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Aim : To study about the various components and equipments used in the Analog Electronics


Apparatus used:CRO , Function generator , Dual power supply , Multimeter

Theory: The various instruments are:

1. CRO ( cathode ray oscilloscope) - The cathode ray oscilloscope is an extremely useful and
versatile laboratory instrument used for studying wave shapes of alternating current and volatges
as well as for measurement of voltage , current , power and frequency and almost any quantity
that involves amplitude and waveform.

It allows the user to see the amplitude of electrical signals as a function of time on the screen. It is
widely used for trouble shootingTV receivers as well as laboratory work involving research and
design.It can also be employed for studying the wave shape of a signal with respect to amplitude
distortion and deviation from the normal.

Block diagram:
The instrument employs a cathode ray tube which is the heart of a oscilloscope. It generates the
electron beam , accelerates to high velocity , deflects the beam to create the image and contains
a phosphor screen where the electron beam eventually becomes visible. For accompalishing
these tasks various electrical signals and voltages are required which are provided by power
supply circuit of the oscilloscope.
Horizontal and vertical deflection plates are fitted between electron gun and screen to deflect the
beam acording to the input signal. Electron beam strikes the screen and creates a visible spot.
This spot is deflected on the screen in horizontal diretcion , with constant time dependent rate.
Electron beam deflects in two directions , horizontal in X-axis and vertical on Y-axis. Triggering
ciricuit is provided for synchronising 2 types of deflection so that horizontal deflection starts at the
same point of vertical signal each time it sweeps.

2. Digital Multimeter (DMM) -Digital multimeter is basically a digital voltmeter and may be used
for measurement of voltage , curent ( DC or AC) and resistances. All quantities other than DC
voltages are first converted into an equivalent DC voltage by some device. For measurement of
AC voltage the input voltage is converted into a dc voltage by means of a rectifier .A
compensated attenuator is employed.Many manufacturers provide the same attenuators for both
AC and DC measurements.

For measurement of resistance a constant curent depending on the range , supplied from a
battery or a constant current source is passed through the resistance under measurement and
voltage developed across is measured.The resistance value is displayed in ohms.

For measurement of current , the unknown current is passed through a precision resistor in many
commercial digital multimeters and volatge developed across the precision resistor is measured.
The current value is displayed accordingly.For the measurement of curent , a current-to -voltage
converter may also be used.

The current under measurement is applied to the input of OP-Amp. The curent in the feedback
resistor Ir is equal to the input current In because of very high input impedance of the OP-Amp.
The curent Ir causes a voltage drop across one of the resistances , which is proportional to input
current In.

Specifications of DMM's :
Ranges :DC volatage upto 1000V in 5 ranges
AC volatge upto 750V in 5 ranges
DC current upto 10A in 5 ranges
AC current upto 5A in 5 ranges
Resistance upto 200M 7 ranges

Basic accuracy : 0.5 % for Dc voltages

1% for AC voltages
1% for DC current
1.2% for Ac current
0.8% for resistances

Power supply : 9v battery

3. Function Generator : It is a signal source that has the capability of producing different types of
waveforms as its output signal. They are also used in driving sweep oscillators in oscilloscopes
and the X-axis of the X-Y recorders.
Many function generators are also capable of generating two different waveforms simultaneously
( from different output terminals). Another important feature of some function generators is their
capability of phase locking to an external signal source.In this instrument the frequency is
controlled by varying the magnitude of current that drives the integrator.THIs instrument provides
different types of waveforms ( such as sinusoidal , triangular , and square waves ) as its output
signal with a frequency range of 0.01 hz to 100 khz.
The frequency controlled voltage regulated 2 curent supply sources.Current supply source 1
supplies constant curent to the integrator whose output voltage rises linearly with time according
to ouput signal voltage equation:

The voltage comparator multivibrator changes state at a pre-determined maximum level of

switches to the supply source 2.The output of integrator is a triangular wave whose frequency
depends on the curent supplied bythe constant current supply sources.

4.Dual Mode power supply. - Many discrete and integrated chips( IC's) need bipolar voltage
supply.This can be easily accompalished with 2 three-terminal regulators.Oposite phase AC is
provided by the transformers. secondary and a grounded center tap.The single full-wave bridge
converts these into +ve and -ve DC voltage ( with respect to the ground center tap).Filtering is
provided by the 2 capacitors. The LM340 provides regulation of positive voltage , while the
LM320 regulates the negative voltage.The diode provides protection , but also ensures that they
are not reversed.Diode D1 and D2 ensures that transients on the regulator output do not drive the
outputs to a potential above their input and cause damage to regulators.Also the 2 regulators may
not turn on simultaneously.If this occurs , the output of the slower regulator may be driven
towards the potential of the faster one.Diodes D3 and D4 prevent these reverse polarities on start

5.Center tapped transformer