Está en la página 1de 20

Grammar reference

Starter Unit Pasado simple y pasado continuo


• Se utiliza el pasado simple para hablar de acontecimientos
Presente simple y presente continuo
y acciones terminadas en el pasado.
• Se utiliza el presente simple para hablar de Daniel visited Italy two years ago.
hechos, hábitos y rutinas. Daniel visitó Italia hace dos años.
It takes about two hours to fly from London to
• Se utiliza el pasado continuo para hablar de acciones en
Madrid.
curso en un momento concreto del pasado.
Se tardan unas dos horas en avión de Londres
a Madrid. At eight o’clock, I was waiting for the train.
A las ocho estaba esperando el tren.
We go to Cornwall on holiday every summer.
• También se utiliza el pasado continuo junto a when y
Todos los veranos vamos de vacaciones a
while para describir la situación durante la que sucede algo.
Cornualles.
When we arrived, Granddad was sleeping on the sofa.
• Se utiliza el presente continuo para acciones Cuando llegamos, el abuelo estaba durmiendo en el sofá.
en curso en el momento de hablar o en un
momento cercano.
While we were getting ready to go out, it started raining.
He’s doing his homework right now. Can he call Cuando nos estábamos preparando para salir, empezó
you later? a llover.
Ahora mismo está haciendo los deberes. Presente perfecto y pasado simple
¿Puede llamarte más tarde? • Se utiliza el pasado simple para hablar de acciones y
A: How’s your basketball team doing this experiencias que tuvieron lugar en un período de tiempo
season? ya terminado.
B: Pretty well, actually – we’re winning all our In 2009, my little sister was born.
matches. En 2009 nació mi hermana pequeña.
A: ¿Cómo le va a tu equipo de baloncesto esta • Se utiliza el presente perfecto para hablar de experiencias
temporada? y hechos del pasado que tuvieron lugar en un período de
B: ¡Pues muy bien! Estamos ganando todos los tiempo que no ha terminado.
partidos. She’s bought a lot of new clothes this year.
• Normalmente no se utilizan en presente continuo Este año se ha comprado mucha ropa nueva.
verbos relacionados con el pensamiento, las • También se utiliza el presente perfecto cuando el
opiniones, los sentimientos y las emociones; momento exacto de una acción del pasado no se menciona
por ejemplo: like, love, think, remember, o no tiene importancia.
believe, know, mean, imagine, want, prefer. You’ve left the light on in your room.
I really like her. Te has dejado la luz de la habitación encendida.
I’m really liking her.
Ella me gusta mucho. Presente perfecto con ever, never, for y since.
Ella me está gustando mucho. • A menudo se utiliza ever justo después del sujeto en
Do you know what you want for lunch? preguntas en presente perfecto sobre la vida de alguien.
Are you knowing what you want for lunch? Has she ever helped you with your homework?
¿Sabes qué quieres para comer? ¿Te ha ayudado alguna vez con los deberes?
¿Estás sabiendo qué quieres para comer? • A menudo se utiliza never entre have/has y el participio
• El verbo de emoción enjoy es una excepción: pasado para decir «en ningún momento».
se puede utilizar con la forma continua. He’s never been to New York.
Are you enjoying the party? Nunca ha estado en Nueva York.
¿Te estás divirtiendo en la fiesta? • Se utiliza for y since junto con el presente perfecto
• Cuando se utiliza el verbo think para hablar para expresar la duración de un hecho. Se utiliza for para
de una acción, se puede utilizar en la forma períodos de tiempo y since para momentos concretos.
continua. She’s lived here for seven years.
You look sad. What are you thinking about? Lleva viviendo aquí siete años.
Pareces triste. ¿En qué estás pensando? He’s worked here since 2007.
Trabaja aquí desde 2007.

84 Grammar reference
Grammar practice S
Present simple and present Present perfect and past simple
continuous
3 Complete the email with the present perfect
1 Circle the correct options. or past simple form of the verbs in brackets.
1 I don’t get / ’m not getting very good marks Hi Ollie,
at school this term, but I don’t know / How 1 were (be) your holidays? We
’m not knowing why. 2
(go) to Portugal for two weeks.
2 They go / ’re going swimming four times a week. We 3 (cycle) along the coast, we
They love / ’re loving being in water. 4
(swim) in the sea – it was a
3 She can’t speak right now. She drives / ’s driving. bit cold – and we 5 (eat) lots of
4 It rains / ’s raining a lot here in winter, but it delicious food! Term 6 (begin) last
doesn’t rain / ’s not raining today, I’m happy to Monday and I 7 (start) at my new
say! school. I 8 (not be) here very long,
5 I prefer / ’m preferring coffee to tea, but, actually, but I love it! Everyone 9 (be) very
I like / ’m liking hot chocolate most of all! kind to me and I 10 (make) some
new friends. And I 11 (join) the
6 A: Rick! You don’t listen / ’re not listening to me!
football team! I 12 (not have) any
What do you think / are you thinking about?
homework back, but I hope they aren’t too strict!
B: How much I enjoy / ’m enjoying this book I
Your friend,
read / ’m reading at the moment.
Lucy
7 We don’t revise / aren’t revising for our exams
at the moment, we listen / ’re listening to some
music.
Present perfect with ever, never,
for and since
8 He hates / is hating hot weather, so he ’s /
’s being happy that it’s snowing today. 4 Complete the mini dialogues with ever, never,
for and since.
Past simple and past 1 A: Have you 1 ever been to Australia?
continuous B: No, but I’ve wanted to go 2 I was
2 Complete the sentences with the past simple a child.
or past continuous form of the verbs in A: Really? My aunt has lived there 3
brackets. ten years − she loves it.
1 Mathew was playing (play) in the garden 2 C: Have you 4 played the violin?
when he (find) a gold coin.
D: Yes, I’ve had violin lessons 5 I was
2 Elena (not hear) the teacher’s ten.
question because she (chat).
C: Really! I’ve 6 heard you play!
3 While we (fish) last weekend,
we (catch) a large fish. 3 E: I’ve 7 tried yoga − is it difficult?
4 Lisa (not see) the end of the F: Not really − I’ve done it 8 five
film because she (talk) on her years.
phone.
4 G: Did you know he’s lived in nine different
5 They (not go) out yesterday
countries 9 he was born?
because it (rain) all day.
H: Really?
6 When the teacher (come)
into the classroom, Joseph and Lisa G: Yes. His mother works for an international
fight. company and she’s 10 in the same
country for more than a year.
7 My computer (crash) while I
(do) my project.
8 I (try) to answer the question
when my friend (shout) out
the answer.

