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THE CITY COLLEGE, GWALIOR (M.P.)
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT Project Report On
Performance of mutual funds and its Awareness among the patrons in the present Market During the academic Session 2008-2010
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar
Submitted To: Lt. Col. (Retd.) Kuldeep Mallick Director Academic The City College, Gwalior. LC Code: 504
NEETA PALLAV M.B.A. (Finance & Marketing)
Roll No: 820504114
THE CITY COLLEGE, GWALIOR (M.P.)
Department of Management
This is to certify that the project report entitled of
Performance of mutual funds and its Awareness among the patrons in the present Market
Submitted by Neeta Pallav
In partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the degree Of
Masters Of Business Administration conferred by
Punjab Technical University of Jalandhar
During The Academic Session 2008-2010 is the presentation of the work done by her under my guidance and supervision Under the Guidance of Mr. S.N. Sahay (Dept. of Management)
Submitted To: Lt. Col. (Retd.) Kuldeep Mallick
Mr. Bharat Jhavar
Director Academic college, Gwalior
It is difficult to acknowledge precious a debt as that of learning as it is the only debt that is difficult to repay except through gratitude. First and foremost I wish to express my profound gratitude to the almighty, the merciful & compassionate with those grace & blessings. I have been able to complete this work. I convey my heart full thanks to the Relationship manager Mr.Vikas Kumar and the staff members of INDIA INFOLINE LTD, with their help and corporation. It is my profound privilege to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Jhavar, Director The City College, for giving me an opportunity to work on the project and giving me full support in completing this project. I am very thankful to my guide Mr.Sahay (Lecturer in The City College, Gwalior) for his full support in completing this project work. Last but not least, I would like to thank my husband & my daughter, Jia for their full cooperation & continuous support during the course of this assignment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents Certificate Acknowledgement Table of content Executive summary Objectives of Study Recommendation & Suggetions Introduction to the Project
Introduction of mutual fund Advantages and disadvantages Types of mutual fund schemes Pointers to measure mutual fund performance Tax rules for mutual fund investors History of mutual funds Procedure of registered mutual funds Evaluating portfolio performance
page no. 2 3 4,5 6 7 8 9 10 11-14 16-18 19 20,21 22,23 24 25
Page |5 Investors financial planning and its results 7 investment tips to improve your returns How to reduce risk while investing
25 28,29 30 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 41 42 63 65 66 67 72 73
Introduction to the company
Snapshot of India info line ltd. Unique approaches Milestone keys History of India info line ltd
Objectives of the study and research methodology Objectives of Study Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
Comparison of 4 major mutual funds
Suggestions Conclusion Annexure
Role of financial system is to enthusiast economic development. As investors are getting more educated, aware and prudent they look for innovative investment instruments so that they are able to reduce investment risk, minimize transaction costs, and maximize returns along with certain level of convenience as a result there has been as advent of numerous innovative financial instrument such as bonds, company deposits, insurance, and mutual finds. All of which could be matched with individual’s investment needs. Mutual funds score over all other investment options in terms of safety, liquidity, returns, and are as transparent, convenient as it can get. Goal of a mutual fund is to provide an efficient way to make money .In India there are 36 mutual funds with different Investment strategies and goals to choose from .different mutual funds have different risks, which differ because of fund’s goals, funds manager, and investment styles. A mutual fund is an investment company that collects money from many people and invests it in a variety of securities .the company then manages the money on an ongoing basis for individuals and businesses. Mutual funds are an efficient way to invest in stocks, bonds, and other securities for three reasons:
a) The securities purchased are managed by professional managers. b) Risk is spread out or diversified, because you have a collection of different stocks and bonds. c) Costs usually are lower than what you would pay on your own, since the funds buy in large quantities.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
The objective of the research is to study and analyze the awareness level of investors of mutual funds. To measure the satisfaction level of investors regarding mutual funds. An attempt has been made to measure various variable’s playing in the minds of investors in terms of safety, liquidity, service, returns, and tax saving. To get insight knowledge about mutual funds Understanding the different ratios & portfolios so as to tell the distributors about these terms, by this, managing the relationship with the distributors To know the mutual funds performance levels in the present market To analyze the comparative study between other leading mutual funds in the present market. To know the awareness of mutual funds among different groups of investors. Finding out ways and means to improve on the services by INDIA INFOLINE LTD
RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS:
Customer education of the salaried class individuals is far below standard. Thus Asset
Management Company’s need to create awareness so that the salaried class people become the prospective customer of the future. Early and mid earners bring most of the business for the Asset Management Company’s. Asset Management Company’s thus needed to educate and develop schemes for the person’s who are at the late earning or retirement stage to gain the market share. Return’s record must be focused by the sales executives while explaining the schemes to The target market of salaried class individual has a lot of scope to gain business, as they are Schemes with high equity level need to be targeted towards self employed and Salary class individuals are risk averse and thus they must be assured of the advantage of There should be given more time & concentration on the Tier-3 distributors. The resolution of the queries should be fast enough to satisfy the distributors Time to time presentation/training classes about the products should be there. There should be more number of Relationship Managers in different Regions because one Regular activities like canopy should be done so as to get more interaction with the Regular session should be organized on the handling of the india infoline software so as to All the persons who have cleared the AMFI exam should be empanelled with Mutual Fund the customer. Pointing out the brand name of the company repeatedly may not too fruitful. more fascinated to Mutual Funds than the self employed. professionals as they require high returns and are ready to bear risk. “risk – diversification” in Mutual Funds.
RM can handle a maximum of 125 distributors efficiently and also to cover untapped market. distributors. resolve the account statement problem. so as to be largest distributor base.
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What is a Mutual fund? Mutual fund is an investment company that pools money from shareholders and invests in a variety of securities, such as stocks, bonds and money market instruments. Most open-end Mutual funds stand ready to buy back (redeem) its shares at their current net asset value, which depends on the total market value of the fund's investment portfolio at the time of redemption. Most open-end Mutual funds continuously offer new shares to investors. Also known as an open-end investment company, to differentiate it from a closedend investment company. Mutual funds invest pooled cash of many investors to meet the fund's stated investment objective. Mutual funds stand ready to sell and redeem their shares at any time at the fund's current net asset value: total fund assets divided by shares outstanding.
