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Esta norma internacional fue desarrollada de acuerdo con principios internacionalmente reconocidos en la estandarización establecida en la Decisión sobre Principios

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Designación: C119- 16

Terminología estándar que se relaciona


1
Piedra de la dimensión
Este estándar es publicado bajo la designación C119 de Þxed; el número inmediatamente después de designación indica el año de la
adopción original o, en caso de la revisión, el año de la última revisión. Un número en paréntesis indica el año de la última nueva
aprobación. Una superescritura
´ epsilon () indica un cambio editorial desde la última revisión o nueva aprobación.

Este estándar ha sido aprobado para el uso por agencias del Ministerio de defensa estadounidense.

INTRODUCCIÓN

, como usado aquí, es la piedra natural que ha sido seleccionada y fabricada a tallas speciÞc
Piedra de la dimensión
o formas, con o sin uno o varios mecánicamente adornados o superficies de Þnished, para uso como edificio
forro, contención, baldosa, monumentos y monumentos conmemorativos y varios productos industriales. El término
piedra de la dimensión
es a diferencia de la piedra aplastada y rota, tal que es usada para el conjunto,
roadstone, Þll o materias primas químicas. Como toda la piedra es un material natural, el deÞnition
excluye todos los materiales artificiales que simulan la piedra. En la práctica común, algunas piedras
de la dimensión son reforzadas, Þlled, o la superficie trató.
Los términos usados en deÞnitions y nomenclatura deben ser interpretados de acuerdo con scientiÞc
comúnmente aceptado y los términos técnicos de las ciencias geológicas excepto como por otra parte
speciÞcally notado.
Los ejemplos de tales excepciones son deÞnitions comercial más amplio de granito y mármol, que
se han hecho bien establecidos en la industria de piedra de la dimensión y comercio. DeÞnitions y
incluido en estos deÞnitions han sido formulados de acuerdo con el uso industrial común
términos donde
esto no está en conflict con el uso scientific corriente
.

TÉRMINOS GENERALES construcción de piedra


roca natural
— de calidad adecuada ser quar-
el ried
ancla — en general, una forma metálica insertada en una ranura o agujero y la reducción como la piedra de la dimensión ya que existe en la
en la piedra que asegura la transferencia de cargas de la en la industria de la construcción.
piedra a la estructura del edificio, directamente o a través de viruta un
— fragmento con la forma irregular desalojado de una piedra
estructura
un intermedia. superficie.
fondeadero — el sistema que consiste en piedra, ancla y pri-
revestimiento
piedra
— que lleva la no carga usada como el material que se vuel
estructura de mary, estructura secundaria o reserva que
en la construcción de la pared que contiene otros materiales.
previene movimiento lateral de la piedra.
arris —la unión de dos aviones de la misma piedra que se forma un adaptación
piedra
— de la dimensión usada como el curso superior de una albañ
borde externo. pared, a menudo se inclinaba para mudar el agua.
sillar — (1) un bloque cuadriculado de construir piedra; (2) una albañilería grieta —una ruptura parcial en la piedra (ver la fractura, la microgrieta,
de tales piedras; (3) un rectángulo adornado del modo costura).
delgado de piedra para volverse de paredes (chapa del sillar
a menudo llamada). reserva cúbicaen—general, una unidad de piedra de la dimensión gruesa que
porte de control u—
na ranura, generalmente no continua, cortada en el no exactamente deÞned en términos de grosor para cada clase de
atrás o la cama de la piedra de la dimensión para acomodar piedra, en particular para piedra caliza y piedra arenisca.
un apoyo - ing ángulo #Pages o clip (ver[2] Fig. 1.) Para mármol o granito, la reserva cúbica es una unidad que
es mayor que 50 mm en el grosor. Para la piedra caliza, la
1
Esta terminología está bajo la jurisdicción del Comité ASTM C18 de reserva cúbica es una unidad que es mayor que 75 mm a 100
Dimension Stone y es la responsabilidad directa del Subcomité C18.91 en
Nomenclature y DeÞnitions. mm en el grosor, y para la piedra arenisca, una unidad que es
La edición corriente se aprobó el 1 de mayo de 2016. Mayo de 2016 publicado. contraste,
mayor queverpiedra
150 mm adelgada
.) mm en el grosor. (En
200
Al principio aprobado en 1926. La última edición anterior se aprobó en 2014ɛ1 como
C119 Ð 14. DOI:
10.1520/C0119-16. piedra de reducción
piedra fabricada
— a dimensiones speciÞc.

