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In this chapter, the researcher makes his analysis, presentation, and interpretation of his data.


Analysis is the process of breaking up the whole study into its constituent parts of categories according
to the specific questions under the statement of the problem. This is to bring out into focus the essential
features of the study. Analysis usually precedes presentation.

Example: In the study of the teaching of science in the high schools of Province A, the whole study may
be divided into its constituent parts as follows according to the specific questions:

1. Educational qualifications of the science teachers

2. Methods and strategies used in the teaching of science

3. Facilities available for the teaching of science

4. Forms of supervisory assistance

5. Differences between the perception of the teachers and those of the students concerning the teaching
of science

6. Problems encountered in the teaching of science

7. Proposed solutions to the problems

8. Implications of the findings

Each constituent part may still be divided into its essential categories. Example: The educational
qualifications of the teachers may further be subdivided into the following:

1. Degrees earned in pre-service education

2. Majors or specializations

3. Units earned in science

4. Teacher’s examinations and other examinations passed

5. Seminars, conferences, and other special trainings attended for the teaching of science

6. Books, journals, and other materials in science being read

7. Advanced studies

8. Number of years in science teaching

9. Etc.

Then under degrees earned are

1. Bachelor of Arts

2. Bachelor of Science in Education

3. Master of Arts

4. Etc.

The other constituent parts may also be similarly divided and subdivided. The data are then grouped
under the categories or parts to which they belong.

Classification of data. Classification is grouping together data with similar characteristics. Classification is
a part of analysis. The bases of classification are the following:

a. Qualitative (kind). Those having the same quality or are of the same kind are grouped together. The
grouping element in the examples given under analysis is qualitative. See examples under analysis.

b. Quantitative. Data are grouped according to their quantity. In age, for instance, people may be
grouped into ages of 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, etc.

c. Geographical. Data may be classified according to their location for instance; the schools in the
secondary level in Province A may be grouped by district, as District 1, District 2, District 3, etc.

d. Chronological. In this, data are classified according to the order of their occurrence. Example: The
enrolments of the high schools of Province A may be classified according to school years, as for, instance,
enrolments during the school years 1985-’86, 1986-’87, 1987-’88.

Cross-classification. This is further classifying a group of data into subclasses. This is breaking up or
dividing a big class into smaller classes. For instance, a group of students may be classified as high school
students as distinguished from elementary and college students. Then they are further subdivided into
curricular years as first, second, third, and fourth years. Each curricular year may still be subdivided into
male and female.

Arrangement of data or classes of data. The bases of arrangement of data or groups of data are the
same as those of classification.

a. Qualitative. Data may be arranged alphabetically, or from the biggest class to the smallest class as
from the phylum to specie in classifying animals or vice versa, or listing the biggest country to the
smallest one or vice versa, or from the most important to the least important, or vice versa, etc. Ranking
of students according to brightness is qualitative arrangement.
b. Quantitative. This is arranging data according to their numerical magnitudes, from the greatest to the
smallest number or vice versa. Schools may be arranged according to their population, from the most
populated to the least populated, and so with countries, provinces, cities, towns, etc.

c. Geographical. Data may be arranged according to their geographical location or according to direction.
Data from the Ilocos region may be listed from north to south by province as Ilocos Norte, Abra, Ilocos
Sur and La Union.

d. Chronological. This is listing down data that occurred first and last those that occurred last or vice
versa according to the purpose of presentation. This is especially true in historical research. For instance,
data during the Spanish period should be treated first before the data during the American Period.

Classification, cross-classification and arrangement of data are done for purposes of organizing the thesis
report and in presenting them in tabular form. In tables, data are properly and logically classified, cross-
classified, and arranged so that their relationships are readily seen.

Group-derived Generalizations

One of the main purposes of analyzing research data is to form inferences, interpretations, conclusions,
and/or generalizations from the collected data. In so doing the researcher should be guided by the
following discussions about group-derived generalizations.

The use of the survey, usually called the normative survey, as a method of collecting data for research
implies the study of groups. From the findings are formulated conclusions in the form of generalizations
that pertain to the particular group studied. These conclusions are called group-derived generalizations
designed to represent characteristics of groups and are to be applied to groups rather than to individual
cases one at a time. These are applicable to all kinds of research, be they social, science or natural
science research. There are several types of these but are discussed under four categories by Good and
Scates. (Good and Scates, pp. 290-298) The key sentences are of this author.

1. Generally, only proportional predictions can be made. One type of generalization is that which is
expressed in terms of proportion of the cases in a group, often in the form of probability. When this type
is used, we do not have enough information about individual cases to make predictions for them, but we
can nevertheless predict for a group of future observations. As to individual event, however, we can say
nothing; probability is distinctly a group concept and applies only to groups.

Quality control in manufacturing is an example. Based on the recognition that products cannot be turned
out as precisely as intended, but that so long as a given proportion of the cases fall within assigned limits
of variation, that is all that is expected. In the biological field, certain proportions of offspring, inherit
certain degrees of characteristics of parents, but individual predictions cannot be made. In the social
field, in insurance especially, based on demographic and actuarial data, life tables indicate life
expectancies of groups but nothing whatsoever is known about the life expectancy of any particular
Here is another example. Suppose in a certain school offering civil engineering, it is a known fact that all
through the years, bout 70% of its graduates with an average of 2.0 or its equivalent or higher pass the
licensing examination for civil engineers. On this basis, we can predict that about 70% of the graduates of
the school with an average of 2.0 or higher will pass the next licensing examination for civil engineers but
we cannot predict with certainty the passing of a particular graduate even if his average grade is 1.25.

