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Determine la localización y clasificación de las singularidades y los ceros de las siguientes

funciones. Especifique cualquier cero que pueda existir.

𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑧 1 𝑧 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧
a) b) (𝑧+𝑗)2 (𝑧+𝑗)2 c) 𝑧 4 −1 d) coth 𝑧 e) 𝑧 2 +𝜋2
𝑧2
𝑧
𝑧−1 𝑧+𝑗 1
f) 𝑒 (1−𝑧) g) 𝑧 2 +1 h) (𝑧+2)3 (𝑧+3) i) 𝑧 2 (𝑧 2 −4𝑧+5)

Determine los residuos de las siguientes funciones racionales en cada polo en el plano finito
𝑧:

2𝑧+1 1 3𝑧 2 +2 𝑧 6 +4𝑧 4 +𝑧 3 +1 𝑧 3 −𝑧 2 +𝑧−1


a) 𝑧 2 −𝑧−2 b) 𝑧 2 (1−𝑧) c) (𝑧−1)(𝑧 2 +9) d) e)
(𝑧−1) 𝑧 3 +4𝑧

𝑧+1 2 𝑧+1 3+4𝑧


f) (𝑧−1) g) (𝑧−1)2 (𝑧+3) h) 𝑧 3 +3𝑧 2 +2𝑧

Calcule, en las siguientes funciones, los residuos en los polos simples indicados.

cos 𝑧 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧 𝑧 4 −1
a) (𝑧 = 0) b) 𝑧 4 +𝑧 2 +1 (𝑧 = 𝑒 𝜋𝑗/3 ) c) 𝑧 4 +1 (𝑧 = 𝑒 𝜋𝑗/4 )
𝑧
𝑧 1
d) 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧 (𝑧 = 𝜋) e) (𝑧 2 +1)2 (𝑧 = 𝑗)

Las siguientes funciones tienen polos en los puntos indicados. Determine el orden de los
polos y el residuo.

cos 𝑧
a) (𝑧 = 0)
𝑧3

𝑧 2 −2𝑧
b) (𝑧+1)2 (𝑧 2 +4) (𝑧 = 1)

𝑒𝑧
c) 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑧 (𝑧 = 𝑛𝜋, 𝑠𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑢𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑜)
𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑧 𝜋 3𝜋 5𝜋
a) 𝐶𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = , , …
𝑧2 2 2 2

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑑𝑜𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0
1
b) (𝑧+𝑗)2 (𝑧+𝑗)2 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑑𝑜𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −𝑖

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 𝑖
𝑧 𝑧
c) 𝑧 4 −1 = (𝑧−1)(𝑧+1)(𝑧+1)(𝑧−1) 𝐶𝑒𝑟𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1, −1, −𝑖, 𝑖


𝜋 3𝜋 5𝜋
d) coth 𝑧 𝐶𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = , , …
2 2 2

𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0, 𝜋, 2 𝜋, 3 𝜋 …
𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧
e) 𝑧 2 +𝜋2 = 𝑧 2 −𝜋2 = (𝑧−𝑖𝜋)(𝑧+𝑖𝜋) 𝐶𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 𝜋, 2𝜋, …

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 𝑖 𝜋, −𝑖𝜋
𝑧
f) 𝑒 (1−𝑧) 𝐶𝑒𝑟𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 𝑖, −1
𝑧−1 𝑧−1 𝑧−1
g) 𝑧 2 +1 = 𝑧 2 −𝑖 2 = (𝑧−1)(𝑧+𝑖)2 𝐶𝑒𝑟𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 𝑖, −𝑖
𝑧+𝑖
h) (𝑧+2)3 (𝑧+3) 𝐶𝑒𝑟𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −𝑖

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑑𝑒 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑛 3 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −2
𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 3
1 1
i) 𝑧 2 (𝑧 2 −4𝑧+5) = 𝑧 2 (𝑧−(1−𝑖))(𝑧−(𝑧+𝑖)) 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑒𝑟𝑜

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑑𝑒 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑛 2 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0
𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 2 ± 𝑖
2𝑧+1
a) 𝑧 2 −𝑧−2 𝑇𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑒 𝑐𝑒𝑟𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −1/2

