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UMTS Cell selection and re-selection

Cell Selection process

Execute PLMN selection and cell selection process in sequence after UE bootstrap. The cell
shall be selected for staying and registration to network side after selecting a suitable cell.
UE will select the cell again after staying to a certain serving cell with UE motion and
variation of signal channel quality. The UE shall measure CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP for
FDD cells and P-CCPCH RSCP for TDD cells to evaluate the cell selection criteria

PLMN selection standard is that CPICH RSCP is more than or equal to -95dBm. UE will read
PLMN of cell which has searched for the strongest signal. PLMN also can be regarded as
selection access PLMN if failing to meet above standards but PLMN mark can be decoded.
Cell selection process:
The UE shall use one of the following two search procedures:
a) Initial Cell Selection:
This procedure requires no prior knowledge of which RF channels are UTRA carriers. The UE shall scan all RF
channels in the UTRA bands according to its capabilities to find a suitable cell. On each carrier, the UE need only
search for the strongest cell. Once a suitable cell is found this cell shall be selected.

b) Stored Information Cell Selection


This procedure requires stored information of carrier frequencies and optionally also information on cell parameters,
e.g. scrambling codes, from previously received measurement control information elements. Once the UE has found
a suitable cell the UE shall select it. If no suitable cell is found the Initial cell selection procedure shall be started.

For FDD cells: Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0


For TDD cells: Srxlev > 0

Where:

Squal = Qqualmeas – (Qqualmin + QqualminOffset)


Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas – (Qrxlevmin + QrxlevminOffset) – Pcompensation

Parameter ZTE Huawei Other


name: Discretions Value value Vendors
Squal Cell selection quality value (dB) It is only suitable to FDD cell
Srxlev RX level value (dB) for cell selection
Measured cell quality value: CPICH Ec/N0 refers to quality of
Qqualmeas signals received by FDD cell and it is only suitable to FDD
cell.
RX level value of measured cell: Received signal of FDD cell is
Qrxlevmeas CPICH RSCP (dB) and that of TDD cell is P-CCPCH RSCP (dBm)
and that of GSM cell is RXLEV ( dBm).
It refers to the minimum quality value required for cell ant it
Qqualmin
is only suitable to FDD cell. -18dB
Qrxlevmin The minimum RX level (dBm) required for cell; -115dBm
P compensation Max (UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH – P_MAX, 0)
UE_TXPWR_MA The maximum available TX power level of UE (which is read
X_RACH from system messages) during RACH cell access(maxRachTxPwr) 24dBm
P_MAX The maximum RF output power of UE , (dBm)

QqualminOffset (QqualminOffset): Offset to the signalled Qqualmin taken into account in


the Squal evaluation. The parameter is available only for FDD cells and SIB3. Whether to
broadcast QqualminOffset is controlled by parameter “QqulmnOffstPre where in ZTE=0”.
Which is means QqualminOffset =0 in our equation.
QrxlevminOffset (QrxlevminOffset): same as QqualminOffset.

Pcompensation = max (UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH – P_MAX, 0)

UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH: Maximum TX power level MaxRACHTxPwr on RACH (read in system


information) (dBm) (for cells under SRNC, it is the max value of MaxRACHTxPwr
(UUtranCellFDD); for cells under other RNC, it is the value of maximumAllowedUlTxPower
(UExternalUtranCellFDD); for GSM cell, it is the value of maximumAllowedUlTxPower
(UExternalGsmCell)).

P_MAX: Maximum RF output power of the UE (dBm)


Cell re-selection process

UE will select cell again after staying to the cell. Cell reselection includes measurement
execution and determination of UE. Following introduction is not suitable to HCS cell.