In Simple Words, Mutual fund is a mechanism for pooling the resources by issuing units to the investors and investing funds in securities in accordance with objectives as disclosed in offer document. Investments in securities are spread across a wide cross-section of industries and sectors and thus the risk is reduced. Diversification reduces the risk because all stocks may not move in the same direction in the same proportion at the same time. Mutual fund issues units to the investors in accordance with quantum of money invested by them. Investors of Mutual funds are known as unit holders. The profits or losses are
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shared by the investors in proportion to their investments. The Mutual funds normally come out with a number of schemes with different investment objectives which are launched from time to time. In India, A Mutual fund is required to be registered with Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) which regulates securities markets before it can collect funds from the public. In Short, a Mutual fund is a common pool of money in to which investors with common investment objective place their contributions that are to be invested in accordance with the stated investment objective of the scheme. The investment manager would invest the money collected from the investor in to assets that are defined/ permitted by the stated objective of the scheme. For example, an equity fund would invest equity and equity related instruments and a debt fund would invest in bonds, debentures, gilts etc. Mutual fund is a suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in a diversified, professionally managed basket of securities at a relatively low cost.
ADVANTAGES OF MUTUAL FUNDS
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Professional Management. The major advantage of investing in a mutual fund is that you get a professional money manager to manage your investments for a small fee. You can leave the investment decisions to him and only have to monitor the performance of the fund at regular intervals.
Diversification. Considered the essential tool in risk management, mutual funds make it possible for even small investors to diversify their portfolio. A mutual fund can effectively diversify its portfolio because of the large corpus. However, a small investor cannot have a well-diversified portfolio because it calls for large investment. For example, a modest portfolio of 10 bluechip stocks calls for a few a few thousands.
Convenient Administration. Mutual funds offer tailor-made solutions like systematic investment plans and systematic withdrawal plans to investors, which is very convenient to investors. Investors also do not have to worry about investment decisions, they do not have to deal with brokerage or depository, etc. for buying or selling of securities. Mutual funds also offer specialized schemes like retirement plans, children’s plans, industry specific schemes, etc. to suit personal preference of investors. These schemes also help small investors with asset allocation of their corpus. It also saves a lot of paper work.
Costs Effectiveness A small investor will find that the mutual fund route is a cost-effective method (the AMC fee is normally 2.5%) and it also saves a lot of transaction cost as mutual funds get concession from brokerages. Also, the investor gets the service of a financial professional for a very small fee. If he were to seek a financial advisor's help directly, he will end up paying significantly more for investment advice. Also, he will need to have a sizeable corpus to offer for investment management to be eligible for an investment adviser’s services.
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Liquidity. You can liquidate your investments within 3 to 5 working days (mutual funds dispatch redemption cheques speedily and also offer direct credit facility into your bank account i.e. Electronic Clearing Services).
Transparency. Mutual funds offer daily NAVs of schemes, which help you to monitor your investments on a regular basis. They also send quarterly newsletters, which give details of the portfolio, performance of schemes against various benchmarks, etc. They are also well regulated and Sebi monitors their actions closely.
Tax benefits. You do not have to pay any taxes on dividends issued by mutual funds. You also have the advantage of capital gains taxation. Tax-saving schemes and pension schemes give you the added advantage of benefits under section 88.
Affordability Mutual funds allow you to invest small sums. For instance, if you want to buy a portfolio of blue chips of modest size, you should at least have a few lakhs of rupees. A mutual fund gives you the same portfolio for meager investment of Rs.1,000-5,000. A mutual fund can do that because it collects money from many people and it has a large corpus.
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DISADVANTAGES OF MUTUAL FUNDS:
Professional Management- Did you notice how we qualified the advantage of professional management with the word "theoretically"? Many investors debate over whether or not the socalled professionals are any better than you or I at picking stocks. Management is by no means infallible, and, even if the fund loses money, the manager still takes his/her cut. We'll talk about this in detail in a later section. Costs - Mutual funds don't exist solely to make your life easier--all funds are in it for a profit. The Mutual fund industry is masterful at burying costs under layers of jargon. These costs are so complicated that in this tutorial we have devoted an entire section to the subject. Dilution - It's possible to have too much diversification (this is explained in our article entitled "Are You Over-Diversified?"). Because funds have small holdings in so many different companies, high returns from a few investments often don't make much difference on the overall return. Dilution is also the result of a successful fund getting too big. When money pours into funds that have had strong success, the manager often has trouble finding a good investment for all the new money. Taxes - When making decisions about your money, fund managers don't consider your personal tax situation. For example, when a fund manager sells a security, a capital-gain tax is triggered, which affects how profitable the individual is from the sale. It might have been more advantageous for the individual to defer the capital gains liability.
Equity funds, if selected in the right manner and in the right proportion, have the ability to play an important role in achieving most long-term objectives of investors in different segments. While the selection process becomes much easier if you get advice from professionals, it is equally important to know certain aspects of equity investing yourself to do justice to your hard earned money.
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TYPES OF MUTUAL FUND SCHEMES
1. BY STRUCTURE • • • Open – Ended Schemes. Close – Ended Schemes. Interval Schemes.
2. BY INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE • • • Growth Schemes. Income Schemes. Balanced Schemes.
3. OTHER SCHEMES • • Tax Saving Schemes. Special Schemes. Index Schemes. Sector Specific Schemes.
OPEN – ENDED SCHEMES
The units offered by these schemes are available for sale and repurchase on any business day at NAV based prices. Hence, the unit capital of the schemes keeps changing each day. Such schemes thus offer very high liquidity to investors and are becoming increasingly popular in India. Please note that an openended fund is NOT obliged to keep selling/issuing new units at all times, and may stop issuing further subscription to new investors. On the other hand, an open-ended fund rarely denies to its investor the facility to redeem existing units.
CLOSED – ENDED SCHEMES
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The unit capital of a close-ended product is fixed as it makes a one-time sale of fixed number of units. These schemes are launched with an initial public offer (IPO) with a stated maturity period after which the units are fully redeemed at NAV linked prices. In the interim, investors can buy or sell units on the stock exchanges where they are listed. Unlike open-ended schemes, the unit capital in closed-ended schemes usually remains unchanged. After an initial closed period, the scheme may offer direct repurchase facility to the investors. Closed-ended schemes are usually more illiquid as compared to open-ended schemes and hence trade at a discount to the NAV. This discount tends towards the NAV closer to the maturity date of the scheme.
These schemes combine the features of open-ended and closed-ended schemes. They may be traded on the stock exchange or may be open for sale or redemption during pre-determined intervals at NAV based prices.
These schemes, also commonly called Equity Schemes, seek to invest a majority of their funds in equities and a small portion in money market instruments. Such schemes have the potential to deliver superior returns over the long term. However, because they invest in equities, these schemes are exposed to fluctuations in value especially in the short term.