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 2 𝑦 𝑧 = −1
2𝑧 + 1 = 0
𝑧 = −1/2
−𝑏±√𝑏 2 −4𝑎𝑐 −(−1)±√(−1)2 −4(1)(−2)) 1±√1+8 1±√9 1+3
𝑎=1 = = = 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 1 = = 2
2𝑎 21 2 2 2
1−3
𝑏 = −1 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 2 = = −1
2

𝑐 = −2
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 2
2𝑧+1 2𝑧+1 2𝑧+1 2(2)+1 5
lim(𝑧 − 2) [𝑧 2 −𝑧−2] = lim(𝑧 − 2) [(𝑧−2)(𝑧+1)] = lim [ 𝑧+1 ] = =3
𝑧→2 𝑧→2 𝑧→2 2+1

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −1
2𝑧+1 2𝑧+1 2(−1)+1 1
lim (𝑧 + 1) [(𝑧−2)(𝑧+1)] = lim [ 𝑧−2 ] = =3
𝑧→−1 𝑧→−1 −1−2

1
b) 𝑧 2 (1−𝑧) 𝑁𝑜 𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑒 𝑐𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑠

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1
𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑑𝑒 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑛 2 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1
1 −1
lim(𝑧 − 1) [𝑧 2 (1−𝑧)] = 𝑧 2 = -1
𝑧→1

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 𝑧0
1 𝑑𝑚−1
lim {
(𝑚−1)! 𝑧→𝑧0 𝑑𝑧 𝑚−1
[(𝑧 − 𝑧0 )𝑚 𝑓(𝑧)]}

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0
1 𝑑2−1 1 1 𝑑 1 𝑑 1
lim {𝑑𝑧 2−1 [(𝑧 − 0)2 ]} = lim { [(𝑧)2 ]} = lim {𝑑𝑧 [(1−𝑧)]} =
(2−1)! 𝑧→0 𝑧 2 (1−𝑧) 1! 𝑧→0 𝑑𝑧 𝑧 2 (1−𝑧) 𝑧→0
𝑑 1 1 1
lim {𝑑𝑧 [(1−𝑧)2 ]} = (1−0)2 = 1 = 1
𝑧→0
3𝑧 2 +2
c) (𝑧−1)(𝑧 2 +9) ? 𝐶𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑠

3 𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1, 3𝑖, −3𝑖


𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1
3𝑧 2 +2 3(1)2 +2 5 1
lim(𝑧 − 1) [(𝑧−1)(𝑧 2 +9)] = = 10 = 2
𝑧→1 (1)2 +9

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 3𝑖
3𝑧 2 +2 3(3𝑖)2 +2 5 5
lim (𝑧 − 3𝑖) [(𝑧−3𝑖)(𝑧+3𝑖)(𝑧−1)] = lim = − 12 𝑖
𝑧→3𝑖 𝑧→3𝑖 (3𝑖+3𝑖)(3𝑖+1) 4

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −3𝑖
3𝑧 2 +2 3(−3𝑖)2 +2 5 5
lim (𝑧 + 3𝑖) [(𝑧−3𝑖)(𝑧+3𝑖)(𝑧−1)] = lim = 4 + 12 𝑖
𝑧→−3𝑖 𝑧→−3𝑖 (−3𝑖−3𝑖)(−3𝑖−1)

𝑧 6 +4𝑧 4 +𝑧 3 +1
d) 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1
(𝑧−1)

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1
𝑧 6 +4𝑧 4 +𝑧 3 +1
lim(𝑧 − 1) [ ]=1+4+1+1 = 7
𝑧→1 (𝑧−1)

𝑧 3 −𝑧 2 +𝑧−1
e) 3 𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0, +2𝑖, −2𝑖
𝑧 3 +4𝑧

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0
𝑧 3 −𝑧 2 +𝑧−1 1
lim(𝑧) [ ] = −4
𝑧→0 𝑧 3 +4𝑧

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 2𝑖
𝑧 3 −𝑧 2 +𝑧−1 (2𝑖)3 −(2𝑖)2 +(2𝑖)−1 3 3
lim [ (𝑧)+(𝑧+2𝑖) ] = = −8 + 4𝑖
𝑧→2𝑖 (2𝑖)(2𝑖+2𝑖)

