo eni
Infografika, komunikacijsko orodje, zgodo- pred nekaj leti smo na podoben način prehitro verjeli mojih nasvetov je, med drugim, porodilo tudi uporabo sami, določeni osebi. Unikatno delo o unikatnem
vinsko in kulturno povezano z znanostjo, v zadnjem fotografiji ali pa televiziji. ročno narejenih ilustracij, ki so bliže umetnosti in omo- posamezniku. Nič manj bistvena ni tudi paradoksalnost
času pa z novinarstvom in z iskanjem čudežne, Na srečo smo danes bolj skeptični do medi- gočajo ekspresivnejši izraz. Svetoval sem tudi pri izbiri situacije, namreč analogna obravnava podatkov
vseobsegajoče objektivnosti, nam lahko zdaj upo- jev nasploh in še posebej do slikovnega materiala. strokovnjakov, ki bi lahko vodili oddelke, kakršen je bil v digitalnem svetu.
dablja resničnost na načine, ki si jih nekdaj nismo Zaznavam pa nekakšno vero v vizualizirane podat- moj pri Clarínu. Seveda sem predlagal posameznike, ki Da poleg objavljanja v medijih zdaj svoje delo
mogli niti predstavljati – zahvaljujoč novi surovini, ke – bolj ko so vizualizacije zapletene in več podatkov so ustrezali mojim kriterijem in ki so bili za svoja dela razstavljam tudi v umetniškem kontekstu, je navsezad-
pridobljeni brez človekovega posredovanja: digital- ko vsebujejo, prej ustvarijo vtis »resnice«. Vera je zelo nagrajeni na mednarodnem nivoju. O Clarínovem vpli- nje tudi zame proces. Razširitev področja boja: ne gre
nim podatkom. Nove tehnologije nam omogočajo, da nevarna: hitro si pripravljen pogoltniti še tako never- vu lahko preberete tudi v akademskih člankih, ki so jih za to, da se odpovedujem pozornosti »bralca«, temveč
obdelamo na milijarde podatkov in z njimi operiramo; jetne laži. Laži, ki se pojavljajo prepogosto: včasih pisali doktorandi s področja semiotike in komunikacije, ji dodajam še pozornost »gledalca«, ta dva pa se zelo
niso pa to statistični podatki, povprečja, saj niso namenoma, včasih pa zaradi malomarno opravljene znana je, na primer, disertacija enega najvidnejših bra- razlikujeta. Časopisni papir in galerija sta komplemen-
62 Mednarodna žirija Jaime Serra 63

tarna terena, kjer ista dela – na moje presenečenje – na splošno cvetela. Medij, naj bo analogen ali digi- → INTERVIEW
enako funkcionirajo. talen, ne igra nobene vloge. To ni vprašanje. V obeh Jaime Serra was