Grammar practice 85
Grammar reference
Unit 1 Pasado perfecto y pasado simple
used to y would afirmativa
I / You / He / She / It / We /
afirmativa had expected it.
You / They
I / You / He / She / It / We / used to
wear jeans. negativa
You / They would
I / You / He / She / It / We /
negativa hadn’t expected it.
You / They
I / You / He / She / It / We / didn’t use to interrogativa
You / They wear jeans.
wouldn’t Had I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they expected it?
interrogativa respuestas cortas
Did I / you / he / she / it / Yes, I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they had.
use to wear jeans?
we / you / they
No, I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they hadn’t.
respuestas cortas
Yes, I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they did. • Se utiliza el pasado perfecto con otras formas de
pasado para acciones o estados que tuvieron lugar
No, I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they didn’t.
antes de la acción (o estado) pasada más importante.
• Se utiliza used to y would para hablar de hábitos y Jack didn’t want to come with us because he’d been
acciones del pasado que son distintos ahora. there last year.
They used to go swimming on Tuesdays but now Jack no quiso venir con nosotros porque ya había
they go on Fridays. estado allí el año anterior.
Solían ir a nadar los martes, pero ahora van los viernes. The rain had stopped when I arrived at the beach.
When I was a baby my parents would take me for a Ya había dejado de llover cuando llegué a la playa.
walk every afternoon. I’d had long hair all my life, but then, one day, decided
Cuando era pequeño mis padres me llevaban a to get it cut really short.
pasear todas las tardes. Había llevado el pelo largo toda la vida, pero un día
• También se utiliza used to, pero no would, para hablar decidí cortármelo muy corto.
de estados y sentimientos del pasado que ahora son • El pasado perfecto no solo describe una cosa que
distintos. pasó hace mucho tiempo, sino que se utiliza con otras
She used to have long hair, but now it’s really short. formas de pasado para establecer el orden de los
She would have long hair… hechos.
Solía llevar el pelo largo, pero ahora lo lleva muy corto. Ashley didn’t get the email because I had typed
• No se utiliza used to ni would para hablar de hechos Ash_55, not Ash-55.
que solo pasaron una vez ni para informar de cuantas Ashley no recibió el correo porque yo había escrito
veces tuvo lugar un hecho. Ash_55 y no Ash-55.
Last year, I went to France. • Se utiliza el pasado simple para hablar de
Last year, I used to go to France. acontecimientos y acciones completadas del pasado.
El año pasado fui a Francia. Cuando se utiliza junto con el pasado perfecto,
Yesterday, I called him three times. normalmente es la acción más reciente de las dos.
Yesterday, I would call him three times. I didn’t ask for directions because I’d been there
Ayer le llamé tres veces. before.
• Would se utiliza poco en frases interrogativas o No pedí indicaciones porque ya había estado allí antes.
negativas. • Las interrogaciones con pasado perfecto se forman
• Used to funciona como un verbo normal. El verbo con Had + sujeto + participio pasado.
termina en d en las formas del pasado, pero no en las Had you finished your homework when your friends
oraciones interrogativas y negativas. arrived?
I used to like swimming but I didn’t use to like diving. ¿Ya habías terminado los deberes cuando llegaron
Me gustaba nadar, pero no me gustaba bucear. tus amigos?
Did you use to have a bike when you were a kid?
¿Tenías bicicleta, cuando eras pequeño?

86 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 1
used to and would Past perfect and past simple
1 Rewrite the underlined phrases using used to or 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form
would. If both are possible, use would. If neither of the verbs in brackets. Use the past simple
is possible, write ✗. and the past perfect in each sentence.
1 We went to the cinema every afternoon when I was 1 Karen went (go) home because she
young. had forgotten (forget) her ticket.
would go 2 you (hear) of this band
2 Did you have long hair when you were young? before we (see) them last
week?
3 I saw the Rolling Stones once in Hyde Park. 3 We (be) late for school because
we (miss) the early bus.
4 Where did you live when you were at college? 4 Hayley (be) upset because they
(not invite) her to their party.
5 I only (pass) my driving test
5 We didn’t have a lot of money in those days.
after I (take) it three times.
6 Sam (play) with three different
6 They sat in coffee shops all day when they were
bands before he (become)
students.
famous.
7 How many stories you
7 She didn’t eat meat even when she was a child. (write) before you (publish)
your first book?
8 Did you go to the Isle of Wight Festival in 1980? 8 We (go) to the Thai restaurant
because (not try) Thai food
before.
2 Complete the conversation with the correct form 9 they (climb) any
of used to or would. If both are possible, use mountains before they (go)
would. to Kilimanjaro?
Julie: What kind of music 1 did you
10 How long she (live) in
use to like when you were younger? Japan before she (meet) her
Dad: Oh we 2 listen to all kinds of
boyfriend?
music. Your mother and I 3
like soul and reggae. 4 Complete the paragraph with the past simple
Julie: Really? 4 you go to or the past perfect form of the verbs in
concerts together? brackets.
Dad: Oh yes, all the time! We 5
Have you seen this photo? It’s my aunt at
hang out with the musicians after the concerts
Glastonbury 1992. It was the first time she
and we 6 get home until 3 or went
1
(go) to a music festival. She
4 o’clock in the morning. 2
(never/go) to Glastonbury
Julie: That sounds cool! How 7 you
before but she 3 (always/want)
get home?
to go and all her friends 4
Dad: We 8 have a car, so
(have) a crazy time there the year before. Anyway,
we 9 walk all the way
when she 5 (get) there, the
home hand in hand under the stars and we
whole place 6 (be) packed. She
10
sing all our favourite songs. 7
(never/see) so many tents before.
Julie: That sounds romantic!
Then she realised she 8 (not bring)
Dad: It certainly was!
her tent! Luckily, her friends 9
(arrive) the day before and they 10
(set) up a large tent and she 11
(stay) there with them. They 12
(dance) to music all night long. It’s strange − I can’t
imagine her at a festival, she’s so serious nowadays!