These schemes, also commonly called Debt Schemes, invest in debt securities such as corporate bonds, debentures and government securities. The prices of these schemes tend to be more stable compared with equity schemes and most of the returns to the investors are generated through dividends or steady capital appreciation. These schemes are ideal for conservative investors or those not in a position to take higher equity risks, such as retired individuals. However, as compared to the money market schemes they do have a higher price fluctuation risk and compared to a Gilt fund they have a higher credit risk.
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These schemes are commonly known as Hybrid schemes. These schemes invest in both equities as well as debt. By investing in a mix of this nature, balanced schemes seek to attain the objective of income and moderate capital appreciation and are ideal for investors with a conservative, long-term orientation.
7. TAX SAVING SCHEMES Investors are being encouraged to invest in equity markets through Equity Linked Savings Scheme (“ELSS”) by offering them a tax rebate. Units purchased cannot be assigned / transferred/ pledged / redeemed / switched – out until completion of 3 years from the date of allotment of the respective Units. The Scheme is subject to Securities & Exchange Board of India (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996 and the notifications issued by the Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs), Government of India regarding ELSS. Subject to such conditions and limitations, as prescribed under Section 88 of the Income-tax Act, 1961.
8. INDEX SCHEMES The primary purpose of an Index is to serve as a measure of the performance of the market as a whole, or a specific sector of the market. An Index also serves as a relevant benchmark to evaluate the performance of mutual funds. Some investors are interested in investing in the market in general rather than investing in any specific fund. Such investors are happy to receive the returns posted by the markets. As it is not practical to invest in each and every stock in the market in proportion to its size, these investors are comfortable investing in a fund that they believe is a good representative of the entire market. Index Funds are launched and managed for such investors.
9. SECTOR SPECIFIC SCHEMES.
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Sector Specific Schemes generally invests money in some specified sectors for example: “Real Estate” Specialized real estate funds would invest in real estates directly, or may fund real estate developers or lend to them directly or buy shares of housing finance companies or may even buy their securitized assets.
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Pointers to Measure Mutual Fund Performance
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MEASURES STANDARD DEVIATION
Standard Deviation allows to evaluate the volatility Should be near to it’s mean of the fund. The standard deviation of a fund return. measures this risk by measuring the degree to which the fund fluctuates in relation to its mean return.
Beta is a fairly commonly used measure of risk. It with the fund as compared to the benchmark.
Beta > 1 = high risky
basically indicates the level of volatility associated Beta = 1 = Avg Beta <1 = Low Risky values range
R- square measures the correlation of a fund’s R-squared
movement to that of an index. R-squared describes between 0 and 1, where 0 the level of association between the fund's volatility represents no correlation and and market risk. ALPHA Alpha is the difference between the returns one 1 represents full correlation. Alpha is positive = returns of
would expect from a fund, given its beta, and the stock are better then market return it actually produces. It also measures the returns. unsystematic risk . Alpha is negative = returns of stock are worst then market. Alpha is zero = returns are same as market. SHARPE RATIO Sharpe Ratio= Fund return in excess of risk free The higher the Sharpe ratio, return/ Standard deviation of Fund. Sharpe ratios the better a funds returns are ideal for comparing funds that have a mixed relative to the amount of risk asset classes. taken.
Tax Rules For Mutual Fund Investors*
Divid Dividend distribution tax end inco me
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Sho rt Ter m Cap ital Gai ns Resid 10 ent Indivi dual / HUF %
Lon g Ter m ital Gai n NIL
Short Term Capit al
Long Term Capita l Gain
All Sche mes
Equ ity Sch em es
Liquid Schem es
AS PER SLAB
10% (20% with index ation)
28.32% (25% +10%s urchar cation cess)
14.16% (12.5% +10%sur charge+ tion cess) 22.66% (20% +10% surcharg educatio n cess) 22.66% (20% +10% surcharg educatio n cess)
Partn 10 ershi p Firms %
10% (20% with index ation)
28.32% (25% +10%s urchar cation cess)
AS PER SLAB
10% (20% with index ation)
28.32% (25% +10%s urchar cation cess)
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HISTORY OF MUTUAL FUND
The mutual fund industry in India started in 1963 with the formation of Unit Trust of India, at the initiative of the Government of India and Reserve Bank. The history of mutual funds in India can be broadly divided into four distinct phases: -
First Phase – 1964-87 An Act of Parliament established Unit Trust of India (UTI) on 1963. It was set up by the Reserve Bank of India and functioned under the Regulatory and administrative control of the Reserve Bank of India. In 1978 UTI was de-linked from the RBI and the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) took over the regulatory and administrative control in place of RBI. The first scheme launched by UTI was Unit Scheme 1964. At the end of 1988 UTI had Rs.6,700 crores of assets under management.
Second Phase – 1987-1993 (Entry of Public Sector Funds) 1987 marked the entry of non- UTI, public sector mutual funds set up by public sector banks and Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC). SBI Mutual Fund was the first non- UTI Mutual Fund established in June 1987 followed by Can bank Mutual Fund (Dec 87), Punjab National Bank Mutual Fund (Aug 89), Indian Bank Mutual
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Fund (Nov 89), Bank of India (Jun 90), Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund (Oct 92). LIC established its mutual fund in June 1989 while GIC had set up its mutual fund in December 1990. At the end of 1993, the mutual fund industry had assets under management of Rs.47,004 crores.
Third Phase – 1993-2003 (Entry of Private Sector Funds) With the entry of private sector funds in 1993, a new era started in the Indian mutual fund industry, giving the Indian investors a wider choice of fund families. Also, 1993 was the year in which the first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being, under which all mutual funds, except UTI were to be registered and governed. The erstwhile Kothari Pioneer (now merged with Franklin Templeton) was the first private sector mutual fund registered in July 1993. The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations were substituted by a more comprehensive and revised Mutual Fund Regulations in 1996. The industry now functions under the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations 1996. The number of mutual fund houses went on increasing, with many foreign mutual funds setting up funds in India and also the industry has witnessed several mergers and acquisitions. As at the end of January 2003, there were 33 mutual funds with total assets of Rs. 1,21,805 crores. The Unit Trust of India with Rs.44,541 crores of assets under management was way ahead of other mutual funds.