UE will consider Squal (FDD cell )as Sx in following rules:

 Measurement rules:
If the system information broadcast in the serving cell indicates that HCS is not used, then
for intra-frequency and inter-frequency measurements and inter-RAT measurements, the
UE shall:

 Use Squal for FDD cells and Srxlev for TDD for Sx, and apply the following rules.
1. If Sx > Sintrasearch, UE not perform intra-frequency measurements.
If Sx <= Sintrasearch, perform intra-frequency measurements.
If Sintrasearch is not sent for serving cell, perform intra-frequency
measurements.
2. If Sx > Sintersearch, UE not perform inter-frequency measurements.
If Sx <= Sintersearch, perform inter-frequency measurements.
If Sintersearch is not sent for serving cell, perform inter-frequency
measurements.
3. If Sx > SsearchRATm, UE not need to measure cells with different RAT
If Sx <= SsearchRATm, will measure other RAT m cells measurements.
If SsearchRATm is not sent for serving cell, UE perform measure other RAT m cells
measurements

 Cell re-selection determination rules are as follows:

Following cell re-selection standards are used for intra -frequency, inter-frequency and
inter-RAT cells:

Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts,s + Qoffmbms,s


Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n + Qoffmbms,n - TOn * (1 – Ln)
In case using HCS

Where:

In which: Tn is a timer and it shall be started up if signal quality of adjacent cell is better
than sum of signal quality of serving cell and relative offset ( Qoffset1s,n or Qoffset2s,n ) of
serving cell and adjacent cell. That is, adjacent cell shall be deducted by offset if signals of
adjacent cell fluctuate so that it is difficult to be regarded as target cell for re-selection. All
cells which meet S standard shall be founded out firstly then arrayed according to above R
rules and cell with the largest R shall be regarded as target cell for re-selection during cell
reselection determination. UE will execute cell re-selection process if re-selection interval
meets cell re-selection standard and UE has stayed in current serving cell for more than 1
second.
1. Minimum demand level of cell quality (Qqualmin).
2. Minimum Cell Receiving Electrical Level Threshold (Qrxlevmin).
3. Measurement Quantity for Cell Selection and Reselection.
4. Synchronization frequency Measurement Trigger Threshold for Cell Re-selection
(Sintrasearch).
5. Inter-frequency Measurement Trigger Threshold for Cell Reselection (Sintersearch)
6. Inter-system Measurement Trigger Threshold for Cell Re-selection (Ssearch, RAT)
7. Re-selection Lag 1 of Serving Cell (Qhyst1s)
8. Re-selection Lag 2 of Serving Cell (Qhyst2s)
9. Timer Duration for Cell Re-selection (Treselections)
10. Quality Offset 1 (Qoffset1s, n in SIB11) of Corresponding Serving Cell and
Adjacent Cell in SIB11.
11. Quality Offset 2(Qoffset2s, n in SIB11) of Corresponding Serving Cell and Adjacent
Cell in SIB11.
Huawei Other
Parameter name: Discretions ZTE Value
value Vendors
This parameter indicates the minimum required quality level of the cell which satisfies the condition of being
Qqualmin selected or reselected by UE. When the measurement quantity is CPICH Ec/No, only the measured quality of -18dB
the cell is over Qqualmin can the cell be selected.
This parameter indicates the minimum required received power level of the cell which satisfies the condition
Qrxlevmin of being selected or reselected by UE. When the measurement quantity is CPICH RSCP, only the measured -115dBm
received power level of the cell is over Qrxlevmin can the cell be selected.
This parameter indicates the measure as
determination standard for cell selection and
reselection. This parameter is determined in view of the cochannel interference. When you configure a
cochannel neighboring cell for the cell, the co-channel interference is larger. To better reflect the signal quality,
qualMeas 1: CPICH Ec/No
you should use CPICH Ec/No as the determination standard of the measure. However, when you configure an
inter-frequency or intersystem neighboring cell, there is no co-channel interference. In this case, it is more
appropriate to use CPICH RSCP as the determination standard for the measure. In a typical networking, there
are a lot of cochannel neighboring cells; therefore, you should select CPICH Ec/No as the default value.