Grammar practice 87
Grammar reference
Unit 2 Presente perfecto simple
• Se puede utilizar el presente perfecto simple para indicar cuántas
Pronombres reflexivos y each
veces hemos hecho o cuánto hemos completado una acción.
other
You’ve looked at those jeans twice. Why don’t you buy them?
I myself it itself Ya te has mirado esos pantalones dos veces. ¿Por qué no te
you yourself we ourselves los compras?
he himself you yourselves Ashley’s read all the books in the series.
she herself they themselves Ashley se ha leído todos los libros de la serie.
• A menudo se utilizan expresiones temporales como since,
• Se utilizan los pronombres reflexivos recently, this week/month, in the last year, so far, up to
cuando el sujeto y el objeto de un verbo now, yet y today.
coinciden. I haven’t watched TV much recently.
I sing to myself when I’m alone. Últimamente no he mirado mucho la televisión.
I sing to me when I’m alone.
We’ve been on six trips with the school in the last year.
Cuando estoy solo, canto.
Este año hemos ido seis veces de excursión con el colegio.
She bought herself a stripy shirt.
• Se utiliza el presente perfecto simple para centrarse en el
She bought her a stripy shirt.
resultado actual de una acción.
Se compró una blusa rayada.
I’ve passed all my exams! ¡He aprobado todos los exámenes!
• Los pronombres reflexivos también
Have you finished your homework? ¿Has terminado los deberes?
se usan para enfatizar el hecho de que
alguien hizo algo solo, sin ayuda. Presente perfecto continuo
He didn’t buy the cake – he made it
I / We / You / They have been having
himself. He’s good at baking. afirmativa
He / She / It has lessons for ages.
No compró el pastel: lo hizo él mismo.
I / We / You / They haven’t been sleeping
Se le da bien la pastelería. negativa
He / She / It hasn’t very well.
• Al utilizar algunos verbos con pronombres Have I / we / you / they been having
reflexivos cambia su significado. interrogativa
Has he / she / it lessons?
Help yourself to sandwiches! (Take what Yes, I / we / you / Yes, he /
you want or need.) respuestas they
have.
she / it
has.
Sírvete tú mismo los bocadillos. (Coge cortas No, I / we /you / No, he /
los que quieras o necesites.) they
haven’t.
she / it
hasn’t.
He found himself in a difficult situation.
(He didn’t intend to be in a difficult • Se utiliza el presente perfecto continuo para hablar de acciones
situation, but he was.) que empezaron en el pasado, siguen en curso y se espera que
Se vio en una situación complicada. continúen.
(No pretendía estar en una situación I’ve been working hard all week.
complicada, pero lo estaba.) Llevo trabajando duro toda la semana.
• Se utiliza each other cuando dos sujetos She’s been blogging since last summer.
(o más) hacen la acción del verbo uno al Escribe un blog desde el verano pasado.
otro. • Se suele utilizar el presente perfecto continuo para expresar
Jack and Ellie sent each other Valentine’s cuánto tiempo se lleva haciendo algo.
cards. (Jack sent Ellie a Valentine’s card, I’ve been going to piano lessons for nine years.
and Ellie sent Jack a Valentine’s card.) Llevo nueve años yendo a clases de piano.
Jack y Ellie se enviaron tarjetas de San • Se utiliza el presente perfecto continuo para centrarse en la
Valentín. (Jack le envió a Ellie una tarjeta acción en curso en vez del resultado.
y Ellie le envió a Jack una tarjeta.) We’ve been cooking for the party all morning!
You can see the twins really love each ¡Nos hemos pasado toda la mañana cocinando para la fiesta!
other. They are always together. • No se utiliza el presente perfecto continuo con verbos de
Se ve que los gemelos se quieren mucho. estado, como like, have y know.
Siempre están juntos. Emily’s liked him since she met him.
Emily’s been liking him since she met him.
A Emily le gusta desde que lo conoció.
88 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 2
Reflexive pronouns and each Present perfect simple
other
3 Complete the mini dialogues with the present
1 Complete the sentences with reflexive perfect form of the verbs in brackets.
pronouns or each other. 1 A: How many slices of cake 1 have you
1 Maria introduced herself to her new eaten (eat) today?
classmates. B: I 2 (not have) many − four!
2 I often talk to when I’m in
the shower. 2 C: 3
you (hear) of this
film?
3 Can we help to some more
cake? D: Of course! I think I 4 (see) it
about five times. But I can watch it again!
4 You need to prepare for the
test next week. 3 E: I 5 (play) this new computer
5 My brother hurt when he was game ten times. It’s really popular!
working in the garden. F: Really? How many times 6 you
6 My friends don’t send (win) so far?
birthday cards anymore – we send emails.
7 This cooker turns off when 4 G: Where’s Suzie? I 7 (not see)
the clock rings. her today.
8 My mum and dad really enjoyed H: I don’t know. She 8 (be)
at our school concert. absent for four days now.
9 My brother and I hadn’t seen
for ages.
Present perfect continuous
10 My sister taught to play the 4 Complete the sentences with the present
saxophone. perfect continuous form of the verbs in
the box.
2 Circle the correct options.
Dear Lisa, have play read call take visit walk study
I’m really enjoying 1 myself / me at my new dance
class. Last week, we were very busy preparing 1 How long have you
2
ourselves / us for the end-of-term performance. All been having guitar lessons? You’re great!
our parents came and watched 3ourselves / us in a 2 Suzanna
new dance performance. I had a solo. I have a large Italian this year? Does she like it?
mirror at home so that I can see 4myself / me while 3 Jack and Harry
I’m practising. The performance was on Saturday. computer games in the library every Saturday.
My best friend took a video of 5itself / it. I told 4 Why you
6
myself / me not to be nervous, but it’s really difficult to school every day? Don’t you like the bus?
to stay calm − how do professional dancers keep
5 I her on the phone all
7
themselves / them calm? Do you think they have a
day but she doesn’t answer!
special technique to help 8themselves / them not to
6 you that
be nervous? Anyway, I can send 9yourself / you some
new music blog? It’s great!
photos! Please write with your news. We haven’t seen
10
each other / ourselves for ages − let’s meet soon! 7 We photos of all the
buildings in our town for our website.
Love, Carmen
8 Mel the art museum
every weekend to learn about art.

Grammar practice 89
Grammar reference
Unit 3 • Se hacen predicciones con will/won’t cuando existe la
certeza sobre una acción o acontecimiento futuros. A
be going to y formas de presente para veces se utilizan con expresiones como I think (creo),
expresar futuro I’m sure (estoy seguro) y I expect (espero).
afirmativa negativa
I don’t think I’ll win, but I expect I’ll finish in the top ten.
No creo que gane, pero espero terminar entre los diez
I’m I’m not
primeros.
He’s He isn’t
She’s She isn’t
He won’t be here at 8. He’s always late.
going to learn going to study A las 8 no habrá llegado. Siempre llega tarde.
It’s It isn’t
Chinese. at university.
We’re We aren’t • Se utiliza may o might (not) para mostrar que no
You’re You aren’t estamos muy seguros acerca de un acontecimiento
They’re They aren’t futuro, pero creemos que es probable.
interrogativa I might not go to university – I may get a job with
Am I
my dad.
Quizás no vaya a la universidad. Puede que trabaje con
Is he / she / it going to leave the city?
mi padre.
Are we / you / they
When he gets here, he may want to speak with you.
• Se utiliza be going to para hablar de planes de futuro y Cuando llegue, puede que quiera hablar contigo.
de intenciones. Futuro continuo
I’m going to go out this weekend.
Este fin de semana voy a salir de fiesta. afirmativa/negativa
My brother’s going to do a photography course next I / You / He / She /
will
be celebrating this time
month. It / We / You / They next week.
El mes que viene mi hermano hará un curso de I / You / He / She / be celebrating this time
fotografía. won’t
It / We / You / They next week.
• Se utiliza el presente continuo para hablar de planes interrogativa
de futuro con una fecha o momento concretos.
I / you / he / she / it / we / be celebrating this
My cousin and his girlfriend are getting married in July. Will
you / they time next week?
Mi primo y su novia se casarán en julio.
respuestas cortas
What are you doing this weekend?
¿Qué harás este fin de semana? I / you / he / she / it / we /
Yes, will.
you / they
She isn’t coming to the party.
No va a venir a la fiesta. I / you / he / she / it / we /
No, won’t.
you / they
• Se puede utilizar el presente simple para hablar de
programas y calendarios en el futuro. • Se utiliza el futuro continuo para hablar de acciones que
On Mondays and Wednesdays, we have Maths with Mr creemos que estarán en curso.
Johnson. In five years, I’ll be living in London and working as an
Los lunes y miércoles tenemos matemáticas con el engineer.
profesor Johnson. Dentro de cinco años, estaré viviendo en Londres y
The train leaves at 7 o’clock on Saturday morning. trabajando de ingeniera.
El tren sale el sábado a las 7 en punto de la mañana. • También se puede utilizar el futuro continuo para
Predicciones con be going to, will y may/ hablar de planes de futuro y hacer predicciones.
might I’ll be leaving at 3 pm. I’m picking my little brother up
from school, so I can’t be late.
• Se utiliza going to para hacer predicciones basadas en
Saldré a las 3. Voy a recoger a mi hermano pequeño al
pruebas o hechos reales.
colegio, así que no puedo llegar tarde.
Quick! We’re going to miss the train!
¡Rápido, que vamos a perder el tren! • Se utiliza may/might en lugar de will cuando no
estamos muy seguros acerca de una acción futura, pero
I saw the weather forecast this morning. It’s going to
creemos que es posible.
rain this weekend.
Don’t call after ten o’clock – we may be watching a film.
Esta mañana he visto la previsión del tiempo. Este fin
No llames después de las diez; tal vez estaremos
de semana va a llover.
viendo una película.
90 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 3
be going to and present tenses for might / will
the future
1 Match the sentences (1−8) with the correct ‘I’m nervous about the exam.’ ‘Don’t worry –
descriptions (A−C). I’m sure you 3 .’
1 Martina is going to study medicine.
‘Can I carry those glasses for you?’ ‘Yes, but be
careful – you 4 them.’
2 The summer holidays start next week!
3 We’re going to play tennis every day.
be going to / might
4 I’m staying with my friend Gina this summer.
5 My art class finishes in September. ‘Oh no! It’s already too late – we
6 We’re graduating in June. 5
the train!’
7 I leave for Tokyo tomorrow morning. ‘Do you think Daniel 6