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C119 - 16
fractura —una ruptura completa en la piedra (ver la grieta,
microgrieta, costura).
freestone —una piedra que tiene poca o ninguna dirección preferente de
la división que puede ser cortada libremente en cualquier dirección sin
fractura o división.
grano —(1) un componente de la roca distinguible que él
mismo tiene una identidad distinta, por ejemplo, un cristal
un fragmento
mineral, de la roca (en rocas sedimentarias), o clast.
un oolith,
(2) una dirección en un cuerpo de la roca a lo largo del
cual está más fácilmente roto, se dividió, o reducción. Ver la grieta.
granular —formado de partículas visibles al ojo no ayudado.
Para la piedra sedimentaria, la distribución de la partícula
predominante es menos de 4 mm en la talla.
histéresis —la tensión residual en piedra después de la tensión causar
FIG. 1 que lleva control tal tensión es cambiada.
instalación —el proceso de piedra de la dimensión que se reúne en a
estructura.
piedra de la dimensión
la piedra
— natural que ha sido seleccionada y
fabricado a tallas speciÞc o formas. kerf —(1) una ranura, local o continua, cortada en el borde de
DISCUSSIONTérmino de ÑThe piedra de la dimensión
es a diferencia de una piedra, típicamente con un vio la lámina, para la
la piedra aplastada y rota, tal que es usada para el conjunto, roadstone, Þll,
introducción de anclas. (2) la anchura de una reducción
o materias primas químicas. En la práctica común, algunas piedras de la
serrando a través de #Pages
la piedra [2]
se obstruye o juntando losas.
dimensión son reforzadas, Þlled, o la superficie trató.
(Ver Fig. 2.)
laminación —cuando aplicado al procesamiento de dimensión
piedra adornada
—Ver piedra de reducción, finished piedra.
piedra, se refiere a la vinculación adhesiva de capas múltiples de
durabilidad la—medida de la capacidad de piedra de la dimensión a
piedra o piedra a otros materiales.
dure y mantener su charac-esencial y distintivo teristics de
fuerza, resistencia al decaimiento y aspecto. transatlántico
un pequeño
— bloque de piedra asegurada a la cara trasera de a
La durabilidad está basada durante el tiempo que una piedra el panel de piedra de la dimensión con alfileres y pegamento
puede mantener sus características innatas en el uso. Este para el suministro de una superficie de rozamiento horizontal
tiempo variará según el ambiente, el uso y Þnish de la piedra oculta (ver Fig. 3a y 3b en C1242).
antes mencionada (por ejemplo, al aire libre contra el uso de
microgrieta —una grieta demasiado pequeña para ser visto con el ojo no ay
interior).
costura secauna
— separación natural que no ha sido Þlled o (ver la grieta, la fractura, la costura).
avalado.
microfissure —Þssure que no puede ser visto con el no ayudado
fabricación —cuando aplicado dimensionar piedra , cualquier del ojo.
procesos implicados en cambio de una pieza de piedra cruda a su Þnal
piedra monumental — roca de calidad adecuada para ser sacada
termine la forma de uso. Esto incluye, pero no es limitado
y la reducción como la piedra de la dimensión ya que existe
con recorte, división, molienda, perforación o cara-Þnishing.
en la naturaleza, como usado en el monumento e industria
descoloración (de una
pizarra)
pizarra —
que tiene un cambio de color de signiÞcant
conmemorativa.
el año de Þrst después de exposición a tiempo, a menudo el resultado
de modificación química de los minerales de hierro.
Piedra de finishedpiedra
— de la dimensión con uno o varios mechani-
el cally expuso superficies.
filling —la aplicación de materiales, a menudo cementa o sintético
resinas, en vacíos naturales en una piedra durante fabricación.
fissure —una separación que ocurre naturalmente que puede o puede
no afectan el rendimiento de la piedra.
flagstone —nominalmente las piezas de ßat de la piedra generalmente amuebladas
en formas irregulares con bordes rotos, típicamente usados para
pavimento.
fleuri-reducción (cortadaadj —
por
describe
la cruz),
la piedra que es cortada paralela
a las venas naturales.
flooring —piedra usada como en peatón interior que lleva superficie. FIG. 2 Kerfs