This parameter indicates the intra-frequency measurement trigger for cell reselection. The UE uses this
sIntraSearch parameter to determine whether to 14 dB
execute intra-frequency measurement.
This parameter indicates the inter-frequency measurement triggering
sInterSearch threshold for cell reselection(Sintersearch) used by UE to judge 10 dB
whether inter-frequency measurement should be performed.
This parameter indicates the inter-RAT measurement triggering
Ssearch,RAT threshold for cell reselection(Ssearch,RAT) used by UE to judge 6 dB
whether inter-RAT measurement should be performed.
This parameter indicates the hysteresis value for FDD cells in case
the quality measure for cell selection and reselection is set to CPICH RSCP or Cpich EcNo. In cell-ranking
criterion R of cell reselection, the R value of serving cell equals to the measured value plus the hysteresis value.
qHyst1S For details please refer to TS 25.304.Configuration Rule: the risk of re-selection ping pong, the change of signal. 10 dB
The greater these hysteresis parameters, the less likely the cell reselections occur, and the better the slow
fading resistance capability, but the slower the reaction to the environment changes. Adjustment Suggestion: If
the signal fluctuate quickly, this parameter should be set larger.
This parameter indicates the hysteresis value for FDD cells in case
the quality measure for cell selection and reselection is set to CPICH Ec/No. In cell-ranking criterion R of cell
reselection, the R value of serving cell equals to the measured value plus Qhyst2s. For details please refer to TS
Qhyst2s 2 dB
25.304. Configuration Rule: the risk of re-selection ping pong, the change of signal. If the parameter value is
smaller, cell reselection is easier triggered in CELL_DCH, and vice versa. Adjustment Suggestion: If the signal
fluctuate quickly, this parameter should be set larger

This parameter indicates the cell reselection timer value. UE shall


reselect the new cell if the new cell is better ranked than the serving cell according to the cell-ranking criterion
R during a time interval indicated by Treselections.UE shall reselect the new cell if the new cell is better ranked
Treselections than the serving cell according to the cell-ranking criterion R during a time interval indicated by Treselections. 1 Second
Configuration Rule: the risk of re-selection ping pong, the change of signal. If the parameter is too low, ping-
pong reselection will be happened easier, and if the parameter is too high, it may result in too long cell
reselection delay, which influences the normal operation of cell reselection. Adjustment Suggestion: It will be
set smaller to reslect cell quickly on speedway (or other high-speed scenes.)
This parameter indicates the offset between the serving cell and the neighboring cell in the event that the
measure is CPICH RSCP. Cell reselection follows the R rule, and the R value of the neighboring cell is equal to
the measured value subtracting the neighboring quality offset. The parameter is determined depending on the
situation whether the specific scenario expects the reselection of the inter-frequency cell as soon as possible.
A larger parameter value indicates that the neighboring cell is more impossible to be reselected as the
destination cell, and therefore cell reselection seldom happens. A smaller parameter value is more likely to
trigger cell reselection. However, a larger value may result in poor quality of the local cell and good quality of
Qoffset1s,n the neighboring cell. In this case, cell reselection still will not happen. In co-networking of WCDMA and GSM, 0dB
continuous coverage is expected inside the WCDMA network. Only when the WCDMA network covers edges,
cell reselection from WCDMA to GSM is required. Therefore, in the suburbs with dense signals, you can increase
Qrxlevmin in SIB11 and Qoffset1-s, n in SIB11 (neighboring cell) to improve the difficulty for cell reselection. As
to the edges of the WCDMA network, especially a highway, the UE moves fast. In this case, the signal of the
WCDMA cell quickly decreases. In case that the UE goes into the GSM network coverage area but cell reselection
still does not happen. Therefore, you can increase Ssearch, RAT and reduce Qrxlevmin in SIB11 and Qoffset1-s, n
in SIB11 (neighboring cell) to help the UE
The recommended configuration is the same as
Qoffset2s,n 0dB
Qoffset1SNSib11.