2. The average can be made to represent the whole group. A second type of group-derived generalization
results from using the average as a representation of the group of cases and offering it as a typical result.
This is ignoring the individuals comprising

the group or the variation existing in the group but the average represents the whole group. Generally,
the mean and the median are used to denote the averages of scale position but other statistical
measures such as the common measures of variation, correlation, regression lines, etc. are also
structurally considered as averages. These are group functions conveying no sure knowledge about any
individual case in the group.

3. Full frequency distribution reveals characteristics of a group. As a third type of knowledge growing out
of the study of the groups, we have the full-frequency distribution – the most characteristics device,
perhaps of all statistical work. Perhaps, too the most inferential characteristics of frequency distribution
are shape and spread. Frequency distributions carry the implication of probability. One implication is as
follows. Suppose the heights of a Grade I pupils are taken and then grouped into a class frequency
distribution, using height as the trait or basis of distributions in groups. Then the suppliers of chairs and
tables for the pupils will be able to know the number of chairs and tables to suit the heights of the

Here is another example which enables us to know certain characteristics of a group. Suppose a test is
given to a group of students. Then their scores are grouped into a class frequency distribution. If the
standard deviation, a measure of variability, is computed and it is unusually large, then we know that the
group is heterogeneous. If the standard deviation is small, the group is more or less homogeneous. If the
distribution is graphed and the curve is bell-shaped, the distribution is normal, that is, there is an equal
number of bright and dull students with the average in the middle. If the curve is skewed to the right,
there are more dull students than bright ones, and if the distribution is skewed to th left there are more
bright students than dull ones.

4. A group itself generates new qualities, characteristics, properties, or aspects not present in individual
cases. For instance, there are many chairs in a room. The chairs can be arranged in a variety of ways.
However, if there is only one chair, there can be no arrangement in any order. Hence, order and
arrangement are group properties and they represent relationships within a group, properties which can
arise only if there are two or more cases.

Other group properties that exist only in groups are cooperation, opposition, organization, specialization,
leadership, teaching, morale, reciprocal sharing of emotions, etc. which vanish in individual cases.
Two or more categories of generalization may be added at this point.

1. A generalization can also be made about an individual case. For instance, a high school graduating
student is declared valedictorian of his class. We can generalize that, that student is the brightest in his
class. This is a group-derived generalization because it cannot be made if there is only one student. Here
is another example. A teacher declares that Juan is the best behaved pupil in her class. This is a group-
derived generalization because this statement cannot be made if there is only one pupil. There are many
instances of this kind.

2. In certain cases, predictions on individual cases can be made. It has been mentioned earlier that,
generally, only proportional predictions can be made. However, in correlation and regression studies,
one variable can be predicted from another. Take the case of the civil engineering graduate taking the
licensing examination by the use of regression equations. The accuracy of prediction is high if (1) there is
linearity in the relationship of the two variables if graphed, (2) the distributions in the two variables are
normal or not badly skewed, and (3) the spread or scatter of the two variables is the same for each
column or row in the correlation table. The process involves a complicated statistical book especially that
of Garrett, pp. 122-146 for linear correlation and pp. 151-165 for regression and prediction.

Preparing Data for Presentation

Before presenting data in accepted forms, especially in presenting them in the form of statistical tables,
they have to be tallied first in a tabulation diagram which may be called talligram, a contraction of tally
and diagram. The individual responses to a questionnaire or interview schedule have to be tallied one by

How to construct a talligram. A talligram may be constructed as follows:

1. Determine the classes and their respective subclasses along with their respective numbers. For
instance, in the study about science teaching in the high schools of Province A, anent the qualifications of
the teachers, suppose there are four degrees earned by the teachers such as AB (Bachelor of Arts), BSCE
(Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering), BSE (Bachelor of Science in Education) and MA (Master of Arts
with undergraduate courses). The subclasses are the specializations or majors of the teachers. There are
also four such as English, History, Mathematics, and Science. The classes and their subclasses are
arranged alphabetically.

2. Make rows for the classes by drawing horizontal lines with appropriate spaces between the lines and
the number of the rows should be two more than the number of classes. So in the example given in step
no. 1, there should be six rows because there are four classes. The uppermost row is for the labels of the
subclasses, the bottom row is for the totals, and the middle four rows are for the classes: AB, BSCE, BSE,
and MA.

3. Make columns for the subclasses by drawing vertical lines with appropriate spaces between the lines
and the number of columns should be two more than the number of subclasses. So in the example in No.
1 step there should six columns. The leftmost column is for the labels of the class rows, the rightmost
column is for totals, and the four middle columns are for the four subclasses.

See Figure 1 for an example of talligram.

Degrees and Specializations (Majors) Total

Specializations of Teachers

English History Mathematics Science

AB 1 11 1111 1 1111 1111 21


BSCE 1111 4

BSE 11 11 1111 1111 1111 1111 31

1111 111

MA 1 11 3

Totals 3 4 25 27 59