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C119 - 16
costuras abiertas
unÞlled
— Þssures o grietas que ocurren naturalmente en las piedras alquitranadas, mostrando más o menos
piedra. claramente cómo la piedra fue al principio fijada, y con o sin
color o cambios de la talla del grano o vacíos.
panel —piedra de reducción con dimensiones de la cara grandes con relación a su
grosor, para colocación en una estructura del edificio o roca —naturalmente ocurrir, agregación consolidada de una
asamblea del marco. o más minerales que constituyen la corteza de la Tierra.
pavimento piedra usada en un peatón interior que lleva la superficieel rustication (o revelan) un
la — — surco continuo cortó dentro del
como en patios, pasajes peatonales, calzadas, y otros por el estilo. (Ver
vuélvase o a lo largo del borde de un panel de piedra de la dimensión, po
flooring) para imitar visualmente o acentuar una ubicación conjunta
(ver Fig. 4). #Pages [3]
hoyos pequeñas
— depresiones, vacíos o agujeros de alfiler en piedra, sobre todo
en una superficie de Þnished. muestra — un pedazo o cantidad de piedra, por lo general una losa,
el panel o sillar, que es cortado de un bloque más grande de la piedra.
finish pulido — una superficie que tiene el lustre alto y fuerte
reßection de luz de incidente. costuranaturalmente
— Þlled o rasgo unido en la piedra, tal como
una raya o una vena, que puede o puede no afectar negativamente el
procesamiento el trabajo
— implicado en transformación de bloques de la cantera
la fuerza de una piedra (ver
grieta, fractura, microgrieta).
en piedra de la dimensión, incluso aserradura, perforación, molienda,
la afiladura, puliendo, esculpiendo, y todas otras operaciones piedra formada — piedra de la dimensión tratada esculpiendo,
neces-sary para instalación. la molienda, serrando, u otros medios en conÞgurations no
plano speciÞc.
kerf rebajado de Unnuevo
kerf que
— incluye una segunda reducción en 90 grados
al eje kerf para acomodar el ancla conÞguration y dibujos de la tienda cuando
— aplicado dimensionar piedra , muy
impida al ancla interferir con el movimiento capabil-ity en la el dibujo detallado que muestra las dimensiones netas, unión
unión de piedra (ver Fig. 3).#Pages [3] dimensiones, ubicaciones de ancla y orientaciones, del
dimen-sion piedra y la relación con los otros materiales de
resination —un realce cosmético para apedrear losas que contienen
construcción usados.
los hoyos, Þssures, se rajan u otras irregularidades superficiales en cual
una resina adhesiva de epoxi, poliester o base acrílica ha sido losa —una pieza de piedra producida afeitándose o dividiéndose en el
aplicada a la cara de la losa y permitida curar antes del Þrst operación que muele o saca. Una losa tiene dos
pulimento de la losa. superficies paralelas.
cinta — en alguna pizarra, bandas estrechas de color contrastante otijeretada
el área
— de una piedra emerge de que una viruta ha sido
aspecto que se diferencia en cierto nivel en composi-químico desalojado.
tion de la parte principal.
piedra sana —la piedra que es sin grietas, Þssures u otro
grieta(1—
) una dirección consecuente o tendencia en un cuerpo de la rocadefectos
a lo largo
físicos.
que la roca es el más fácilmente partida o rota.
ortografía(1)—fragmentos o chips de una pieza de dimensión
(2) La orientación del grano en piedra, en particular en sedimen-
piedra. (2) piedra de desecho por lo general de tamaño
pequeño de la extracción y molienda de piedra caliza de la dimensión.