Fourth Phase – since February 2003 In February 2003, following the repeal of the Unit Trust of India Act 1963 UTI was bifurcated into two separate entities. One is the Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trust of India with assets under management of Rs.29,835 crores as at the end of January 2003, representing broadly, the assets of US 64 scheme, assured return and certain other schemes. The Specified Undertaking of Unit Trust of India, functioning under an administrator and under the rules framed by Government of India and does not come under the purview of the Mutual Fund Regulations. The second is the UTI Mutual Fund Ltd, sponsored by SBI, PNB, BOB and LIC. It is registered with SEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations. With the bifurcation of the erstwhile UTI which had in March 2000 more than Rs.76,000 crores of assets under management and with the setting up of a UTI Mutual Fund, conforming to the SEBI Mutual Fund Regulations, and with recent mergers taking place among different private sector funds, the mutual fund industry has entered its current phase of consolidation and growth. As at the end of September, 2004, there were 29 funds, which manage assets of Rs.153108 crores under 421 schemes.
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WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE FOR REGISTERING A MUTUAL FUND WITH SEBI? An applicant proposing to sponsor a Mutual fund in India must submit an application in Form A along with a fee of Rs.25, 000. The application is examined and once the sponsor satisfies certain conditions such as being in the financial services business and possessing positive net worth for
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the last five years, having net profit in three out of the last five years and possessing the general reputation of fairness and integrity in all business transactions, it is required to complete the remaining formalities for setting up a Mutual fund. These include inter alia, executing the trust deed and investment management agreement, setting up a trustee company/board of trustees comprising two- thirds independent trustees, incorporating the asset management company (AMC), contributing to at least 40% of the net worth of the AMC and appointing a custodian. Upon satisfying these conditions, the registration certificate is issued subject to the payment of registration fees of Rs.25.00 lacs for details; see the SEBI (Mutual funds) Regulations, 1996. EVALUATING PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE It is important to evaluate the performance of the portfolio on an ongoing basis. The following factors are important in this process: Consider long-term track record rather than short-term performance. It is important because long-term track record moderates the effects which unusually good or bad short-term performance can have on a fund's track record. Besides, longer-term track record compensates for the effects of a fund manager's particular investment style. Evaluate the track record against similar funds. Success in managing a small or in a fund focusing on a particular segment of the market cannot be relied upon as an evidence of anticipated performance in managing a large or a broad based fund. Discipline in investment approach is an important factor as the pressure to perform can make a fund manager susceptible to have an urge to change tracks in terms of stock selection as well as investment strategy. The objective should be to differentiate investment skill of the fund manager from luck and to identify those funds with the greatest potential of future success.
INVESTOR'S FINANCIAL PLANNING AND ITS RESULTS.
Planning for long term objectives Many people get overwhelmed by the thought of retirement and they think how they will ever save the huge money that is required to lead a peaceful and happy retired life. However, the fact is that if we save and invest regularly over a period of time, even a small sum of money can be adequate.
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It is a proven fact that the real power of compounding comes with time. Albert Einstein called compounding "the eighth wonder of the world" because of its amazing abilities. Essentially, compounding is the idea that one can make money on the money one has already earned. That's why, the earlier one starts saving, the more time money gets to grow. Through Mutual funds, one can set up an investment programme to build capital for retirement years. Besides, it is an ideal vehicle to practice asset allocation and rebalancing thereby maintaining the right level of risk at all times. It is important to know that determination and maintaining the right level of risk tolerance can go a long way in ensuring the success of an investment plan. Besides, it helps in customizing fund category allocations and suitable fund selections. There are certain broad guidelines to determine the risk tolerance. These are: Be realistic with regard to volatility. One needs to seriously consider the effect of potential downside loss as well as potential upside gain. Determine a "comfort level" i.e. If one is not confident with a particular level of risk tolerance, and then select a different level. Regardless of the level of risk tolerance, one should adhere to the principles of effective diversification i.e. The allocation of investment assets among different fund categories to achieve a variety of distinct risk/reward objectives and a reduction in overall portfolio risk. It helps to reassess risk tolerance every year. The risk tolerance may change due to either major adjustment in return objectives or to a realization that an existing risk tolerance is inappropriate for one's current situation. Market cap of a company signifies its market value, which is equal to the total number of shares outstanding multiplied by the current stock price. The market cap has a role to play in the kind of returns the stock might deliver and the risk or volatility that one may have to encounter while achieving those returns.For example, large companies are usually more stable during the turbulent periods and the mid cap and small cap companies are more vulnerable.
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As regards the allocation to each segment, there cannot be a standard combination applicable to all kinds of investors. Each one of us has different risk profile, time horizon and investment objectives. Besides, while deciding on the allocation, one has to keep in mind the fact whether the allocation is being done for an existing investor or for a new investor. While for an existing investor, the allocation that already exists has to be considered, for a new investor the right way to begin is by considering funds that invest predominantly in large cap stocks. The exposure to mid and small caps can be enhanced over a period of time. It is always advisable to take help of professionals to decide the allocation as well as select the appropriate funds. However, investors themselves have an important role to play in this process.
All award-winning funds may not be suitable for everyone Many investors feel that a simple way to invest in Mutual funds is to just keep investing in award winning funds. First of all, it is important to understand that more than the awards; it is the methodology to choose winners that is more relevant. A rating firm generally elaborates on the criteria for deciding the winner’s i.e. consistent performance, risk adjusted returns, total returns and protection of capital. Each of these factors is very important and has its significance for different categories of funds. Besides, each of these factors has varying degree of significance for different kinds of investors. For example, consistent return really focuses on risk. If someone is afraid of negative returns, consistency will be a more important measure than total return i.e. Growth in NAV as well as dividend received. A fund can have very impressive total returns overtime, but can be very volatile and tough for a risk adverse investor. Therefore, all the award winning funds in different categories may not be suitable for everyone. Typically, when one has to select funds, the first step should be to consider personal goals and objectives. Investors need to decide which element they value the most and then prioritize the other criteria.
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Once one knows what one is looking for, one should go about selecting the funds according to the asset allocation. Most investors need just a few funds, carefully picked, watched and managed over period of time.