8 They’re going to have a party on Saturday. us a lift in his car?’ ‘I’m not sure. I’ll ask him.’
A future intention 1
B future arrangement may / will
C scheduled future event
‘I need to borrow some brown shoes.’ ‘Brooke has
2 Circle the correct options. some. She 7 you hers.’
This summer I 1 ’m going / ’ll go on a tour of China ‘Do you feel confident about the future?’ ‘Yes,
with my family. We 2’re visiting / visit some friends of totally. I 8 a millionaire
my parents who live in Beijing. First, we 3’re staying / before I’m 21!’
’re going to stay with them for five days and after that
we 4’re taking / take a bus tour to some ancient historic Future continuous
sites. Our flight 5leaves / will leave next Tuesday at 4 Write future continuous questions about the
6 am (horribly early!) and it 6arrives / is arriving at 6 am year 2030 with the prompts.
the next day. I 7’m going to learn / learn some Chinese
1 people / live / until they’re 150?
phrases before I go, and when I get back, I 8’m going
Will people be living until they’re 150?
to apply / ’m applying for a Chinese language course
− everyone says it’s the language of the future, not 2 How / we / spend / our free time?
English! The course 9starts / ’s starting in September
and it 10takes / is taking one year. I’m really looking 3 Where / people / go / on holiday?
forward to learning about a new culture!
4 What fashions / we / wear?
Predictions with be going to, will
and may/might 5 children / go / to school?
3 Complete the predictions with the correct form
of the verbs in the boxes.
5 Write answers to the questions in Exercise 4
need be give become using the future continuous.
break lend pass miss 1 Yes / They / live / until they’re 150
Yes, they will. They’ll be living until they’re 150.
might / be going to 2 People / not read / books anymore

‘I haven’t brought a coat.’ ‘It’s OK. It 3 Spaceships / take / people to Mars on holiday
1 isn’t going to be cold. They said so on
the radio.’ 4 We / design / our own clothes on computers
‘Is it cold outside?’ ‘Yes, I think you
2
a coat later on.’
5 No / Children / do / all their classes online

Grammar practice 91
Grammar reference
Unit 4 • Cuando se está seguro de que una situación futura
sucederá, se utiliza when, no if.
Primer condicional con if, unless, when y When we get home, I’ll look for information on the
may/might website.
situación consecuencia
Cuando lleguemos a casa, buscaré información en la
página web.
(if/unless + presente (will/won’t, may, might
simple) (not) + infinitivo) Segundo condicional con would, could y
If you eat less junk food, you will / may / might lose
might
weight. situación imaginaria posible consecuencia
If you don’t eat less junk you won’t / may not / (if + pasado simple) (would/could/might +
Unless you food, might not lose weight. infinitivo)
consecuencia situación If I knew him, I would / could / might ask him.
(will/won’t, may, might (if/unless + presente If I didn’t know him, I wouldn’t / couldn’t / might
(not) + infinitivo) simple) not ask him.
You will / may / might lose if you eat less junk food. posible consecuencia situación imaginaria
weight (would/could/might + (if + pasado simple)
You won’t / may not / if you don’t eat less junk infinitivo)
might not lose weight unless you food. I would / could / might ask him if I knew him.
interrogativa I wouldn’t / couldn’t / might if I didn’t know him.
not ask him
Will I lose weight if I eat less junk food?
interrogativa
• Se utiliza el primer condicional para hablar de Would you ask him if you knew him?
situaciones posibles en el presente o el futuro y decir
cuáles creemos que serán las consecuencias. • Se utiliza el segundo condicional para hablar de
• A menudo se utiliza if + presente simple (afirmativo situaciones imaginarias en el presente y de sus posibles
o negativo) para describir la situación, y will, may o consecuencias.
might para hablar de la consecuencia. • Se utiliza if + pasado simple (afirmativo o negativo)
• Se utiliza will (not) cuando estamos seguros de la para describir la situación imaginaria, y would, could
consecuencia. o might para la consecuencia.
You’ll learn lots of good English expressions if you If she didn’t like you, she wouldn’t send you texts
watch films and TV series. and Tweets.
Si miras muchas películas y series de televisión Si no le gustaras no te mandaría mensajes ni tweets.
aprenderás muchas expresiones en inglés. • Se utiliza would (not) cuando se está seguro acerca
• Se utiliza may/might (not) para mostrar que no de la consecuencia.
estamos tan seguros acerca de la consecuencia. Michael would get better marks if he didn’t spend all
If we go out for dinner, I may have steak or I might his time playing computer games.
have fish. I don’t know! Michael sacaría mejores notas si no se pasara el día
Si vamos a cenar, puede que pida un filete o quizás jugando al ordenador.
pescado. ¡No lo sé! • Se utiliza could (not) para expresar una posibilidad o
• Cuando queremos decir «if not» («si no») se puede habilidad como consecuencia.
utilizar unless, seguido de un verbo afirmativo. If it was Saturday, we could go out for pizza.
If Dad isn’t busy at work, he’ll be home at half past six. Si fuera sábado podríamos ir a comer una pizza.
Unless Dad is busy at work, he’ll be home at half • Se utiliza might (not) para mostrar que no estamos
past six. muy seguros acerca de la consecuencia.
Si papá no tiene mucho trabajo, llegará a casa a las If I had more free time, I might take up the guitar.
seis y media. Si tuviera más tiempo libre, a lo mejor empezaría a
tocar la guitarra.
• Se utiliza was o were con I, he/she e it en la frase
que comienza por if.
I’d be quiet and not say anything if I were/was you.
Si yo fuese tú, no diría nada.
92 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 4
First conditional with if, unless, Second conditional with would,
when and may/might could and might
1 Circle the correct options. 3 Write second conditional sentences with the
1 The soup will burn when / unless you stir / prompts.
don’t stir it all the time. 1 If / Suzanna / have / enough money / go /
2 We might buy / buy some food on the way to expensive restaurants
home if we have / ’ll have time. If Suzanna had enough money, she’d go to
3 The sauce will get thicker unless / when you expensive restaurants .
add / ’ll add the flour. 2 Martin / could go / cycling in the park / not have /
4 Unless / If I study at the weekend I won’t pass / so much homework
pass the exams. Martin
5 I ’ll make / make tea and coffee when the guests .
arrive / will arrive. 3 If / we / not be / so busy / might go / to the beach
6 If we eat / ’ll eat out tonight, I won’t / don’t this weekend
have to cook dinner! If
7 Mum may / make / makes a chocolate cake for .
you unless / if you ask her nicely. 4 Sam and Christy / only / ask / for help / if / they /
8 If you ’ll hurry / hurry up, we might get / get to really need / it
the fish and chip shop before it closes. Sam and Christy
.
2 Complete the conversations with the missing
words. Circle the correct options. 5 If / someone / give / me / a free ticket to any
country / I / go / to Australia
A Joey: If I 1 butter to this recipe, do you think it
If
2
better?
Mum: OK, but it won’t cook 3 you 4 up .
the heat.
1 a add b am adding c will add
4 Write questions for these answers.
1 What would you do if you didn’t need to study
2 a tastes b is tasting c will taste
this weekend ?
3 a when b if c unless
If I didn’t need to study this weekend, I might go
4 a will turn b are turning c turn
shopping, or I might watch a movie.
2 How
B Chris: Where do you want to sit? If we 1 a table
?
by the window, we 2
a great view.
Martina: Yes, but it 3 not be so noisy if we 4 here If we shared a bedroom, we’d argue every day.
in the corner. 3 What
1 a get b gets c ’ll get ?
2 a have b ’ll have c ’re having If I could have any superpower, I’d like to be able
3 a might b won’t c is to fly.
4 a ’re sitting b ’ll sit c sit 4 Where
?
If I could fly, I’d go to the moon.
5 Who
?
If I could meet any film star, I’d choose Johnny
Depp.