FIG. 3 Kerf rebajado de nuevo FIG. 4 Rustication

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C119 - 16
specifying authority— party requiring testing of dimension walls, veneered—See veneer.
stone material. waxing—the practice of Þlling minor surface voids in stone
specimen—an individual piece of stone that is cut from a with certain polyester compounds, cabinetmakerÕs wax, or
sample to be used for physical or mechanical testing. melted shellac. (It does not refer to the application of paste
wax to make the surface shinier.)
sticking—a method of repairing the butt edge of a broken
piece of stone, generally done with dowels, cements, or wear—the removal of material or impairment of surface Þnish
epoxies. The pieces are ÒstuckÓ together, thus ÒstickingÓ. through friction or impact.
DISCUSSIONÑWear is an artiÞcial process. The rate of wear may be
stone—a naturally-consolidated substance formed from affected by chemical action.
minerals, geologically synonymous with rock (see rock, see
dimension stone if selected or fabricated). weathering—natural alteration by either chemical or mechani-
DISCUSSIONÑThis term does not include any manufactured stone-like cal processes due to the action of constituents of the
products or manmade materials that simulate stone. atmosphere, surface water or ground water, or to temperature
texture— change.
DISCUSSIONÑChanges by weathering are not necessarily undesirable
(1) a modiÞed appearance of dimension stone resulting
or harmful; rather they may enhance the texture and color of the stone.
from one or several mechanical surface treatments. Untreated
stone surfaces have textural characteristics described under (2). STONE FINISHES—BY FAMILY
(2) that aspect of the physical appearance of a rock that is Every material used in construction has a Þnish or surface;
determined by size, shape, and mutual relations of the compo- dimension stone has a plethora of Þnishes. This section de-
nent grains or crystals. Textures related to dimension stone scribes common Þnishes and classiÞes them into a number
include equigranular (grains of approximately the same size); of families by relief or roughness. The Þnishes in each fam-
inequigranular (grains of markedly unequal sizes); porphyritic
ily are also arranged from the least relief to the most relief.
(see Note 2 under Granite Group); interlocking (in which
Stone Þnishes are a complex matter for a number of rea-
grains with irregular boundaries interlock by mutual penetra-
sons. New manufacturing or Þnishing methods or variations
tion); interlocking and porphyritic textures are characteristic of
or combinations of other methods of Þnishing stone are con-
granites and marbles; clastic (naturally cemented fragmental
tinually being developed. Stone Þnish names sometimes
grains but without mosaic or interlocking relations; this texture
overlap or are variations of other Þnishes.
is typical of sandstones and some limestones); mosaic (closely Finish options for any kind of stone vary by the geologic
packed grains with smooth to moderately irregular, noninter- category of the stone (whether igneous, metamorphic, or
locking mutual boundaries); granoblastic (a megascopically sedimentary) and the unique combination of geological or
granular mosaic texture in which the grains are tightly com- physical properties of the stone type. This means that any
pacted and the minerals are dominantly equidimensional and particular Þnish cannot be put on every type of stone (see
present irregular mutual boundaries; mosaic and granoblastic Applicability of Finishes for Various Stone Types Table in
textures are characteristic of metamorphic rocks). Guide C1528 for Selection of Dimension Stone for Exterior
thermal hysteresis— the permanent, incremental deformation Use). The individual deÞnitions are sometimes nonspeciÞc or
of certain stones due to thermal cycling, usually associated nearly overlap. In practice, a detailed deÞnition of a speciÞc
with loss of strength. stone Þnish is established between the producer and designer
through dialogue, or reference sample(s), or both.
thin stone/thin veneer—a cladding under 50 mm (2-in.) thick. The family or individual title ÒÞnishÓ will be used uni-
tile—a thin modular stone unit. formly throughout this section for ease of reference, al-
though the term ÒsurfaceÓ would be more accurate when no
unfading (slate)— a slate that shows no signiÞcant color work has been done on it and no improvements made
change within the Þrst year of exposure. postquarry (as in certain rough Þnishes; see Note 2). ÒSur-
vein-cut, adj—describes stone that is cut perpendicular to the faceÓ will be used uniformly in the sense of the outward
natural veining. appearance or face of the stone. Thus we have the Least
Textured Finishes (family) and the Polished (Þnish)Ña
veining—the presence in an otherwise homogeneous stone of highly-reßective surface, and so forth.
bands, streaks or irregular bodies of a contrasting color or Surface Variation
appearance, and frequently having a different mineralogical The dimensions of variation in surface proÞle given in the
composition to the predominant material. ÒVeiningÓ does following deÞnitions are for indicative purposes only. The
not apply to gneiss, commercial granite types, and slate (see values do not denote acceptable tolerances or minimum or
ribbon). maximum values of surface variation for any given Þnish.
veneer—a nonload-bearing facing of stone attached to a LEAST TEXTURED FINISHES
backing for the purpose of ornamentation, protection, or (less than 1 mm [ Ú
1 32 in.] of surface variation)

insulation.
DISCUSSIONÑVeneer shall support no vertical load other than its own polished—a highly-reßective surface, produced by mechanical
weight and possibly the vertical dead load of veneer above. abrasion and buffing.