7 INVESTMENT TIPS TO IMPROVE YOUR RETURNS 1. Know your risk profile Before you take a decision to invest in equity funds, it is important to assess your risk tolerance. Risk tolerance depends on certain factors like emotional temperament, attitude and investment experience. Remember, Vwhile ascertaining the risk tolerance, it is crucial to consider one's desire to assume risk as the capacity to assume the risk. It helps to understand different categories of overall risk tolerance, i.e. Conservative, moderate or aggressive. While a conservative investor will accept lower returns to minimise price volatility, a moderate investor would be all right with greater price volatility than conservative risk tolerances to pursue higher returns. An aggressive investor wouldn't mind large swings in the NAV’s to seek the highest returns. Though identifying the desire for risk is a tough job, it can be made easy by defining one's comfort zone. 2. Don't have too many schemes in your portfolio While it is true that diversification helps in earning better returns with a lower level of fluctuations, it becomes counterproductive when one has too many funds in the portfolio. For example, if you have 15 funds in your portfolio, it does not necessarily mean that your portfolio is adequately diversified. To determine the right level of diversification, one has to consider factors like size of the portfolio, type of funds and allocation to different asset classes. Therefore, it is possible that a portfolio having 5 schemes may be adequately diversified whereas another one with 10 schemes may have very little diversification. Remember, to have a well-balanced equity portfolio, it is important to have the right level of exposure to different segments of the equity market like large cap, mid-cap and small cap. In addition, for a decent portfolio size, it is all right to have some exposure in the sector and specialty funds. 3. Longer time horizon provides protection from volatility As an equity fund investor, you need to understand that volatility is an integral part of the stock market. However, if you remain focused on the long-term objectives and follow a disciplined approach to investing, you can not only handle volatility properly but also turn it to your advantage. 4. Understand and analyze 'Good Performance'
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'Good performance' is a subjective thing. Ideally, to analyze performance, one should consider returns as well as the risk taken to achieve those returns. Besides, consistency in terms of performance as well as portfolio selection is another factor that should play an important part while analyzing the performance. Therefore, if an investment in a Mutual fund scheme takes you past your risk tolerance while providing you decent returns; it cannot always be termed as good performance. In fact, at times to ensure that your investment remains within the parameters defined in the investment plan, you may to be forced to exit from that scheme. In other words, you need to assess as to how much risk did the fund manger subject you to, and did he give you an adequate reward for taking that risk. Besides, you also need to consider whether own risk profile allows you to accept the revised level of risk 5. Sell your fund, if you need to There is no standard formula to determine the right time to sell an investment in Mutual fund or for that matter any investment. However, you can definitely benefit by following certain guidelines while deciding to sell an investment in a Mutual fund scheme. Here are some of them: You may consider selling a fund when your investment plan calls for a sale rather than doing so for emotional reasons. You need to hold a fund long enough to evaluate its performance over a complete market cycle, i.e. around three years or so. Many of us make the mistake of either holding on to funds for too long or exit in a hurry. It is important to do a thorough analysis before taking a decision to sell. In other words, if you take a wrong decision, there is always a risk of missing out on good rallies in the market or getting out too early thus missing out on potential gains. You should consider coming out of a fund if its performance has consistently lagged its peers for a period of one year or so. It doesn't make sense to hold a fund when it no longer meets your needs. If you have made a proper selection, you would generally be required to make changes only if the fund changes its objective or investment style, or if your needs change. 6. Diversified vs. Concentrated Portfolio The choice between funds that have a diversified and a concentrated portfolio largely depends upon your risk profile. As discussed earlier, a well - diversified portfolio helps in spreading the investments across different sectors and segments of the market. The idea is that if one or more stocks do badly, the portfolio won't be affected as much. At the same time, if one stock does very well, the portfolio won't reap all the benefits. A diversified fund, therefore, is an ideal choice for someone who is looking for steady returns over the longer term. A concentrated portfolio works exactly in the opposite manner. While a fund with a concentrated portfolio has a better chance of providing higher returns, it also increases your chances of underperforming or losing a large portion of your portfolio in a market downturn. Thus, a concentrated portfolio is ideally suited for those investors who have the capacity to shoulder higher risk in order to improve the chances of getting better returns. 7. Review your portfolio periodically
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It is always a good idea to review your portfolio periodically. For example, you may begin reviewing your portfolio on a half-yearly basis. Besides, you may be required to review your portfolio in greater detail when your investments goals or financial circumstances change.
HOW TO REDUCE RISK WHILE INVESTING:
Any kind of investment we make is subject to risk. In fact we get return on our
investment purely and solely because at the very beginning we take the risk of parting with our funds, for getting higher value back at a later date. Partition itself is a risk.
Well known economist and Nobel Prize recipient William Sharpe tried to segregate the
total risk faced in any kind of investment into two parts - systematic (Systemic) risk and unsystematic (Unsystemic) risk.
Systematic risk is that risk which exists in the system. Some of the biggest examples of
systematic risk are inflation, recession, war, political situation etc.
Inflation erodes returns generated from all investments e.g. If return from fixed deposit is
8 per cent and if inflation is 6 per cent then real rate of return from fixed deposit is reduced by 6 per cent.
Similarly if returns generated from equity market is 18 per cent and inflation is still 6 per
cent then equity returns will be lesser by the rate of inflation. Since inflation exists in the system there is no way one can stay away from the risk of inflation.
Economic cycles, war and political situations have effects on all forms of investments.
Also these exist in the system and there is no way to stay away from them. It is like learning to walk.
Anyone who wants to learn to walk has to first fall; you cannot learn to walk without
falling. Similarly anyone who wants to invest has to first face systematic risk; there can never make any kind of investment without systematic risk.
Another form of risk is unsystematic risk. This risk does not exist in the system and
hence is not applicable to all forms of investment. Unsystematic risk is associated with particular form of investment.
P a g e | 33 Suppose we invest in stock market and the market falls, then only our investment in
equity gets affected OR if we have placed a fixed deposit in particular bank and bank goes bankrupt, than we only lose money placed in that bank.
While there is no way to keep away from risk, we can always reduce the impact of risk.
Diversification helps in reducing the impact of unsystematic risk. If our investment is distributed across various asset classes the impact of unsystematic risk is reduced.
If we have placed fixed deposit in several banks, then even if one of the banks goes
bankrupt our entire fixed deposit investment is not lost.
Similarly if our equity investment is in Tata Motors, HLL, Infosys, adverse news about
Infosys will only impact investment in Infosys, all other stocks will not have any impact.
To reduce the impact of systematic risk, we should invest regularly. By investing
regularly we average out the impact of risk.
Mutual fund, as an investment vehicle gives us benefit of both diversification and
Portfolio of mutual funds consists of multiple securities and hence adverse news about
single security will have nominal impact on overall portfolio.
By systematically investing in mutual fund we get benefit of rupee cost averaging. Mutual fund as an investment vehicle helps reduce, both, systematic as well as
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SNAPSHOT OF INDIA INFOLINE LTD.