Grammar practice 93
Grammar reference
Unit 5 Obligación / No obligación
• Se utiliza must y have to para indicar que hace falta
Posibilidad y probabilidad
hacer algo.
• A menudo se utilizan can, can’t, could, may, might Visitors must complete the form and then give it
y must + infinitivo sin to para expresar el grado de to the receptionist.
posibilidad o probabilidad que creemos que puede Los visitantes deben rellenar el formulario y dárselo al
tener una acción o acontecimiento. recepcionista.
It can’t be her! She never wears trainers to a party!
¡No puede ser ella, nunca va con zapatillas We have to fill in this form and then send it to the office.
deportivas a las fiestas! Debemos rellenar este formulario y mandarlo a la oficina.
• A menudo se utiliza must cuando el hablante indica una
He’s late. He might be stuck in a traffic jam.
obligación porque la considera importante.
Llega tarde. Puede que esté en medio de un atasco.
You must do your homework before you go to your
You must be tired after all that exercise today. friend’s house.
Debes de estar cansada después de todo el día Debes hacer los deberes antes de ir a casa de tu amigo.
haciendo ejercicio.
I must get my mum a present for her birthday. I forgot
• Se utiliza can para hacer afirmaciones generales last year!
sobre posibilidades. Tengo que comprarle un regalo de aniversario a mi
They say that drinking too much coffee can give you mamá. ¡El año pasado me olvidé!
high blood pressure.
• A menudo se utiliza have to cuando se habla de leyes o
Dicen que beber demasiado café puede producir
normas.
hipertensión.
You have to get good exam results to get a place in
Try drinking more water: it can help you feel more this university.
awake! Para entrar en esta universidad hay que sacar buenas
Prueba a beber más agua: te puede ayudar a estar notas.
más despierto.
She’s angry because she has to take her earrings off in
• Se utiliza can’t cuando creemos que algo es school.
imposible. Está enfadada porque en la escuela la obligan a
That can’t be Julie over there. She’s on holiday in quitarse los pendientes.
China!
• Must va seguido de un infinitivo sin to.
Esa no puede ser Julie. Está de vacaciones en China.
• Have to va seguido de un infinitivo.
Surely you can’t want to buy that bag? It’s so ugly! • Se utiliza don’t have to para indicar que algo no es
No puede ser que quieras comprarte ese bolso necesario, pero que se puede hacer si se quiere.
tan feo. You can bring some food to the party if you want, but
• Se utiliza could, may y might para indicar que you don’t have to.
creemos que algo es posible. Puedes traer algo de comida a la fiesta si te apetece,
You could have a virus – that’s why you’re feeling ill. pero no tienes por qué.
A lo mejor tienes un virus y por eso te sientes mal. • Se utiliza had to para indicar que fue necesario hacer
A: Who’s that woman?  A: ¿Quién es esa mujer? algo en el pasado.
B: I don’t know. She may be his wife.  B: No lo sé. I had to leave the party early as I wasn’t feeling well.
Quizás es su esposa. Tuve que irme de la fiesta antes porque no me
It may be cold outside so I’ll take a coat. encontraba bien.
Cogeré una chaqueta por si hace frío afuera. Prohibición
• Se utiliza must si creemos que algo es muy probable. • Se utiliza can’t y mustn’t para indicar que algo está
She’s not answering her phone. She must be sleep. prohibido por ley o normativa.
No responde al teléfono. Debe de estar durmiendo. I can’t take my new phone to school – It’s the rule.
• Se utiliza can’t, y no mustn’t si algo no puede ser No puedo llevar mi teléfono nuevo al colegio. Son las
verdad. normas.
She can’t be at home. I saw her leaving half an hour We mustn’t use our calculators in the Maths exam.
ago. She mustn’t be at home. En el examen de matemáticas no podemos utilizar la
No puede estar en casa. La vi salir hace media hora. calculadora.

94 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 5
Possibility and probability Obligation/No obligation/
1 Circle the correct options. Prohibition
1 It be 6 o’clock already! I’ve only just 3 Complete the sentences with a phrase in the
had lunch! box.
a can’t b mustn’t c must
2 I think it rain later so I’m taking my don’t have to wear had to finish can’t use
coat. mustn’t eat have to be have to look must eat
a must b can c may
3 If you have a headache, aspirin help. 1 You have to be good at science to study
a can b must c mustn’t Medicine at university.
4 You be hungry after doing so much 2 I’ve told you before, Jimmy – you all
exercise. your vegetables up, otherwise no ice cream!
a might b can’t c must 3 On Fridays, we formal clothes to the
5 He be asleep, that’s why he’s not office, but we still smart – no jeans
answering his phone. or T-shirts!
a could b can’t c can 4 It’s OK to use a proper calculator in the exam, but
you mobile phones.
6 Don’t wait for me – I be late.
5 I a project yesterday evening to have
a must b might c can
it ready for school today – I didn’t get to bed until
2 Complete the sentences with can, can’t, must nearly 1 am!
or might/may/could. More than one answer is 6 Right, that’s it, I any more cake – I’ve
possible for some sentences. already had two pieces and I’m on a diet!
1 That can’t be Jane – she’s away on
holiday with her mum and dad.
4 Correct the mistake in each sentence. Find
one unnecessary word or add a missing word.
2 Do you think you be in a bad mood
1 Susan, you must to take your library books back
because you’re hungry?
before the end of term, OK?
3 She bring him to the party, I don’t
Susan, you must take your …
know – she wasn’t sure when I spoke to her.
2 I’m so tired because I had study all night.
4 It help to talk to a friend if you have
a problem.
3 They told me I can’t to take my dog on the bus.
5 It’s about 30º today – you be very
hot in that coat!
6 A: Where’s Sarah today? 4 I heard we don’t to have to take our sports kit to
B: I’m not sure, but she had a bad headache school on Friday.
yesterday, so she be ill.
5 My mother is upset because I have do extra
homework for failing the exam.

6 You can help me make dinner if you want to, but


you don’t have.