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C119 - 16
honed—a non-reßective to semi-reßective superÞne satin-like bush-hammered—a uniformly textured surface with small
surface with no surface pattern, produced by mechanical evenly-spaced pits produced by a hand or pneumatic ham-
abrasion. mer and carbide-tipped head having numerous points.
smooth—a non-reßective surface with a barely-visible surface tooled—a linear patterned surface, consisting of parallel con-
pattern of random markings, produced by mechanical abra- cave grooves 3-6 mm on center (or 4, 6, or 8 grooves per
sion. in.), produced by hand or pneumatic chisel, or planer tool.
machine gauged— a process by which stone material is water jet—a roughly textured surface produced by exposure to
removed (see Note 1) to a speciÞed thickness, incidentally a high-pressure stream of water.
resulting in a Þnish. DISCUSSIONÑThe resulting texture will vary, depending on the stone
type, the pressure of the water jet stream, and the nozzle speed and
NOTE 1ÑThe resulting coarsely ground surface can be produced by a position as it traverses the surface of the stone.
number of methods.
6/8 cut (or 6/8 point)— a herringbone patterned surface,
hand-rubbed—a non-reßective surface with a slight stipple consisting of short parallel concave grooves rotated 10 to 30
pattern, produced by hand-applied abrasive pads or hand- degrees from each other, produced by a hand or pneumatic
held machines. hammer Þtted with a carbide-tipped chisel of closely-spaced
AGED FINISHES blades.
(less than 3 mm [ Ú8in.] of surface variation) 1 ROUGH FINISHES
acid-washed—a worn surface produced by applying acid. (3 mm [ Ú8 in.] or more in surface variation) 1

antiqued—a worn surface produced by applying abrasive natural cleft— an irregularly textured low-relief surface, pro-
tools, sometimes in combination with acid and/or wet/dry duced by splitting stone along its bedding plane,
abrasive. stratiÞcation, or rift.

tumbled—a worn surface produced by rotating stone objects split face—a slightly convex or concave surface, produced by
(like tiles) in a drum, sometimes with sand or aggregate hydraulic stone splitters with straight or toothed blades or by
stone, until the faces and edges become eroded. driving wedges into a stone without natural cleavage sur-
faces.
SAWN FINISHES
rock face (or rock-pitched)— a split surface that has been
(1 mm to 5 mm [ Ú
1 32 in. to Ú
3 16 in.] of surface variation)
dressed by machine or by hand to produce a convex bold
diamond sawn— a surface with a very low-relief pattern of projection along the face of the stone. This Þnish provides a
linear and/or curved grooves, produced by diamond saw bolder, more massive appearance than split face. See Fig. 5.
blades (either circular, belt, or gang). NOTE 2ÑThe above rough Þnishes and other less-common ones can
wire sawn— a surface with a pattern of linear and/or curved have a different appearance when separated along the bedding,
stratiÞcation, or rift, or perpendicular to it. This applies in particular to
grooves produced by a wire saw. Þnishes sometimes called natural strata and bed face, among others.
chat sawn— a surface with shallow linear grooves, produced DISCUSSIONÑA dimension stone Þnish selection and speciÞcation
by gangsawing with coarse chat sand. procedure will consider all surface Þnishes on a stone unit. A typical
piece will be sawn to particular dimensions on six sides. A Þnish is
shot sawn— a surface with random grooves and markings, often speciÞed for more than one side. For example, a stair step may
produced by gangsawing with chilled steel shot. have a thermal Þnish on the tread side, a honed Þnish on the riser side,
and the remaining unexposed surfaces could be left with a sawn Þnish.
TEXTURED FINISHES
(1 mm to 6 mm [ Ú
1 32 in. to Ú
1 in.] of surface variation) 4

sandblasted—an irregular, pitted surface produced by impact-


ing sand particles at high velocity against a stone surface.
DISCUSSIONÑThe resulting texture will vary, depending on the stone
type and the pressure and concentration of impacts. The size and depths
of the pits can range from nearly invisible to very pronounced.

plucked—a machined surface with occasional pits, obtained


by rough planing the stone surface, thus breaking or Òpluck-
ingÓ out small particles.
thermal (or flamed)—a roughly textured surface produced by
brief exposure to a high-temperature ßame resulting in
exfoliation of the stone surface.
DISCUSSIONÑThe resulting appearance will vary, depending on the
grain structure of the stone. This process may change the natural color
of the stone. FIG. 5 Rock Face Diagram