Date of Establishment Revenue Market Cap Corporate Address Branches Management Team October 1995 Rs. 4,257.2 million (year ended March, 2007) Rs. 5110.71 (April 21 2008) 84, Nariman Bhavan, Nariman Point, Mumbai - 400021, Maharashtra, India India Nirmal Jain - Founder R Venkataraman - Co-promoter and Executive Director Sat Pal Khattar - Non Executive Director Nilesh Vikamsey - Independent Director Kranti Sinha - Independent Director India Infoline Limited provides the entire gamut of financial services entailing equity research, equities and derivatives trading, commodities trading, portfolio management services, mutual funds, life insurance, fixed deposits, GoI bonds and investment banking. It is proficient in equities broking, wealth advisory services and portfolio management services. The company is a member of BSE and NSE. It is a depository member of National Securities Depository Limited and Central
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Depository Securities Ltd. The parent company India Infoline Group also contains India Infoline Media and Research Services Limited, India Infoline Commodities Limited, India Infoline Marketing & Services, India Infoline Investment Services Limited and IIFL (Asia) Private Limited
OUR UNIQUE APPROACHES:
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• Incorporated on 18 October 1995 as probity research and services. • Launched internet portal wwwindiainfoline.com in may 1999.
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• Commenced distribution of personal financial products like MF’s and RBI’s Bond in April 2000.
Launched online trading in shares branded as www.5paisa.com in July 2000.
• Started life-insurance agency business in Dec. 2000 as corporate agent. • Became a depository participant of NSDL in September 2001. • Launched stock messaging services in May 2003.
Acquired commodities broking license in March 2004.
History of India Infoline ltd.
We were originally incorporated on October 18, 1995 as Probity Research and Services Private Limited at Mumbai under the Companies Act, 1956 with Registration No. 11 93797. We commenced our operations as an independent
P a g e | 39 provider of information, analysis and research covering Indian businesses, financial markets and economy, to institutional customers. We became a public limited company on April 28, 2000 and the name of the Company was changed to Probity Research and Services Limited. The name of the Company was changed to India Infoline.com Limited on May 23, 2000 and later to India Infoline Limited on March 23, 2001. In 1999, we identified the potential of the Internet to cater to a mass retail segment and transformed our business model from providing information services to institutional customers to retail customers. Hence we launched our Internet portal, www.indiainfoline.com in May 1999 and started providing news and market information, independent research, interviews with business leaders and other specialized features. In May 2000, the name of our Company was changed to India Infoline.com Limited to reflect the transformation of our business. Over a period of time, we have emerged as one of the leading business and financial information services provider in India. In the year 2000, we leveraged our position as a provider of financial information and analysis by diversifying into transactional services, primarily for online trading in shares and securities and online as well as offline distribution of personal financial products, like mutual funds and RBI Bonds. These activities were carried on by our wholly owned subsidiaries. Our broking services was launched under the brand name of 5paisa.com through our subsidiary, India Infoline Securities Private Limited and www.5paisa.com, the ebroking portal, was launched for online trading in July 2000. It combined competitive brokerage rates and research, supported by Internet technology Besides investment advice from an experienced team of research analysts, we also offer real time stock quotes, market news and price charts with multiple tools for technical analysis. Acquisition of Agri Marketing Services Limited ("Agri") In March 2000, we acquired 100% of the equity shares of Agri Marketing Services Limited, from their owners in exchange for the issuance of 508,482 of our equity shares. Agri was a direct selling agent of personal financial products including mutual funds, fixed deposits, corporate bonds and post-office instruments. At the time of our acquisition, Agri operated 32 branches in South and West India serving more than 30,000 customers with a staff of, approximately 180 employees. After the acquisition, we changed the company name to India Infoline.com Distribution Company Limited.
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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of the research is to study and analyze the awareness level of investors of
To measure the satisfaction level of investors regarding mutual funds. An attempt has been made to measure various variable’s playing in the minds of investors
in terms of safety, liquidity, service, returns, and tax saving. To get insight knowledge about mutual funds Understanding the different ratios & portfolios so as to tell the distributors about these terms, by this, managing the relationship with the distributors To know the mutual funds performance levels in the present market To analyze the comparative study between other leading mutual funds in the present market. To know the awareness of mutual funds among different groups of investors. Finding out ways and means to improve on the services by INDIA INFOLINE LTD.
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My research project has a specified framework for collecting the data in an effective manner. Such framework is called “RESEARCH DESIGN”. The research process which was followed by me consisted following steps. A. PROBLEM: The problem at hand was to study and measure the awareness level of people regarding mutual funds in the city. B. DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH PLAN : The development of Research Plan has the following Steps:
1. DATA SOURCES: Two types of data were taken into consideration i.e. Secondary data &
primary data. My major emphasis was on gathering the primary data. The secondary data has been used to make things more clear.
Primary Data: Direct collection of data from the source of information, technology including personal interviewing, survey etc. Secondary Data: Indirect collection of data from sources containing past or recent past information like Bank’s Brochures, Annual publications, Books, Fact sheets of mutual funds, Newspaper & Magazines etc.
2. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT A close friend questionnaire was constructed for my survey. Questionnaire consisting of a set of questions made to be filled by various respondents.
3. SAMPLING PLAN
The sampling plan calls for three decisions.
a) Sampling Unit: I have completed my survey in Chandigarh, Union Territory.
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b) Sample Size: The sample consisted of 50 respondents. The sample was drawn from walk
in customers of India Info line Ltd. The selection of the respondents was done on the basis of simple random sampling. c) Contact Methods I have contacted the respondents through personal interviews. C. COLLECTING THE INFORMATION After this, I have collected the information from the respondents with the help of questionnaire D. ANALYZE THE INFORMATION The next step is to extract the pertinent findings from the collected data. I have tabulated the collected data & developed frequency distributions. Thus the whole data was grouped aspect wise and was presented in tabular form. Thus, frequencies & percentages were prepared to render impact of the study. E. PRESENTATIONS OF FINDINGS This was the last step of the survey.
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DATA PRESSENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
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COMPARISON OF FOUR MAJOR MUTUAL FUNDS
FRANKLIN TEMPLETON INDIA PRIMA PLUS
Mutual Fund Scheme Name Scheme Type Scheme Category Launch Date Franklin Templeton Mutual Fund Franklin India Prima Plus Open Ended Growth 29-Sep-1994
SBI MAGNUM GLOBAL
Mutual Fund Scheme Name Objective of Scheme Scheme Type SBI Mutual Fund SBI MAGNUM GLOBAL FUND 94 - GROWTH The Objective of the Scheme is to provide investors with maximum growth opportunity. Open Ended
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Scheme Category Launch Date MinimumSubscription Amount
Growth 06-Jun-2005 2000
TATA (GROWTH) FUND
Mutual Fund Scheme Name Tata Mutual Fund Tata Growth Fund - Growth
The investment objective of the schemes will be Objective Of Scheme to provide income distribution & / or medium to long term capital gains. The scheme will invest in equity and equity related instruments of well researched growth oriented companies. Scheme Type Scheme Category Minimum Subscription Amount Rs.5000/Open Ended Growth
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RELIANCE GROWTH FUND
Mutual Fund Scheme Name Objective of Scheme Reliance Mutual Fund Reliance Growth Fund The primary investment objective is to achieve long term growth of capital by investing in equity and equity related securities through a research based investment approach Scheme Type Scheme Category Launch Date Minimum Subscription Amount 5000 Open Ended Growth 25-Sep-1995
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From the above graph it is clear that there are many people who have participated in the survey and the major portion of the survey indicates that the people are interested in investing in mutual funds for the sake o their family financial security. From the above graph it also reveals that the minor portion of the graph that is to build a corpus for retirement does not play a major role in the investment decisions.