Grammar practice 95
Grammar reference
Unit 6 • Para hacer preguntas en presente y pasado, se utiliza la
forma apropiada de be + sujeto + participio pasado y se
La voz pasiva: presente simple, pasado ponen las partículas interrogativas antes del verbo be.
simple y will Was the light bulb really invented by Edison?
presente simple
¿Fue realmente Edison quien inventó la bombilla?
Spanish is spoken in many countries.
Where is the most coffee drunk in the world?
Tigers aren’t found in Africa. ¿Dónde se bebe más café en el mundo?
pasado simple
• Para hacer preguntas con will, se utiliza will + sujeto +
be + participio pasado.
Writing was invented in Asia. When will the next chess club meeting be held?
Planes weren’t used until the 1900s.
¿Cuándo se celebrará el próximo encuentro del club de
will ajedrez?
The prize will be awarded next week. Pronombres relativos
The exams won’t be marked until the weekend.
• Se utilizan oraciones de relativo para establecer la
interrogativas persona, el lugar o la cosa de la que estamos hablando.
Will sujeto be participio pasado My aunt has a friend who makes lovely candles.
Will your project be finished by Friday? Mi tía tiene una amiga que fabrica unas velas preciosas.
This is the song that I told you about.
• Se utiliza la voz pasiva cuando no se sabe o no Ésta es la canción de la que te hablé.
tiene interés saber quién lleva a cabo la acción.
• Los pronombres relativos se ponen al principio de las
• Se utiliza el presente simple pasivo para hablar de
oraciones de relativo y no se repite el pronombre de
hechos del presente.
sujeto cuando el sujeto del pronombre y el de la oración
English is spoken in most restaurant, hotels and
siguiente son el mismo.
tourist offices.
En la mayoría de restaurantes, hoteles y oficinas We know a lot of people who live in the village.
de turismo se habla inglés. We know a lot of people who they live in the village.
Conocemos a mucha gente que vive en el pueblo.
• Se utiliza el pasado simple pasivo para hablar de
• Se utiliza who o that para hablar de personas.
hechos del pasado.
The first video game console was made in 1972. The man who/that lives next door to us spends every
La primera videoconsola se fabricó en 1972. day in the garden.
El hombre que vive en la casa de al lado se pasa el día en
• Se utiliza will con la forma pasiva para hablar de el jardín.
hechos y acciones que creemos que pasarán en el
• Se utiliza that o which para hablar de cosas.
futuro.
Exam results will be emailed to students next She wants to buy some boots which/that she can wear
week. with jeans or a skirt.
Los resultados de los exámenes se enviarán a los Quiere comprarse unas botas que pueda llevar con
alumnos por correo electrónico la semana que viene. tejanos o una falda.
• Se utiliza where para hablar de lugares.
Extra-terrestrial life will be discovered soon. I’m
sure of it! You could try the restaurant where we had my birthday
Pronto se descubrirá vida extraterrestre, estoy dinner. It was lovely!
seguro. Podríais probar el restaurante donde celebré mi
cumpleaños. Era encantador.
• Se utiliza by con el pasivo para indicar quién es el
• Se utiliza whose para hablar de posesiones.
responsable de la acción.
The book was written by an expert in waste and Do you remember the name of the guy whose phone
recycling. charger I borrowed last week?
El libro lo escribió un experto en residuos y ¿Recuerdas cómo se llamaba el chico que me dejó el
reciclaje. cargador del móvil la semana pasada?
Competition entries will be judged by teachers in
the English department.
Las inscripciones al concurso serán evaluadas
por profesores del departamento de inglés.

96 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 6
The passive: present simple, 6
past simple and will
7
1 Complete the sentences with the correct
active or passive form of the verbs in
8
brackets.
1 The first email was sent (send)
by Ray Tomlinson in 1971. Relative pronouns and clauses
2 In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee
(develop) the World 3 Circle the correct options.
Wide Web. Computer scientists 1which / who have invented
3 Today, emails (send) a new type of robot have just won a prize for
by millions of people all over the world. technological innovation. They’ve invented a robot
4 The first radio waves
2
that / where can walk and run just like a human.
(transmit) by Marconi in 1895. People 3where / whose jobs involve working in
5 radio waves places 4where / which are dangerous for humans
(use) to communicate with will find many uses for this type of robot. The
other planets in the future? robots can also work in homes 5where / which the
disabled or the elderly need many types of routine
6 Louis Daguerre (take)
care. Many tasks 6which / whose elderly people find
the first photograph in 1839.
difficult could eventually be done by robots. Other
7 Photographs are still popular, but film
places 7which / where robots may become common
(not use) anymore.
include supermarkets, hospitals and schools. But
8 Penicillin (discover) some people are afraid that in the future robots
by Alexander Fleming in 1928. 8
that / whose intelligence is superior to humans may
take over the planet.
2 Rewrite the text using the passive. Add by if
necessary. 4 Complete the text using the relative clauses
1
The Chinese invented paper money in the below.
9th century AD. 2Merchants signed certificates An amazing invention 1 a at the Google Science Fair
promising to pay a certain amount of money. recently was a communication device called TALK. It
3
European countries did not introduce paper money was invented by a 16-year-old boy from India 2 .
until more than 500 years later. 4Today, people use His invention is a device 3
into letters. It is much
bank notes all over the world. 5People also make cheaper than other systems 4 − some of them
many payments using digital systems. 6In the future, can cost over $5,000. People 5 need to wear a
digital money will replace physical money. 7People special sensor. The sensor is placed 6 variations in
won’t use coins or notes anymore. 8You’ll only find the person’s breath, generally under the nose. People
them in museums and in history books. 7
make it difficult for them to speak can use this
1 Paper money was invented by the Chinese in the device to communicate. Arsh has a website 8
9th century AD. about his invention and his plans for research.
2 a that won an award
b where it can detect
3 c where you can read
d which changes human breath
4 e which are currently available
f whose name is Arsh Dilbagi
5 g who use the device
h whose medical conditions

Grammar practice 97
Grammar reference
Unit 7 • En los verbos que terminan con -e, se elimina la -e y
se añade -ing.
Formas -ing have – having  write – writing  save – saving
• Se puede utilizar la forma –ing como sustantivo y para tener – teniendo  escribir – escribiendo 
crear sintagmas nominales. ahorrar – ahorrando
Swimming is great exercise. • En los verbos que terminan con una vocal y una
La natación es un gran ejercicio. consonante, se dobla la consonante y se añade -ing.
My favourite hobby is dancing. get – getting  run – running  shop – shopping
Mi afición favorita es bailar. recibir – recibiendo  correr – corriendo 
Being the oldest child can be difficult sometimes. comprar – comprando
A veces, ser el hijo mayor puede ser complicado. Infinitivos
She thinks having a school prom is a terrible idea. • Normalmente, se utiliza el infinitivo con to después
Cree que el baile de graduación es una idea pésima. de un adjetivo.
• También se utiliza la forma -ing después de una You were lucky to get tickets for the match.
preposición. Tuviste suerte de conseguir entradas para el
My dad’s not very good at cooking, but he tries partido.
very hard. I’m very pleased to meet you!
Mi padre no es muy bueno cocinando, pero se Encantado de conocerte.
esfuerza mucho.
My teacher’s not very easy to talk to.
She spends a lot of money in going to concerts. No es fácil hablar con mi profesora.
Se gasta mucho dinero en ir a conciertos.
• También se utiliza el infinitivo con to después de
We’re thinking of giving up volunteering at the algunos verbos.
hospital. Kaitlyn offered to help me with my homework.
Nos estamos planteando dejar el voluntariado en Kaitlyn se ofreció a ayudarme con los deberes.
el hospital.
We’ve decided to watch a film this evening.
I’m looking forward to seeing you at Christmas. Hemos decidido que esta noche vamos a ver
Tengo muchas ganas de verte en Navidad. una película.
• Se utiliza la forma -ing después de ciertos verbos y They don’t expect to have any problems.
expresiones. No creen que vayan a tener problemas.
She suggested buying the phone with the 13
• Algunos de los verbos que van seguidos de un
megapixel camera.
infinitivo con to son agree, ask, choose, decide,
Sugirió comprar el teléfono con la cámara de 13
expect, hope, learn, offer, promise, seem, teach,
megapíxeles.
wait, want y would like.
I don’t mind helping you put up the decorations. • Algunos verbos necesitan que haya un objeto antes
No me importa ayudarte a colocar la decoración. del infinitivo con to.
• Entre las expresiones y verbos más comunes que My dad taught me to ride a bike.
requieren el uso de la forma -ing se encuentran be Mi padre me enseñó a ir en bici.
good/bad at, can’t stand, don’t mind, hate, enjoy, I didn’t invite Nathan to come with us.
like, love, miss, practise, recommend, suggest, No invité a Nathan a que viniera con nosotros.
imagine y celebrate.
• Algunos verbos pueden tener un objeto antes del
• Algunos verbos pueden llevar un objeto delante de la
infinitivo con to.
forma -ing.
They asked us to turn the music down.
We miss you telling us jokes in class.
Nos pidieron que bajáramos el volumen.
Echamos de menos que nos cuentes chistes en clase.
She’d like everyone to get here for 8 o’clock.
They don’t like him singing in the shower.
Le gustaría que todos llegaran antes de la 8.
No les gusta que cante en la ducha.
• En la mayoría de verbos, se añade -ing al infinitivo.
see – seeing  watch – watching  buy – buying
ver – viendo  mirar – mirando 
comprar – comprando