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C119 - 16
GRANITE GROUP DISCUSSIONÑ Iridescent Granite ÑA labradoritic granite character-
ized by a play of colors, ranging from clearly visible to brilliant. The
granite (commercial definition)— a visibly granular, igneous play of colors is caused by the intergrowth of unmixed sodium and
rock generally ranging in color from pink to light or dark calcium plagioclase into very Þne lamellae. It is commonly referred to
gray and consisting mostly of quartz and feldspars (Note 1), by names such as black pearl, blue pearl, and emerald pearl.
accompanied by one or more dark minerals. The texture is
LIMESTONE GROUP
typically homogeneous but may be gneissic or porphyritic
(Note 2). Some dark granular igneous rocks, though not limestone—a rock of sedimentary origin composed principally
geologically granite, are included in the deÞnition (Note 3). of calcium carbonate (the mineral calcite), or the double
DISCUSSIONÑ Granite (scientific definition)ÑA visibly granular, crys- carbonate of calcium and magnesium (the mineral dolomite),
talline rock with equigranular or inequigranular texture, normally or some combination of these two minerals.
having an essential composition of two feldspars (alkali feldspar plus
DISCUSSIONÑRecrystallized limestone, compact microcrystalline
sodic plagioclase or two alkali feldspars (see second paragraph)) and
limestone, and travertine that are capable of taking a polish are also
quartz; certain granites contain only one feldspar. Quartz may amount
included in the category commercial marble and may be sold as either
to 10 to 60 % of the felsic (light-colored) constituents, while alkali
limestone or marble.
feldspars may constitute about 35 to 100 % of total feldspars. Feldspars
may be present as individual grains, or may be mutually intergrown on Special varieties of commercial limestone
a megascopic to submicroscopic scale. Besides quartz and feldspars,
granite typically also contains varietal minerals, commonly micas or calcarenite—a limestone composed predominantly of clastic
hornblende, or both, more rarely pyroxene. sand-size grains of calcite, or rarely aragonite, commonly as
Alkali feldspar refers to a range of composition between KAlSi O 38
tiny fossils, shell fragments, or other fossil debris.
(potassic feldspar end member) and NaAlSi O3 (albite
8 end member),
DISCUSSIONÑSome calcarenites contain oolites (or ooliths), that is,
with 0 to 10 % of CaAl Si O 2 28 (anorthite end member). Potassic
small spherical or subspherical grains that are composed of concentric
feldspar, which in granites is typically orthoclase or microcline, forms a
layers of calcite and typically resemble roe. Such rocks may be termed
nearly complete isomorphous series with the albite end member. The
albite-anorthite compositional range, which may include as much as 10 oolitic limestones if the oolites are present in substantial amounts.
% of KAlSi O in3 solid solution, represents a continuous isomor- Oolitic limestones are calcarenites, but not all calcarenites are oolitic
8
limestones. The shell fragments and small fossils of some calcarenites
phous series known as plagioclase feldspars; these have been arbitrarily
have concentric coatings of calcite that may cause them to resemble
subdivided according to the ration of anorthite (An) to albite (Ab) at 10,
oolites but the term oolitic is not appropriate for such calcarenites
30, 50, 70, and 90 % An. The plagioclase of granite sensu stricto
unless true oolites also are present.
commonly is oligoclase (An 10-30 ), less commonly albite (An 0-10 ).
DISCUSSIONÑ GneissÑA foliated crystalline rock composed essen- coquina—a limestone composed predominantly of unaltered
tially of silicate minerals with interlocking and visibly granular texture shells or shell fragments loosely cemented by calcite.
in which the foliation is due primarily to alternating layers, regular or DISCUSSIONÑCoquina generally is very coarse-textured and has high
irregular, of contrasting mineralogic composition. In general, a gneiss porosity.
is characterized by relatively thick layers as compared with a schist.
According to their mineralogic compositions gneisses may correspond dolomite—a sedimentary carbonate rock (a variety of lime-
to other crystalline rocks with visibly granular, interlocking texture, stone) that consists largely or entirely of the mineral dolo-
such as those included under the deÞnition of commercial granite, and mite.
then may be known as granite gneiss , granodiorite gneiss , etc., if DISCUSSIONÑThe rock term dolomite, as applied to dimension stone,
strongly foliated, and gneissic granite , etc., if weakly foliated. This is synonymous with the term dolostone as used in sedimentary
distinction is subjective and not critical. petrology.
DISCUSSIONÑ Porphyritic Texture ÑA texture deÞned by relatively microcrystalline limestone—a limestone that consists largely
large grains (phenocrysts), typically of feldspar, that are distributed in
or wholly of crystals that are so small as to be recognizable
a distinctly Þner-grained matrix. The phenocrysts of porphyritic gran-
ites generally are rectangular or partly rounded in outline, and may be only under magniÞcation. If it is capable of taking a polish, it
as much as several centimetres in maximum dimension. is classiÞed commercially as a marble.
DISCUSSIONÑ Black Granites ÑDark-colored igneous rocks deÞned oolitic limestone—a limestone composed largely of the spheri-
by geologists as basalt, diabase, gabbro, diorite, and anorthosite are cal or subspherical particles called oolites or ooliths.
quarried as building stone, building facings, monuments, and speciality
purposes and sold as black granite . The chemical and mineralogical recrystallized limestone— a limestone in which a new pattern
compositions of such rocks are quite different from those of true of crystallinity has pervasively replaced the crystal orienta-
granites, but black granites nevertheless may be satisfactorily used for tion in the original clastic particles, fossils or fossil
some of the same purposes as commercial granite. They possess an
interlocking crystalline texture but, unlike granites, they contain little
fragments, and interstitial cement. The new generation of
or no quartz or alkali feldspar. Instead, black granites are composed crystals, encompassing both fragmental and matrix
dominantly of intermediate to calcic plagioclase accompanied by one materials, extends across boundaries between former crys-
or more common dark rock-forming minerals such as pyroxenes, tals. The new crystals generally are larger than those of the
hornblende, and biotite. Such rocks, because of their relatively high original rock. Evidence of original textures may or may not
content of iron and magnesium, are designated as ferromagnesian or be retained. See also marble (next section).
mafic. An exception is anorthosite which, though commonly dark,
consists mostly or entirely of calcic plagioclase. travertine—See travertine in OTHER GROUP .