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These are the findings from the survey which include the number of participants and the type of the participants. This survey includes all types of participants which may give exact results for the evaluation
Which of the following do you think as a tax saving scheme?
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Comparison large cap top performing Mutual funds
This graph represents the scheme assets of the four major companies. The values mentioned in the graph are in crores
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This graph represents the latest NAV’s values of all the four major companies in which reliance capital is the one with highest NAV and Tata is the one with the lowest NAV.
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This graph stands a symbolic representation of the annual returns of the four major companies to their customers for the last 3 months. This value is of 14may 2009.
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This graph stands a symbolic representation of the annual returns of the four major companies to their customers for the last 5 years. The value is of 14may 2009.
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This graph is the result of the daily NAV’s of the Franklin Templeton India prima plus scheme for the last one and half year.
This also represents the trend of the previous years. This data is collected by collecting the NAV values of the previous one and half year their average is taken monthly and a graph is drawn on the basis of the average values.
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In the same manner as explained above the remaining three graphs of Tata Growth fund, SBI Magnum Global fund, reliance global fund is been drawn. This graph is the result of the daily NAV’s of the Franklin Templeton India prima plus scheme for the last one and half year. This also represents the trend of the previous years.
This data is collected by collecting the NAV values of the previous one and half year their average is taken monthly and a graph is drawn on the basis of the average values.
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This graphical representation shows the percentage of the net assets the company holds in terms of the debt, equity and others. The above graph shows the graphical representation of Franklin India Prima Plus
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This graphical representation shows the percentage of the net assets the company holds in terms of the debt, equity and others. The above graph shows the graphical representation of Reliance Growth Fund.
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This graphical representation shows the percentage of the net assets the company holds in terms of the debt, equity and others. The above graph shows the graphical representation of Tata Growth Fund.
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This graphical representation shows the percentage of the net assets the company holds in terms of the debt, equity and others. The above graph shows the graphical representation of SBI Magnum Global Fund.
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The Graph is based on the income of the consumer and their investment in various schemes.
Income Vs Investment Scheme
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Below 2 2 lac to 4 lac to 6 lac to Above 8 Lac 4 lac 6 lac 8 lac lac Tax Saving Money market Balance Growth Income
Interpretation I. Lower income group of below 2 lakh are more attracted towards the income and money market Schemes as they cannot afford to take too much of risk. II. Balanced scheme is more popular with the income group of 2 lakh to 6 lakh . This group is even inclined towards growth Schemes to certain extent . III. Persons with a salary of 6 lakh and above are fascinated by tax saving and money market schemes.
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The Graph is showing the influential factor among the consumer.
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 T.V News paper/Magazine Friends/Family Banners Internet
Interpretation I. Major chunk are fascinated by the Newspapers/ Magazine. II. Second best instrument to fascinate the customer is the internet. Because internet provide the easy and quickest way to get the information.
Which factor influence you most to invest through India Infoline Ltd?
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FACTORS Bank Services Safety Word Of Mouth Advertisement Past Experience 20% 42% 14% 6% 18%
INTERPRETATION When asked that what factor affect most while investing in Mutual Funds through India Infoline Ltd than wide preference is given to safety. 42% investors choose safety.20% bank services, 18% past experience, 14% word of mouth and 6% advertisement.
To how much extent are you satisfied with the services offered by India Infoline Ltd?
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Extremely Satisfied Satisfied To Lesser Extent Dissatisfied To Lesser Extent Extremely Dissatisfied
80% 10% 5% 5%
Out of the respondents 80% are extremely satisfied with the services offered by India Infoline Ltd 10% are satisfied to lesser extent, 5%are extremely dissatisfied.
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As FII’s have entered Indian markets Sensex have crossed 10000 mark and investors have earned a lot in last financial year. Indians are becoming aware of various investment options. People have started taking risk as they want to book profits. Investors prefer more equity schemes than debt schemes, around 60% of the investors invest in equity schemes and balanced schemes. Investors want to take risk as they want to yield better returns. Investors want high returns, liquidity, safety and tax benefit. Among all investors gives want to have safety for their money. Around 91% of the investors prefer open ended schemes rather than close ended schemes as there is flexibility in open ended schemes. Investors prefer both systematic investment plan and lump sum. It depends upon the availability of funds that the investor wants to invest in SIP or as lump sum. Some of the investors invest in both ways i.e. through SIP as well as lump sum. Basically it depends upon the availability of fund. When questions were asked about the performance of mutual funds in future 50% of investors said strong future, 35% of the investors said very strong future and 15% of the investors said moderate future.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS:
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Customer education of the salaried class individuals is far below standard. Thus Asset Management Company’s need to create awareness so that the salaried class people become the prospective customer of the future. Early and mid earners bring most of the business for the Asset Management Company’s. Asset Management Company’s thus needed to educate and develop schemes for the person’s who are at the late earning or retirement stage to gain the market share. Return’s record must be focused by the sales executives while explaining the schemes to the customer. Pointing out the brand name of the company repeatedly may not too fruitful. The target market of salaried class individual has a lot of scope to gain business, as they are more fascinated to Mutual Funds than the self employed. Schemes with high equity level need to be targeted towards self employed and professionals as they require high returns and are ready to bear risk. Salary class individuals are risk averse and thus they must be assured of the advantage of “risk – diversification” in Mutual Funds. There should be given more time & concentration on the Tier-3 distributors. The resolution of the queries should be fast enough to satisfy the distributors. Time to time presentation/training classes about the products should be there. There should be more number of Relationship Managers in different Regions because one RM can handle a maximum of 125 distributors efficiently and also to cover untapped market.
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Regular activities like canopy should be done so as to get more interaction with the distributors.