98 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 7
-ing forms Infinitives vs. -ing forms
1 Complete the text with the -ing form of the 3 Circle the infinitives and -ing forms in these
verbs in the box. sentences and look at the words before them.
Then match them to the rules.
chat dance dress stand try 1 I was amazed to see so many people at the play.
go look help worry make 2 They suggested decorating the room with
flowers.
3 Sally’s parents offered to take us to the prom.
I love 1 going to parties. I like 2 4 I imagine people listening to my music on stage.
up and I enjoy 3 to music, but I hate 5 Playing computer games is a total waste of time!
4
with people that I don’t know. 6 He taught her to play the guitar.
5
new friends is really hard! My mum
7 I’m excited about playing in the school concert.
says I need to practise 6 to be more
confident. What can I do? a We use the -ing form as a noun, and to
make noun phrases.
b We use the -ing form after certain verbs
My sister’s having her engagement party this
and expressions.
weekend. I don’t mind 7 to plan
c Some verbs can have an object before the
the party, but she wants me to make a speech!
-ing form.
I can’t imagine myself 8 up in front
of all those people! I’m terrified of 9 d We use the -ing form after prepositions.
stupid! 10 about it is keeping me e We usually use the infinitive with to after
awake at night. What should I do? adjectives. 1
f We use the infinitive with to after certain
verbs.
Infinitives g Some verbs need an object before the infinitive
with to.
2 Write sentences with the prompts. Use
the past simple of the verbs provided and 4 Circle the correct options.
infinitives where necessary.
1 My sister / offer / lend / me / her new handbag Debbi: I want 1 to celebrate / celebrating the end
My sister offered to lend me her new handbag. of our course − let’s have a costume party!
2 Simon / invite / me / dance / with him Dave: Are you joking? I can’t stand 2to dress /
dressing up.
3 We / be / amazed / get / free concert tickets Debbi: Well I think people will enjoy 3to design /
designing their own costumes.
Dave: I suppose so … but I’m hopeless at
4 We / agree / watch / the fireworks / tonight 4
to plan / planning parties.
Debbi: Don’t worry. I’m brilliant at 5to organise /
5 My friend / ask / us / go / to a party organising things!
Dave: OK, so what can I do?
6 It / be / difficult / talk / because of the noise Debbi: I’d like you 6to get / getting hold of some
lights and something to play music.
Dave: OK. That’s easy 7to do / doing. How many
7 We / be / ready / leave / ten minutes ago
people do you plan 8to invite / inviting?
Debbi: Everyone in our class!
8 Which dress / you / decide / wear? Dave: That’s thirty people − I recommend
9
to ask / asking your neighbours if they
mind us 10to have / having a party − it
could get very noisy!

Grammar practice 99
Grammar reference
Unit 8 • Para hacer preguntas con el tercer condicional, se utiliza if
+ pasado perfecto, (partícula interrogativa) + would
El tercer condicional (not) + sujeto + have + participio pasado.
If you’d known the battery was so bad, would you have
situación imaginaria del consecuencia imaginaria
pasado del pasado
bought the same mobile?
Si hubieras sabido que la batería era tan mala, ¿te
(if + pasado perfecto) (would have + infinitivo) habrías comprado el mismo móvil?
If I had seen your email, I would have called you. How long would they have waited for me if I’d been late?
If I hadn’t seen your email, I wouldn’t have called you. ¿Cuánto tiempo me habrían esperado si hubiera llegado
consecuencia imaginaria situación imaginaria del tarde?
del pasado pasado Must have, can’t have, might/may/could have
(would have + infinitivo) (if + pasado perfecto)
sujeto verbo modal have participio pasado
I would have called you if I had seen your email.
I / You / must can’t
I wouldn’t have called you if I hadn’t seen your email.
He / She / It / might may have enjoyed it.
We / They could
• Se utiliza el tercer condicional para hablar de
situaciones imaginarias en el pasado y de las
• A menudo se utiliza must have, can’t have, might/may/
consecuencias imaginarias en el pasado.
could have + participio pasado para explicar por qué
If you hadn’t read the book, the ending of the pasó algo o para sugerir qué creemos que pasó.
film would have been a surprise. My parents can’t have forgotten my birthday, so they
Si no te hubieses leído el libro te habría must have planned a surprise.
sorprendido el final de la película. Mis padres no pueden haberse olvidado de mi aniversario,
They’d have found the exam easy if they’d done así que deben de haber preparado una sorpresa.
more revision. He may have asked William, or he might have asked Evan.
Si hubiesen repasado más habrían encontrado He can’t remember!
fácil el examen. Puede que se lo pidiera a William o quizás a Evan. ¡No se
• Se utiliza if + pasado perfecto (afirmativo o acuerda!
negativo) para describir la situación imaginaria
• Se utiliza must have cuando creemos que nuestra
del pasado.
explicación es la única correcta.
If I hadn’t missed the penalty, we would have She isn’t answering my texts. She must have gone to bed.
won the match. No responde a mis mensajes. Debe haberse ido a la cama.
Si no hubiera fallado el penalti, habríamos
ganado el partido. • Se utiliza can’t have para rechazar explicaciones sobre por
qué ha pasado algo.
• Se utiliza would (not) + have + participio
It can’t have been Emma that told him. She doesn’t know.
pasado cuando estamos seguros de la
No pudo ser Emma quien se lo dijo. No lo sabe.
consecuencia imaginaria del pasado.
We would have seen my brother’s new car if he’d • Se utiliza might/may/could have cuando creemos que
been at home. nuestra explicación puede ser correcta, pero no la única
Si mi hermano hubiese estado en casa, posible.
habríamos visto su coche nuevo. I might have left it on the bus. I don’t remember putting it
back in my bag.
If she’d won the prize, she wouldn’t have been Es posible que me lo dejara en el bus. No recuerdo haberlo
disappointed. metido de nuevo en la mochila.
Si hubiese ganado el premio no se habría
decepcionado. They may have gone to the pool. It’s very hot today.
Quizás han ido a la piscina. Hoy hace mucho calor.
• A menudo se utiliza el tercer condicional para
hablar de cosas de las que nos arrepentimos. • Se forman preguntas de respuesta Sí o No con could +
If I hadn’t posted the photo on Facebook, my sujeto + have + participio pasado.
parents wouldn’t have found out. Could aliens have visited our planet without us knowing?
Si no hubiera colgado la foto en Facebook, mis ¿Es posible que los extraterrestres hayan visitado
padres no lo habrían descubierto. nuestro planeta sin que lo sepamos?
• Normalmente no se utilizan might y may en las preguntas
de respuesta Sí o No.
May Isabel have known the answer?
100 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 8
Third conditional must have, can’t have, might/
may/could have
1 Write third conditional sentences with the
prompts. Use the words in brackets. 3 Write sentences with must have, can’t have
1 Why didn’t you set the alarm? (not be late) and might/may/could have. Use the ideas in
If you had set the alarm, you wouldn’t have been brackets. More than one answer is possible
late . for some sentences.
2 Why did he step off the path? (not fall into the 1 Maria didn’t go to school last week. (Maybe she
lake) was ill.)
He She might have been ill .
. 2 Michael got a zero in his test. (I’m sure he didn’t
study much.)
3 Why did she leave her phone in the car? (call the
police) He .
If 3 They were late. (Maybe they missed the bus.)
. They .
4 Why didn’t we bring any money? (buy some food) 4 He got a new bike. (I’m sure it was his birthday.)
We It .
. 5 The film doesn’t come out until Friday. (I’m sure
you haven’t seen it yet.)
5 Why did you make so much noise? (not wake the
neighbours) You .
If 6 There was a lot of loud music next door last night.
(I’m sure they had a party.)
.
They .
6 Why wasn’t he more careful? (not break the
window)
4 Complete the mini dialogues. Use must have,
He can’t have and might/may/could have and
. the correct form of the verbs in the box.
More than one answer is possible for some
2 Complete the third conditional sentences with sentences.
the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1 If we hadn’t climbed (not climb) the go go leave take put go
mountain, we wouldn’t have seen (not see)
the giant footprints. 1 A: Where’s Lucas? Has he gone home already?
2 No one (believe) us if B: No, he 1 can’t have gone home
we (not take) a photo. because his bag is still here on his chair.
3 If you (not wake) me A: Yes … he 2 for a
up, I (not see) the coffee. Or maybe he’s outside.
shooting stars.
2 C: Oh no! I can’t find my keys!
4 Vicky (not lose) her
D: Do you think you 3
way, if the sign (be)
them in your coat pocket?
clearer.
C: I don’t think so … Oh I know!
5 They (not find) him
I4 them in the door
in the snow if he (not
again!
have) his phone.
6 What (you/do) if you 3 E: Do you think the neighbours have gone on
(see) an alien spaceship? holiday?
7 (you/go) into the cave F: No, they 5 on
if you (hear) a strange holiday − look their car’s parked outside.
noise? E: Yes, but 6 they
8 How (he/escape) if they a taxi to the airport?
(not follow) him?