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C119 - 16
MARBLE GROUP color that may split readily along original bedding planes to
All stone here defined as marble must be capable of taking a form thin slabs (ßagstone). The term bluestone is applied
polish. principally to stone with the above characteristics quarried in
Stone in this category comprises a variety of composi- the eastern United States. This term is also used in reference
tional and textural types, ranging from pure carbonate to to British dolerite and Australian basalt in their respective
rocks containing very little carbonate that are classed com- countries.
mercially as marble (for example, serpentine marble). Most DISCUSSIONÑVarieties of sandstone are commonly designated by the
marbles possess an interlocking texture and a range of grain kind of interstitial or bonding materials, as siliceous sandstone (bond-
size from cryptocrystalline to 5 mm. ing material largely silica); calcareous sandstone (calcium carbonate as
bonding material or as detrital grains, or both); argillaceous sandstone
marble (I calcite, II dolomite) —2 carbonate rock that has (a sandstone with sufficient amounts of clay present to cause only
acquired a distinctive crystalline texture by recrystallization, partial silica bonding of quartz grains, but still meet the criteria of
sandstone deÞnition. The integrity of this stone is very sensitive to
most commonly by heat and pressure during metamorphism,
moisture in exterior applications); ferruginous sandstone (a sandstone
and is composed principally of the carbonate minerals calcite with prominent amounts of iron oxide minerals present, characteristi-
and dolomite, singly or in combination. cally imparting a red-brown or brown color to the stone [ brownstone ],
see Note 3). The more common commercial varieties of sandstone are
limestone marble—compact, dense limestone that will take a deÞned as follows:
polish is classiÞed as marble in trade practice. Limestone
marble may be sold as limestone or as marble. DISCUSSIONÑ sandstone (scientific definition) Ñsedimentary rock
composed mostly of mineral and rock fragments within the sand size
onyx marble— translucent, generally layered, cryptocrystal- range, from 0.06 to 2.0 mm, and having a minimum of 60 % free silica,
line calcite with colors in pastel shades, particularly yellow, cemented or bonded to a greater or lesser degree by materials including
brown, and green. silica and various carbonates with iron oxides or clay sometimes
present, and which fractures around (not through) the constituent
DISCUSSIONÑOnyx marble is formed by slow precipitation from
grains.
generally cold solutions of carbonated (carbon-dioxide saturated)
spring water. quartzitic sandstone (scientific definition) Ðsandstone containing at
least 90 % free silica (quartz grains plus siliceous cement), which may
DISCUSSIONÑThe term ÒonyxÓ to designate onyx marble is a misno- fracture around or through the constituent grains.
mer. True onyx is a nearly pure crystalline silica (silicon dioxide) quartzite (scientific definition) highly indurated, typically metamor-
closely related to agate, a semi-precious stone. phosed sandstone containing at least 95 % free silica, which fractures
conchoidally through the grains.
QUARTZ-BASED DIMENSION STONE GROUP BrownstoneÑa dense, medium-grained stone, locally grading to
conglomerate, with a distinctive dark brown to red-brown color. The
sandstone (commercial definition) (I) —3 sedimentary rock term has been applied to stone quarried in the Jurassic-Triassic basins
composed mostly of mineral and rock fragments within the in the northeastern United States (mainly Massachusetts, Connecticut,
sand size range, from 0.06 to 2.0 mm, and having a and Pennsylvania), but the geographic limitation is undesirable.
minimum of 60 % free silica, cemented or bonded to a DISCUSSIONÑThese detrital stone types are locally quarried but are
greater or lesser degree by materials including silica and commerically unimportant:
various carbonates, with iron oxides or clay sometimes conglomerate Ña sedimentary rock consisting of rounded pebbles
present, and which has a compressive strength over 28 MPa and cobbles in a sandstone matrix, typically strongly cemented.
(4,000 psi). siltstoneÑa Þne-grained, noncarbonated clastic rock composed
mostly of detrital quartz and clay minerals in which the particles have
quartzitic sandstone (commercial definition) (II) — 3 an approximate size range from 0.06 to 0.005 mm. Siltstone may be
sandstone containing at least 90 % free silica (quartz grains designated Þne-grained sandstone, and is texturally transitional be-
plus siliceous cement), which has a compressive strength tween sandstone and shale.
over 69 MPa (10 000 psi). SLATE GROUP
3
quartzite (commercial definition) (III) — highly indurated, slate—microcrystalline metamorphic rock most commonly
typically metamorphosed sandstone containing at least 95 % derived from shale and composed mostly of micas, chlorite,
free silica, which has a compressive strength of over 117 and quartz. The micaceous minerals have a subparallel
MPa (17 000 psi). orientation and thus impart strong cleavage to the rock which
bluestone—a dense, hard, Þne-grained, commonly feldspathic allows the latter to be split into thin but tough sheets.
sandstone of medium to dark greenish-gray or bluish-gray shale—a laminated, indurated rock which is over two-thirds
clay-sized minerals. Shales progressively grade into slate.
2
Designations I through IV correspond to Table 1 in SpeciÞcation C503, for
When put to slate-like uses these rocks must meet slate
Marble Dimension Stone, Vol 04.08. speciÞcations in SpeciÞcation C629.
3
Designations I through III correspond to SpeciÞcation D616, for Quartz-Based DISCUSSIONÑThis detrital stone type is locally quarried but is
Dimension Stone, Vol 04.08. commercially unimportant.