Naj povzamem: čeprav je sprememb v mojih primerih je mogoče narediti dobre infografike, ki se
interviewed by Aljaž Vindiš.
Statistics
dveh obdobjih morda malo, so bistvene in radikalne.
Nekateri kolegi, zlasti umetniki, mi pravijo, da sem se
prilagajajo njunim lastnostim. Gre za vprašanje samega
pisnega novinarstva in njegovega preživetja v času, encompass all,
s področja novinarstva jasno premaknil na področje ko se je poslovni model, na katerem je temeljil zadnjih so they represent
umetnosti. Spet drugim, večinoma novinarjem, pa se sto let, znašel v hudi krizi, iz katere še ne najdemo
zdi, da je moje delo nova in edinstvena vrsta novinar- izhoda. Težava ni v smrti tiska, le pravega poslovnega no one
stva. Zame, ki sem se bal, da me ta premik iz novi- modela še nismo našli, da bi novinarstvo lahko obstalo
narstva ne bo pripeljal sploh nikamor, sta obe mnenji v digitalnem mediju. Posledično novinarstvu ne mo-
razlog za praznovanje. rem napovedati svetle prihodnosti, kar je kritično za
stanje naše družbe.
Na začetku predavanja ste z vizualizacijo podatkov opisali Sodobnost in prihodnost novinarstva je trenut-
intimni odnos s svojo ženo. Pozneje ste pokazali grafikone no v radiu – kdo bi si mislil! – in v televiziji, najbolj
čustvene dinamike vaše družine in na koncu analizo zbira- vizualnem vseh medijev, v katerem so infografike manj When you started your career, how did the infographics scene
teljskih navad vašega otroka. Kako pomembno je za vas, da relevantne, najbrž zaradi slikovne narave preostalih look like? Have you had many domestic and foreign references
prikažete zgodbe oseb, ki se skrivajo za podatki? materialov: manj so potrebne. to draw from, or did you have to figure most of it out yourself?
V svojem delu se predstavljam z upodatkova- V nasprotju s preteklimi desetletji pa danes When the newspaper USA Today appeared
njem svojega vsakdana, oziroma, še bolje, z upodatko- najboljše infografike niso več novinarske. Odprla so se in 1982, it implemented several new approaches in
vanjem percepcije tega vsakdana. Takšno pretvarjanje nova področja, ki potrebujejo infografično interpreta- printed journalism: more space was designated for
v podatke nima praktične vrednosti. Ne potrebujem cijo: oglaševanje, družbena omrežja, mobilne aplika- pictures and less so for text, font size was increased
Jaime Serra (1964, Lleida),
vizualizacije, da bi vedel, ali je, na primer, moj odnos cije … Pri vizualizaciji podatkov ne gre za vprašanje, ali and regular illustrated statistical diagrams were often
z ženo dober ali imava krizo. Ne zdi se mi niti, da so ima infografika prihodnost: podatkov brez infografik the multidisciplinary in- used – a form that could today be considered protoin-
ti podatki zanimivi za druge. Nič posebnega nisem. ne bi mogli prikazati, kar pomeni, da jih praktično fographer and artist, wor- fographic. Two years later in 1984, Apple launched its
Prav zaradi tega pa moja ideja deluje: gledalec se sploh ne bi bilo. ked for the Argentinean first Macintosh computer, a tool that facilitated design
osredotoča na subjekt in na perspektivo, v kateri je ta Živimo v zenitu infografik in infografov. Skoraj work and enabled a faster production in line with the
newspaper Clarín from
subjekt opazovan, ne pa na prikazane podatke. Tako si vsak državljan ima vsaj eno napravo, s katero lahko fo- needs of daily journalism. This technological innovation
iz svojega materiala nezavedno gradi lastno upodatko- tografira, in dostopa do platform, na katerih lahko deli 1995–2001 and significantly enabled the spread of a cultural phenomenon, initiated
vanje, zanj pa uporabi mojo vizualizacijo. Zame je velik slike. Nekaj sorodnega se dogaja z besedo. Nima pa transformed the language of at USA Today.
uspeh, kadar se zgodi kaj takšnega. vsak orodij in znanja za izdelavo infografik in družbenih infographics both in terms of In the 80’s, Spain was submerged in the process
Subjekt, posameznik, je zame najpomembnejši. omrežij, na katerih bi jih lahko s pridom delil. Povpra- of political transition from a dictatorship to a demo-
aesthetic criteria and the to-
Pravzaprav je edini pomemben. Zato se ukvarjam s ševanje po infografikah je tako večje kot kdajkoli prej, cratic republic, which obligated all levels of society
temami, ki so skupne vsem ljudem: spolnost, medčlo- število usposobljenih ustvarjalcev pa premajhno. Ta pics discussed. He has won to a profound ethical and aesthetic transformation.
veški odnosi, otroci … Te teme so pomembne, ker so faktor obenem pomeni nevarnost nastajanja slabih del numerous awards, including Journalism is probably one of the agents that was not
del človeškega, naj se jim sami posvečamo ali ne, jih zaradi strokovno neustreznih izvajalcev. Primeri slabe Malofiej and Laus. In March only subject to transformation, but was a leading factor
bodisi prakticiramo bodisi želimo ignorirati. Moje delo prakse so vsakdanji pojav, do te mere, da se infografika in these changes: democracy can’t be presented,
2012, the prestigious orga- Aljaž Vindiš (1987) is a
govori o poljubnem posamezniku, ki je konkreten in reče stvarem, ki to nikakor niso. Občutim pravi déjà digital product designer explained, built by fascist media or media that strongly
izmerljiv, ter gledalca vabi k empatiji, v kateri se nato vu: vrnili smo se v osemdeseta, ko smernice poklica še nization SND (Society for and visualization expert,
resembles the socio-political structure from which
currently employed at 3fs.
zrcali tudi sam. O svojem delu rad razmišljam kot o niso bile jasne. Dovolj je, da na Googlu poiščete slike News Design) awarded him A mixed background in society wishes to be distanced. This is why a new era
computer engineering and
jazu, ki si ga lahko nadene vsak. pod geslom infografika, pa boste že na prvih straneh the title of the most influen- visual communication has
of Spanish media began in the late seventies and early
našli vse kaj drugega kot infografike. Prej sem rekel: allowed him to explore their eighties (with El Pais, El Mundo and El Periodico), with
tial creator of infographics overlaps in human-computer
Kam bo po vašem mnenju vodil razvoj sprememb na po- »Če danes rečem, da se ukvarjam z infografiko, si existing media undergoing such radical changes that
dročju novinarstva v prihodnjih letih, z ozirom na nedavne ljudje vsaj približno predstavljajo, kaj počnem,« vendar in the period 1992–2012. In interaction and the changing
media landscape. Aljaž was they have taken on an entirely new and different shape
napredke na področju infografik in podatkovnih vizualizacij? sumim, da govorimo o različnih stvareh. recent years, he has been a previously engaged in running
the graphics desk at Dnevnik,
(ABC, La Vanguardia).
Likovno novinarstvo, fotonovinarstvo in uredni- regular contributor to the Slovenia’s second largest This renaissance was followed by the advent
newspaper, where they pio-
ško oblikovanje so vsi del pisnega novinarstva – predla- of new technologies and concepts, and infographics
Spanish daily La Vanguar- neered the use of advanced
gam takšno definicijo, saj vse spremlja besedni zapis data analysis and visualiza- emerged as a fresh, promising new story. This can help
– in hodijo z roko v roki. Če bo prihodnost novinarstva dia and the French weekly tion methods in Slovenian
us understand why we have such a strong Spanish
journalism and achieved
svetla, bosta zlasti infografika in vizualno novinarstvo Courrier International. international recognition. school of infographics today and why it leads the info-
64 International jury Jaime Serra 65