Grammar practice 101


Grammar reference
Unit 9 «¿Dijiste la verdad?»
Le preguntaron si había dicho la verdad.
Discurso indirecto
• Cuando se citan preguntas no se utiliza
• Cuando se citan las palabras de alguien, a menudo interrogante.
debemos cambiar las formas verbales. “Where did you go after school?”
discurso directo discurso indirecto My parents asked me where I’d been after school.
«¿Dónde fuiste después del colegio?»
Presente simple Pasado simple
Mis padres me preguntaron dónde había ido
‘I want a new bike.’ She said (that) she wanted a new bike.
después del colegio.
‘I’m very tired.’ She said (that) she was very tired.
Pasado simple Pasado perfecto Preguntas indirectas
‘They spent the You told me (that) they had spent the
pregunta directa pregunta indirecta
night in a police cell.’ night in a police cell.
Can/Could you tell me where the bank
Presente perfecto Pasado perfecto Where is the
Can/Could I ask you is?
‘They’ve never told He said (that) they had never told bank?
anyone.’ anyone. I was wondering where the bank is.
will would pregunta directa pregunta indirecta
‘They’ll give us a He told us (that) they would give us a con respuesta sí
book to read.’ book to read. o no
can could Can/Could you tell
‘I can help him.’ She said (that) she could help him. me if you know this
Do you know man?
this man? Can/Could I ask you if
• A menudo también debemos cambiar otras palabras,
como pronombres y referencias temporales. I was wondering if you know this man.
“I’ll show you the false passports tomorrow.”
• Las preguntas indirectas suenan más educadas que
He said he’d show me the false passports the next day.
las directas. En la primera parte de las preguntas
«Mañana te mostraré los pasaportes falsos.»
indirectas se utilizan frases determinadas como Can/
Dijo que al día siguiente me mostraría los
Could you tell me… ?, Do you know… ? y I was
pasaportes falsos.
wondering… .
• No hace falta cambiar las formas verbales si la situación Could you tell me what your brother’s name is?
sigue siendo válida en el momento de la cita o si es ¿Podrías decirme como se llama tu hermano?
imaginaria.
“If I committed a crime, I wouldn’t talk about it online.” Do you know how long he waited before he left?
He said that if he committed a crime, he wouldn’t talk ¿Sabes cuánto tiempo esperó antes de irse?
about it online. • Cuando se forman preguntas indirectas con
«Si cometiera un crimen no hablaría de ello en Internet.» partícula interrogativa no se añade verbo auxiliar
Dijo que si cometiera un crimen no hablaría de ello en y el orden de las palabras es el mismo que en las
Internet. frases afirmativas.
I was wondering where the kidnappers hid.
Citas de preguntas I was wondering where did the kidnappers hide.
• Cuando se citan preguntas, normalmente se hacen los Me preguntaba dónde se habían escondido los
mismos cambios en las formas verbales, los pronombres secuestradores.
y las referencias temporales que en el discurso indirecto. • Para formar preguntas indirectas con respuesta Sí o
• Cuando se citan preguntas con una partícula No se utiliza if.
interrogativa no se añade verbo auxiliar y el orden de las Can I ask you if you think she was brave?
palabras es el mismo que en las frases afirmativas. ¿Te puedo preguntar si crees que fue valiente?
Connor asked when the school trip was.
Connor asked when was the school trip. I was wondering if this is Old Street.
Connor preguntó cuándo era la excursión con el colegio. Me pregunto si esto es Old Street.
• Cuando se citan preguntas con respuesta Sí o No, se
utiliza if.
“Did you tell the truth?”
They asked him if he’d told the truth.

102 Grammar reference


Grammar practice
Reported statements Reported questions
1 Complete the police officer’s report. 3 Read the police interview. Then complete the
The police received a mysterious phone message: text with reported questions.
‘Hello. My name is Mike. I live on Greenwood Road. I
saw some strange men going into the house next door. Officer: Can you answer some questions, please?
They looked very suspicious. I haven’t seen them here Emma: Yes, of course. What is it about?
before. I don’t want to cause any trouble, but I think Officer: Where were you this morning at 10 am?
they might be spies. I can’t remember anything else. I’ll Emma: I was at home all day.
call you if I see them again.’ Officer: Did you hear any unusual noises?
Emma: No, I didn’t. What’s happened?
The police officer reported the message to the chief Officer: It’s just routine.
inspector: Emma: Has there been a crime?
‘Good morning, chief. This morning we received Officer: We’re investigating a robbery.
a message from a man. He told us that his Emma: Where did it take place?
name 1 was Mike and that he Officer: It was next door to you. Have you spoken
2
on Greenwood Road. He said he to any neighbours today?
3
some strange men going into the Emma: No, I haven’t.
house next door. He said they 4 Officer: Please will you get in touch if you hear any
very suspicious and that he 5 them information?
there before. He told us that he 6
to cause any trouble, but he 7 they
The officer asked me
might be spies. He said that he 8 1if I could answer some questions . She
anything else but he 9 us if he
asked me 2 .
10
them again.’
I said I’d been at home all day. She asked me
3
. I said no. Then
2 Complete the reported statements. Remember
I asked her 4 .
to change pronouns and time references.
She said it was routine. I asked her
1 Martin: ‘Shelley was here yesterday.’ 5
and she said
Martin said that Shelley had been there the day they were investigating a robbery. I asked her
before . 6
. And she said it
2 Jake: ‘I saw this film a week ago.’ had been next door to my house! She asked me
Jake told me 7
. And then she
. asked me 8 .
3 Vicky: ‘I’m not sure what time I’ll finish work this
evening.’ Indirect questions
Vicky told me 4 Rewrite the direct questions as indirect
. questions.
4 Sam: ‘We haven’t seen the film yet, but the reviews 1 Where do you live?
were very good.’ Could you tell us where you live?
Sam told me that they 2 What is your address?
. Could I ask
5 Jasmin: ‘Keira will call you tomorrow.’ 3 What did you see?
Jasmin said that Keira Could you tell me
. 4 Who called the police?
6 Ellen: ‘Maria can’t come to the concert.’ Do you know
Ellen said that Maria 5 Did you see the car number plate?
. I was wondering
6 Did you notice their appearance?
Can I ask

Grammar practice 103