Regular session should be organized on the handling of the india infoline software
so as to resolve the account statement problem. All the persons who have cleared the AMFI exam should be empanelled with Mutual Fund so as to be largest distributor base. Should have to provide more advertisements, canopies in the shopping mall, main markets because no. of people visiting these places are mostly of service classes and they have to save tax, hence there is more opportunity of getting more no. of applications.
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These were my objectives of my project To get an insight knowledge about mutual funds
Understanding the different ratios & portfolios so as to tell the distributors about these
terms, by this, managing the relationship with the distributors To know the mutual funds performance levels in the present market
To analyze the comparative study between other leading mutual funds in the present
To know the awareness of mutual funds among different groups of investors.
To evaluate consumer feedback on mutual funds Finding out ways and means to improve on the services by india infoline ltd. I satisfied my objectives of the project in the following manner 1. Complete insight knowledge about the mutual funds were mentioned in the project 2. Different ratios with complete graphical representation were explained in the project 3. To know the performance levels of the project I have done the comparative analysis of the project using the four major leading mutual fund companies using different parameters. 4. To know the consumer awareness I have done the survey using different customers so as to analyse the views about the mutual funds and perception of the customer in the present scenario. 5. To evaluate the ways and means to improve india infoline ltd. I have mentioned various suggestions that are listed above
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Name: Mobile Number: Adress:_______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________ Occupation: _____________________ Age: ____________________________
1. Of the following what at present are your investment needs? a. To build a corpus for retirement b. To save for children education/ marriage c. To provide for medical emergencies d. To provide for family financial security e. To create wealth f. All of the above
2. Which of the following you think as investment for tax- saving?
a. Mutual funds b. Fixed deposit c. Insurance d. Ppf e. All of the above 3. Have you ever been invested in mutual funds? a. Yes b. No
4. If you had Rs 1000/- where you prefer to invest
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a. Mutual fund b. Fixed deposit c. Direct equity d. Life insurance e. Postal office deposit
5. Out of the following in which Mutual Fund you have invested?
a) Tata Mutual Fund . b) Franklin Templeton . c) Reliance . d) ICICI Prudential . e) SBI .
f) Other If any ,Please Specify
6. To how much extent are you satisfied with the services offered by india infoline ltd regarding mutual funds? a) Exteremly satisfied. b) Satisfied to the lesser extent c) Dissatisfied to lesser extent d) Extremely dissatisfied.
7. Out of the following which option would you prefer ? a) Close ended . b) Open ended .
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8. Do you prefer SIP (Systematic Investment Plan) or investing lump sum? a) b) SIP Lump sum
c) Depends upon the financial condition
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GLOSSARY OF SOME CONCEPTS
AMC The AMC is the corporate entity, which markets and manager and manages a mutual fund scheme and in return receives a management fee from the fund corpus. SEBI specifies that an AMC must be separate entity the trust that manages it. NAV It is the value of unit of a Mutual Fund scheme and represents its true worth. NAV is arrived at by dividing total value of all investment made under the scheme by number of units of the scheme. NAV is critical yardstick of the funds performance. UNITS Units in a mutual fund scheme are similar to shares of a joint company. These are always in denominations of Rs. 10 each the sum total of all the units constitutes corpus of mutual fund. SPONSORS Sponsor of a mutual fund are those who establish the mutual fund trust and the AMC they constitute the shareholders of the AMC and receive dividends on profits made by the AMC. SEBI rules stipulate that mutual fund trust as well as the AMC must maintain an arms length relationship with the sponsors to avoid any conflict to interests, which may affect the unit holders. INCOME FUND These Funds invest largely in fixed income securities like bonds and debentures. Such funds earn returns more regularly than a growth fund but level of returns over longer periods normally lag behind those offered by growth funds while returns in such funds may be regular, their scale may fluctuate depending upon the prevalent interest rates and credit quality of the debt securities. GROWTH FUNDS Growth funds predominantly invest in stock market securities and carry risks larger than income funds. Since stock markets travel through a natural cycle of boom and bursts one should normally stay invested inequity funds for a longer times to earn higher returns. Equity funds may earn higher but they also carry larger risks. For risk taking investor equity are best suited.
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BALANCED FUNDS A balanced fund is the mixture of income fund and growth fund invested partly in equity to achieve a trade-of between risk and return. CLOSE ENDED In a close-ended fund an investor is allowed to subscribe only during the period of the initial offer. Close-ended funds mature after a specified period. OPEN ENDED FUNDS Those funds in which investor can invest & withdraw whenever they wish, after the close of initial offer. Withdrawals are allowed at NAV minus a back end load. LOCK IN PERIOD Time period during which investor can neither redeem nor they transfer their holdings to others. Lock in period is imposed to allow fund manager to deploy money for an adequate period of time to earn a reasonable return premature withdrawals may destabilize the fund & are not beneficial to the interests of investors. MANAGEMENT FEES An AMC that mangers & markets a mutual fund scheme is entitled to a management fee@ 1% to 25% of the total funds managed, it could be charged to the scheme irrespective of the performance of the scheme. REDEMPTION Disbursement of unit capital on the maturity of that particular scheme to all its existing unit holders. MARKET PRICE The price at which units of mutual funds are quoted in stock exchange where they are listed. REGISTRAR Organization appointed by an AMC to the schemes it is registered, monitored, and regulated by SEBI, it provides required services like system capabilities back up, accepts and processes investors applications in informs AMC about amounts received/disbursed for subscription/ purchase/ redemption it also handles communications with investors, perform data entry services and dispatches account statements.
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CUSTODAIN Banking organization that keeps in safe custody all the securities & other instruments belonging to the fund to insure smooth inflow & outflow of securities. It is also approved regulated and registered with SEBI. EXIT LOAD Value of deduction from NAV on the date when one choose to withdraw from a fund, load is imposed because withdrawals carry transaction cost to AMC it can not be more than 6% of NAV of corpus as prescribed by SEBI many schemes offer redemption facility without exit load. ENTRY LOAD Charge paid by unit holder when he invests an amount in the scheme. Mutual funds incur many expenses during an issue, which are charged to the scheme. Such load is called entry load. LIQUIDITY Ability of investors to change its unit into cash within minimum time as and when he needs money. TRANSPARENCY Basic feature of mutual funds is transparency, their functioning is very efficient, well monitored & transparent working of AMC is regulated by SEBI it is audited weekly, it has to work under strict guidelines issued by SEBI, and its NAV is calculated and published daily so that there is no chance of any default in the working of Mutual Funds.
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David F, Swensen. 2005. Unconventional Success. A fundamental Approach to Personal Investment Free Press 416
D.C. Anjaria. Dhaivat Anjaria. 2001 AMFI’s Mutual Fund Testing Programme.
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