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −2𝑖
𝑧 3 −𝑧 2 +𝑧−1 (−2𝑖)3 −(2𝑖)2 +(2𝑖)−1 3 3
lim [ (𝑧)+(𝑧−2𝑖) ] = = −8 − 4𝑖
𝑧→−2𝑖 (−2𝑖)(−2𝑖−2𝑖)
𝑧+1 2
f) (𝑧−1) 𝑈𝑛 𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑑𝑒 2𝑑𝑜 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 𝑧0
1 𝑑𝑚−1
lim {
(𝑚−1)! 𝑧→𝑧0 𝑑𝑧 𝑚−1
[(𝑧 − 𝑧0 )𝑚 𝑓(𝑧)]}

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1
1 𝑑 (𝑧+1)2
lim {𝑑𝑧 [(𝑧 − 1)2 ]} = lim 2(𝑧 + 1) = 2(1 + 1) = 4
(2−1)! 𝑧→1 (𝑧−1)2 𝑧→1
𝑧+1
g) (𝑧−1)2 (𝑧+3) 𝐶𝑒𝑟𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −1

𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −3
𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑜 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑜 2 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −3
𝑧+1 𝑧+1 (−3)+1 −3+1 1
lim (𝑧) (𝑧−1)2 (𝑧+3)= lim (𝑧) (𝑧−1)2= ((3−)−1)2 = (−3+1)2 = − 8
𝑧→−3 𝑧→−3

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 1
1 𝑑 (𝑧+1) 𝑑 (𝑧+1) −(𝑧+1) 1
lim {𝑑𝑧 [(𝑧 − 1)2 ]} = lim {𝑑𝑧 [(𝑧+3)]} = lim { (𝑧+3)2 + (𝑧+3)} =
(2−1)! 𝑧→1 (𝑧−1)2 (𝑧+3) 𝑧→1 𝑧→1

−(𝑧+1)(𝑧+3) −(1+1)+(1+3) −2+4 1


lim { }= = =8
𝑧→1 (𝑧+3)2 (1+3)2 (4)2

3+4𝑧
h) 𝑧 3 +3𝑧 2 +2𝑧 3 𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑠 𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0, −1, −2

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0
3+4𝑧 3+4𝑧 3+4(0) 3
lim 𝑧 [𝑧(𝑧+1)(𝑧+2)] = lim [(𝑧+1)(𝑧+2)] = (0+1)(0+2) = 2
𝑧→−0 𝑧→−0

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −1
3+4𝑧 3+4𝑧 3+4(−1) 3−4
lim (𝑧 + 1) [𝑧(𝑧+1)(𝑧+2)] = lim [𝑧(𝑧+2)] = (−1)(−1+2) = (−1)(1) = 1
𝑧→−1 𝑧→−1

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −2
3+4𝑧 3+4𝑧 3+4(−2) 3−8 5
lim (𝑧 + 2) [𝑧(𝑧+1)(𝑧+2)] = lim [𝑧(𝑧+1)] = (−2)(−2+1) =−2(−1) − 2
𝑧→−2 𝑧→−2
cos 𝑧
a) (𝑧 = 0)
𝑧

cos 𝑧
lim (𝑧 − 0) [ ]=1
𝑧→0 𝑧
𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧
b) 𝑧 4 +𝑧 2 +1 (𝑧 = 𝑒 𝜋𝑗/3 )

𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧 𝑧−𝑒 𝜋𝑗/3 1 1 √3


lim
𝜋𝑗/3
(𝑒 𝜋𝑗/3 ) [𝑧 4 +𝑧 2 +1] = lim [
𝜋𝑗/3 𝑧 4 +𝑧 2 +1
] lim 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 4𝑧 3 +2𝑧 = (− 4 12 𝑖)(𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑒 𝜋𝑗/3 )
𝑧→𝑒 𝑧→𝑒 𝑧→𝑒 𝜋𝑗/3

𝑧 4 −1
c) 𝑧 4 +1 (𝑧 = 𝑒 𝜋𝑗/4 )