graphic departments at some of the most prominent new. It’s always an adjustment of an adjustment of ←

media companies in the world. something already in existence… Podatki iz žepov


Predmeti iz žepov najstarej-
This is just to outline the situation as it was when An attentive, open and sensitive person is always šega sina iz prve polovice
I stepped into the world of journalistic infographics. exposed to all kinds of influences from all areas. We leta 2005, ko mu je bilo 7 let.
V ospredju 4 koncepti: igra,
Media companies at first didn’t quite imagine how can’t escape them in our work. The larger their number sladkarije, narava, čarov-
we should go about doing things. No one had a clear and the more diverse they are, the more they inter- ništvo, prikazani odstotkovno
glede na celoto, spodaj pa
idea: not the infographic designers (I can’t even connect and the more personal the work we produce podroben dnevni prikaz glede
claim we were infographic designers back then) nor seems. Infographics had a limited influence on me. na količino in tip.

the editors or owners. We experimented and sought I looked more to graphic design, sculpture, film, litera- ←

our path. I belong to a generation that developed ture and especially music. It might sound peculiar, but Data in pockets
Objects found in the pockets
infographics as a profession. Infographics is a medi- I think Bob Dylan’s writing, David Lynch’s movies, Walt of Serra’s eldest son when
um that connects different professions, which never Whitman’s poetry, Francis Bacon’s paintings, the design he was seven. Distributed
in the central image are
had a clear classification beforehand. Contemporary of studio Tomato and Andrea Fraser’s ideas had a more four concepts: play, sweet,
infographic designers learned to direct and combine decisive influence on me than the work of other info- nature and magic, according
to the percentage of space
different aspects of professions so that we developed graphic designers. One also has to make a distinction occupied by the objects
something new together. between influences and references. Luckily, references within each concept as part
of the total. The lower graphic
Sample cases that today seem self-evident – for are few and far between and hard to find. References details the number and type
example, the Cholera map by John Snow, William have a deeper impact on our worldview and our work. collected daily.
8%

Playfair’s statistical graphs or the works of Charles Among my references I always cite the writing
Joseph Minard – weren’t known to the majority of of W. S. Burroughs and Marcel Duchamp. Both were
designers who started out in the field of infographics. and still are catalysts of change in the way I perceive
22%

Later on, these were the exact cases, which, among the world and especially in communication. Others
other things, helped us set the guidelines for this new come and go, but I always come back to Burroughs
medium of communication. and Duchamp.
Experts, who were then in training, had few direct
references for journalistic infographics. There simply In over 20 years of your infographics career, travelling and
weren’t any! We copied from one-another, mostly meeting colleagues around the globe, how have you seen the 30%

resorting to the method of trial and error. profession change during this time?
Nevertheless, I’d like to mention colleagues that The term infographics has become popularised:
started with similar work a few years prior to myself today, if I say I’m an infographic designer, people
and had a profound impact on my generation. Nigel have an approximate idea of what it is I do. In the past 40%