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C119 - 16
OTHER GROUP silicate), commonly greenish but can be black, red, or other
There are a number of stones that are infrequently used. colors; commonly veined with calcite, dolomite, or magne-
Some semiprecious stones such as jade are cut and used as site (magnesium carbonate) or a combination.
dimension stone. They would most commonly be used as a DISCUSSIONÑThe stone referred to here as serpentine is called
contrast or accent in connection with other dimension stone. serpentinite in scientiÞc usage to distinguish it from the mineral
serpentine.
Other stones include:
alabaster—a soft, easily carved massive form of gypsum soapstone (steatite)— a talc-rich rock with a characteristic
(calcium sulfate), often pleasingly blotched and stained. A slippery feel. Soapstone is quarried for special purposes,
banded stalagmitic calcite is also called alabaster. such as Þreplaces and laboratory counter tops, because of its
refractory nature and resistance to acids.
greenstone—a metamorphic rock of basic or ultrabasic
composition, of very Þne grain size, ranging in color from travertine—a porous or cellularly layered partly crystalline
medium green to yellowish green to almost black. calcite rock of chemical origin.
DISCUSSIONÑTravertine is formed by precipitation of calcite from
schist—a foliated metamorphic quartz-feldspar-containing
generally hot or warm solutions of carbonated water, usually at the
rock characterized by thin foliae of platy or prismatic bottom of shallow pools. Pores and cavities commonly are concentrated
minerals such as mica or chlorite. Schists split readily along in some of the layers, giving rise to an open texture.
these planes of foliation. This rock exists in many
graduations, some of them progressing into a gneiss. DISCUSSIONÑTravertine is sometimes classiÞed for commercial pur-
poses as limestone because it is composed principally of calcium
serpentine (commercial definition)— a rock consisting carbonate and is sometimes classiÞed for commercial purposes as
mostly or entirely of serpentine (hydrated magnesium marble if it is capable of taking a polish.

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