𝜋𝑖
𝑧 4 −1 1 1 −√2
lim (𝑧 − 𝑒 𝜋𝑖/4 ) ( ) = lim 𝑧4 − 1 = = ( 𝜋𝑖 ) ((𝑒 4 )4 − 1) =( −
𝑧→𝑒𝜋𝑖/4 𝑧 4 +1 𝑧→𝑒𝜋𝑖/4 4𝑧 3 8
4(𝑒 4 )3
−√2 √2 √2
8
𝑖)(−2) = 4
+ 4
𝑖
𝑧
d) 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧 (𝑧 = 𝜋)
𝑧 𝑧−𝜋 1 1
lim (𝑧 − 𝜋) (𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧) = lim (𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑧) = lim (𝑧) cos 𝑧 = (−1) (𝜋) = - 𝜋
𝑧→𝜋 𝑧→𝜋 𝑧→𝜋
1
e) (𝑧 2 +1)2 (𝑧 = 𝑖)

1 (𝑧−1)2
lim (𝑧 − 12 ) ((𝑥+1(𝑦−1))2 (𝑥+𝑖(𝑦+1)2 )) = lim (𝑧 − 12 ) ((𝑥+1(𝑦−1))2 (𝑥+𝑖(𝑦+1)2 )) =
𝑧→𝑖 𝑧→𝑖
(𝑧−𝑖)2 1 𝑑 −𝑧 −𝑧 1
lim ((𝑧+𝑖)2 (𝑧−𝑖)2 ) = lim ((𝑧+1)2 ) =𝑑𝑧 = = (𝑖+1)3 = 4𝑖
𝑧→𝑖 𝑧→𝑖 (𝑧+𝑖)3
cos 𝑧
a) (𝑧 = 0) 𝑂𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑛 3 𝑧 = 0.
𝑧3

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = 0
1 𝑑3−1 cos 𝑧 1 𝑑2 (cos 𝑧) 1 1
lim {𝑑𝑧 3−1 [(𝑧 − 0)3 ]} = 2 lim { } = 2 lim{− cos 𝑧} = − 2
(3−1)! 𝑧→0 𝑧3 𝑧→0 𝑑𝑧 2 𝑧→0

𝑧 2 −2𝑧
b) (𝑧+1)2 (𝑧 2 +4) (𝑧 = 1) 𝑂𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑛 2 𝑧 = −1

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑧 = −1
𝑧2 −2𝑧
1 𝑑2−1 𝑧 2 −2𝑧 𝑑 2𝑧 2 +8𝑧−8 2(−1)2 +8(−1)−8
(𝑧2 +4
lim {𝑑𝑧 2−1 [(𝑧 + 1)2 (𝑧+1)2 (𝑧 2 +1)]} = lim { } = lim = =
(2−1)! 𝑧=−1 𝑧=−1 𝑑𝑧 𝑧=−1 (𝑧 4 +4)2 ((−1)2 +4)2
2−16 −14
=
25 25
𝑒𝑧
c) 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑧 (𝑧 = 𝑛𝜋, 𝑠𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑢𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑜) 𝑂𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑛 2

𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑜
1 𝑑2−1 𝑒𝑧 𝑑2 ((𝑧−𝑛𝜋)𝑒 𝑧 𝑠𝑒𝑛−2 𝑧)
lim {𝑑𝑧 2−1 [(𝑧 − 𝑛𝜋)2 ]} = lim { }
(2−1)! 𝑧→𝑛𝜋 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑧 𝑧→𝑛𝜋 𝑑𝑧

𝑢 = [(𝑧 − 𝑛𝜋)𝑒 𝑧 ] 𝑣 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛−2 𝑧


𝐿 = 𝑧 − 𝑛𝜋 𝑚 = 𝑒𝑧 𝑑𝑣 = −2(𝑠𝑒𝑛)−1 cos 𝑧
2 cos 𝑧
𝑑𝐿 = 1 𝑑𝑚 = 𝑒 𝑧 𝑑𝑣 = −
𝑠𝑒𝑛3 𝑧

𝑑𝑢 = 𝑒 𝑧 [(𝑧 − 𝑛𝜋) + 1]
𝑒 𝑧 [(𝑧−𝑛𝜋)+1] 2 cos 𝑧 𝑒 𝑧 (𝑧−𝑛𝜋)
-
𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑧 𝑠𝑒𝑛3 𝑧