Holmes, for example, proved his considerable talents twenty years we have seen infographics implemented
at Time Magazine, and elevated the work in the field in all media. First in print, then in digital media. Various
of statistical diagrams at USA Today to a whole new concepts were put in place that define the field and january february march

level, both from a communicational as well as visual the framework within which we operate. We moved on
standpoint. My Bread infographic certainly wouldn’t be from our method of trial and error to almost scien-
possible without Nigel’s contributions. tific parameters. Within most media, the infographic
Probably the most important representative of designer surpassed the role of a graphic designer and
this era is John Grimwade; the way he used the colour became a journalist in his own right, with unique tools
april may june

palate to communicate, the deceptive simplicity of his for practicing his profession.
austere illustrations, and, above all, the intertwining Infographics were often imprudently used in the
of aesthetics and informative content – all this was eighties; they were either oversized, too numerous, or
crucial for infographics. I feel that Grimwade set the were created with insufficient data. Up until recently,
basic guidelines that still inform the parameters of abuse was prevalent especially with visualisations of
data that is difficult to understand and information with
magic
work in infographics.
play sweet nature

I only mentioned two names and just a few dubious value. I think that we’ve finally found a good
approaches that influenced journalistic infographics in balance between quantity and quality.
Data in pockets
Objects found in the pockets of my eldest son during the first half of 2005, when he was seven years old. Distributed in

its infancy. Influences are a very important topic to me; In short, infographics have matured; today, they
the central image are four concepts: play, sweet, nature and magic, according to the percentage of space occupied by
the objects within each concept as a part of the total. The lower graphic details the number and type collected daily.

I think it’s impossible to create something completely are much more serious and dependable. But they also
66 International jury Jaime Serra 67

lost some of their improvised nature, freshness and at that – at hand. We collect huge amounts of data that answer to the first question, the situation in Spain was perceive it as a break, but as a logical continuation of
surprise – aspects which I don’t find negligible. flow from our computers directly into data centres. different because of the popularisation of journalistic the evolution of my interests; I see quite a few common
Once you had to ask a person where he was on infographics in the eighties. Those data visualisations threads between the two.
Your lecture at the Brumen Biennial has been structured March 3 at 10:13, where he bought his book and how he were different from the ones we have today. Usually Earlier, in the late nineties, I was more interested
around cautionary lessons of collecting, analysing and felt while listening to a certain song, which didn’t make they were descriptive illustrations and visualisations of in communicating information than the information
communicating data. Coming from a master journalist and for precise results, because people forget these things. statistics. It makes sense that it was the Spanish and itself. My work was recognised as innovative, but it
infographic artist, many in the audience may have been sur- Governments, public institutions and private enterpris- Latin American experts who developed a particular wasn’t a shift in the way data was visualised – that’s
prised to hear them. Do you feel the need to speak up against es such as Google, Instagram, Spotify, Facebook, Am- competence in this infographic field. just the most obvious part of it. In many ways the
a fact and data obsessed society? azon, etc. remember because they collect data. As far While on the subject of hand-drawn infographics, subjects were unique – I chose the topics myself. Every
That’s true, the message of my lecture was clear: as measurable behaviour goes, they know more about I think the infographics we created in the nineties at day, popular themes, which viewers perhaps never
collective data has no value for an individual. This us than we do. Consequently it’s impossible to deny the Clarín newspaper were crucial for this particularity. considered and that the media never reported on, were
is not to say their contribution to society isn’t valua- omnipresence and importance of data. In today’s world, They had a pronounced influence on most of Latin presented in a way that put the reader in the centre,
ble, but they shouldn’t be interpreted as a reflection living equals contributing data. American production. In Spain and the US, computer and sometimes even invited them to cooperate.
of the wishes of individuals, and above all we have The infographics are a communication tool that infographics were all the rage. In Argentina they were It’s obvious that my work underwent a radical
to take care not to identify ourselves with them too is historically and culturally linked to science, and lately non-existent, and the lack of clear influences meant a evolution: I wanted to put the reader into focus even
much, because this leads to confusion and frustration. also to journalism and the search for a miraculous, fantastic opportunity for rethinking concepts that were more, I wanted the reader to become the subject. If
Statistics encompass all, so they represent no one. It’s all-encompassing objectivity that can now represent viewed as set in stone in Spain. This is where a series of the theme before was mate tea, the theme now was
a myth, a sort of lie. reality in ways we never could have dreamed of – all hand drawn infographics, that are perhaps closer to art the cups of coffee per day consumed by a certain
When my work is on display at a gallery or pub- thanks to a new raw material acquired without human than science, comes from; the best known among them individual; if the theme before was “all that can be
lished in the media, these “cautionary lessons”, as you interference: digital data. New technologies enable us is The Southern Whale. deduced about your sexual life from your handwriting”,
call them, aren’t clear. At least not to most and not at to process billions of pieces of data and manipulate I have to stress the fact that, at the time, Clarín the theme now is “sexual life of a couple”. The fact that
first sight. Of course people can surmise about the ab- them; this isn’t statistical data expressed in averages, was the newspaper with by far the highest circulation in I used to focus on description, and now I focus on anal-
surdity, if not even the dangers of such datafication of because they’re not processed. This is why I took myself the Spanish language in the world, one million two hun- ysis, brought a shift from concrete representations to
individuals, but this is just part of my work’s message, as a source, which really attracts people: I’m in the data dred thousand copies were sold daily. The newspaper more abstract ones. The link between the two remains:
which isn’t at the forefront nor is it the most important. and the data is me. was in the midst of a thorough redesign and reengi- an analogue approach.
I don’t feel the need to warn of the possible dangers Lastly, infographics’ effective aesthetics often neering and all media companies in the region were Before, I used this approach to get closer to the
of datafication. These are questions that should be misleads the viewer into thinking that they’re dealing paying close attention. In the years I lead the depart- reader, the warmth of hand-made drawings and the
left to professionals, not the average reader or viewer; with the truth. In this way, data usurped the role of ment at Clarín I also advised to other influential media strengthening of informative content, which I achieved
I doubt they even notice such things. pictures – just a few years ago we were quick to believe houses, such as Foha de São Paolo and Editora Abril with style and technique. Now I use the unique quality
I use data to explore an individual. Data is a photo or video. from Brazil, or El Commercio and La República from of hand-drawn work to emphasise the content: the
just a tool (that could also be replaced) that I use to Luckily, we’re more sceptical towards media as a Peru. My consultation led to the use of hand drawn data I depict represents one specific person alone.
tackle a subject I find essential: the individual. I take whole and especially towards photographic materials. infographics that are closer to art and enable more Unique work about a unique individual. The paradoxi-
advantage of today’s obsession with data to produce But I do sense a type of belief in visualised data – the expressive possibilities. I also consulted on the choice cality of this situation, of analogue data treatment in a
the intended effect on the viewer. Data itself is of no more complex the visualisations are and the more data of professionals who could lead departments such as digital world, also isn’t negligible.
interest to me – I am, however, interested in how this they contain, the faster they produce the impression of my own at Clarín. Of course I chose individuals who Besides publishing in the media, I now exhibit
data interests others. being true. Belief is a dangerous thing: it makes it easy corresponded to my criteria and have been awarded on my work in an art context, which is also a process for
To those who are not acquainted with storytel- to swallow the most brazen lies. Lies that come up way an international level. You can read about Clarín’s influ- me. Expanding the field of battle: it’s not just about
ling techniques of infographics, the central message is too often: sometimes on purpose, sometimes because ence in various academic studies, written by experts in giving up the attention of the “reader”, I’m merely
the content as explained by data. When operating with of carelessness or an inadvertent lack of ethics; the the field of semiotics and communication, such as the adding the attention of the “viewer”, and they differ
the data from one person (usually this person is me), result is equally harmful. well-known Construction of expressivity in infographics: greatly. Newspapers and galleries are complementary
the content speaks about what this person does at set a study of works by Jaime Serra by Marcello Pliger, one terrains, where the same works – to my surprise – work
circumstances in a set moment. Despite the fast spread of data visualisation, Spanish (and of the most prominent experts in Brazil. just as well.
Latino) infographic artists have over the years made them- To summarise: even though there are perhaps
Would you go as far as to say that data-ism has become an selves known for great illustrative craftsmanship, often creat- Your recent work, including the lecture at the 8th Brumen few changes in my work from those two eras, they
ideology, even a prevailing one? ing elaborate explanatory graphics, even by hand. What would Biennial, put your personal life front and centre, often are fundamental and radical. Some of my colleagues,
Ideology is a strong word, but it’s true that data you say contributed to this specific? in intimate details. What motivated your shift away from especially artists, tell me I’ve made a very clear move
has never before enjoyed so much attention or the Even though we can find examples of illustrated journalistic work? from journalism into art. Then again others, mostly
standing it now has. There’s mostly one reason for this: infographics in the 18th century, data visualisation is There’s an obvious difference between the work journalists, feel that my work is a new and unique type
we’ve never had this amount of data – and quality data a relatively new phenomenon. As I mentioned in my I did twenty years ago and the work I do today. I don’t of journalism. As for myself, who thought that the move
68 International jury Jaime Serra 69

away from journalism will bring me nowhere, both ble journalism to survive in digital media. Consequently →

opinions are cause for celebration. I can’t predict a bright future for journalism, which is Svet občutenj
Strasten poljub traja približno
critical for the state of our society. minuto, dovolj, da se v telesu
You began your lecture by describing the intimate relationship The present and future of journalism is currently sproži revolucija. Infografika
prikazuje različne procese,
with your wife through a data visualisation. You later showed in radio – who would have thought – and in TV, the most ki se posledično odvijejo.
us graphs of your family’s emotional dynamics, and an analy- visual media of them all, where infographics are less

sis of your son’s collection habits. How important is it for you relevant, probably due to the visual nature of the rest of A World of Sensations
to tell the human stories behind data? the materials: they’re less necessary. A passionate kiss lasts approxi-
mately one minute, enough
In my work I present myself through a datafication In contrast to the decades past the best info- time for a revolution to break
of everyday life, or even better, through datafication of graphics are not journalistic. New areas have opened out in the body. The infogra-
phic presents the various re-
the perception of my everyday life. Such datafication up that require infographic interpretation: advertising, sulting physiological reactions.
has no practical value. I don’t need a visualisation to social media, mobile apps… With data visualisation
know, for example, whether my wife and I are having it’s not just the question of whether or not infograph-
a crisis. I don’t even think this data is interesting to ics have a future: data can’t be visualised without
others. I’m nothing special. Exactly because of this my them, and in their absence it would be as if data was
idea works: the viewer focuses on the subject and the practically non-existent.
perspective through which this subject is perceived, We live at the peak of infographics and info-
and not the visualised data. Consequently, he unknow- graphic designers. Almost every citizen has at least one
ingly builds his own datafication and uses my visuali- device with which he can take pictures, and access
sation. When something like that happens, I find it a to a platform, where he can share them. Something
great success. similar is happening with writing. But not everyone has
The subject, the individual, is the most important the tools and knowledge for producing infographics
to me. Actually it’s the only thing that matters. That’s and social media access that would permit relevant
why I deal with themes that everyone shares: sex, sharing and taking advantage of their potential. The
relationships, children… These themes matter, because demand for infographics is higher than ever, and the
they are part of being human, regardless if we take part quantity of experts is not sufficient. This factor leads
in them ourselves, we either practice them or we wish to bad works being produced because of profession-
to ignore them. My work is about an arbitrary individual, ally inadequate designers. Examples of bad practices
that’s concrete and measurable, and invites the viewer are an everyday occurrence, to a point where things,
to empathise, so that he himself is reflected in it. I like which are far from being infographics, get designated
to think about my work as “a self” that anyone can wear. as such. I feel a distinct sense of déjà-vu: we’re back in
the eighties where professional guidelines were not yet
With all the recent developments in infographics and data clear. It suffices to google search the term infographic
visualisation, where do you see visual journalism evolving and you’ll find anything but infographics, even on the
in the next few years? first pages. I said before: “Today, if I say I’m an info-
Visual journalism, photojournalism and editorial graphic designer, people have an approximate idea of
design are all part of written journalism – I suggest what it is that I do,” but I suspect we’re talking about
this definition, because they’re all accompanied by completely different things.
text – and go hand in hand. If the future of journalism
is bright, then visual journalism and infographics in
particular will flourish. The medium, whether it be ana-
logue or digital, is irrelevant. That’s not the question. In
both cases it’s possible to make good infographics that
adapt to their particular qualities. It’s the question of
written journalism itself and its survival in a time where
the business model on which it was based for the past
hundred years is in deep crisis, and we can’t yet find
and exit strategy. The trouble isn’t the death of print, we
merely haven’t found a business model that would ena- jaimeserra-archivos.blogspot.si