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A Nonclassical Model

Mater.Phys.Mech.3 for 25-35
(2001) Creep-Damage Processes #


H. Altenbach
Fachbereich Ingenieurwissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099 Halle, Germany

Received: October 23, 2000

Abstract. The analysis of creep-damage processes is becoming more and more important in
engineering practice due to the fact that the exploitation conditions like temperature and pressure
are increasing while the weight of the structure should decrease. In the same time the safety
standards are increasing too. The accuracy of the mechanical state estimation (stresses, strains
and displacements) mainly depends on the introduced constitutive equations and on the chosen
structural analysis model. For the first purpose an improved generalized phenomenological
creep model is introduced and extended to the case of creep-damage coupling. In addition, a
micromechanical-based model is discussed. For thin-walled structures under creep-damage
conditions the advantages and the problems of different approaches are briefly discussed.

1. MOTIVATION · the definition of threedimensional constitutive
equations which are generalizations of the
During the last hundred years there was published uniaxial creep or creep-damage equations and
a lot of papers in Creep Mechanics mostly influenced · the selection of relevant structural mechanics
by various approaches in establishing suitable equations for the analysis of thin-walled struc-
constitutive equations or by the practical use of the tures reflecting adequate the structural and the
proposed constitutive equations in structural analysis constitutive behaviour.
(thin-walled structures like tubes, discs, plates,
shells, etc.). The state of art was reported by With respect to the experimental observations
numerous authors in different papers, monographs the creep processes can be divided into three stages:
or proceedings (e.g., [1-8]). In addition, with respect the primary creep which is characterized by the in-
to the deformation mechanisms during the tertiary creasing hardening and the decreasing softening
creep which can be related partly to damage pro- tendencies in the material, the secondary or sta-
cesses leading to the material deterioration the de- tionary creep which reflects the equilibrium between
velopment of the Continuum Damage Mechanics softening and hardening and the tertiary creep with
stimulates new investigations in this field (see, e.g., a dominant increasing of the material deterioration.
([7-11]). These three stages can be obtained for all materi-
Due to the fact that till now an unique theory of als at elevated temperatures (in comparison with
creep-damage processes does not exist in depen- the melting temperature), but in dependence on the
dence on the chosen variant of the constitutive equa- temperature level, the loading rate, etc. these stages
tions we obtain in some cases different approxima- may be more or less significant.
tions of experimental observations even in the Simple phenomenological constitutive equations
uniaxial case. Therefore we have to solve three prob- were proposed during the first thirty years of this
lems: century [1]. The Norton-Bailey creep law was mostly
· the establishing of suitable uniaxial creep equa- used in practice
tions (and if damage may be evolution equations)
ε& = Kσ ,

for a convenient description of uniaxial creep test

Corresponding author: H. Altenbach, e-mail:

© 2001 Advanced Study Center Co. Ltd.

uniaxial tests an equivalent stress will be defined rial properties are following from simple tests which which represents the multiaxial stress state. etc. if the material is isotropic the creep poten- σeq ≡ σvM is a quadratic function of the stress devia. (cp. The J2-theory is easy in with respect to the stress tensor we obtain a tensorial handling. The general- ized creep or creep-damage equation can be applied σ 1 = µ 1I1. ε. Due to the necessity that the terial. and finally using the deviatoric stresses control the creep strain rates. quadratic and cubic invariants dependence on the kind of stress state.. classified. A associated flow rule for the derivation the creep strain similar assumption was used by von Mises in the rate tensor as the derivative of the creep potential theory of plasticity [12]. the handling of practical problems (for instance. for ent proposals for an equivalent stress expression instance the equivalent stress σeq. 2. There are vari. ).1. age variable the tertionary creep can be modelled. can be find in the literature (see. has to be intro. to structure mechanics problems. invariants [14]: In this paper a generalization of the classical creep and creep-damage equations is introduced and I1 = σ ⋅ ⋅I. i =1. of a creep potential as a function of the stress state the rheological behaviour or the damage of the ma. They duced by engineering assumptions. Combining these invariants as new material softening (damaging) or hardening or the linear. [2] e. the case of thin-walled structures). Differ- are mostly uniaxial) an equivalent quantity. For ex- so-called J2-theory based on the assumption that ample. Altenbach where K. This relation can In this section different approaches are presented. the influence of the nonlinear constitutive equation. scription for the stationary creep. in general. They are more I3 = ( σ ⋅ σ ) ⋅ ⋅σ complicated in comparison with the classical mod- with I as the second rank unit tensor and σ as the els. in Multiaxial creep-damage states which are usu.. but on the other hand. for instance. 2. n are material properties following from ing into account the possibility to extend the creep uniaxial tests. equations for stationary creep proposed by respectively. be modified for the primary creep introducing an All approaches are able to describe more or less explicit dependence on the time t or for the tertiary the experimental observations. The Norton-Bailey law is a suitable de. Tak- . [13]). on experiences in applications will be reported. tial depends on the stress tensor invariants. In the tor.g. In this case the hydrostatic stress state has no general case we have to take into account three influence on the creep behaviour and only the linear independent invariants. CREEP-DAMAGE CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS σ eq = ασ 1 + βσ 2 + γσ 3 . the dot is the derivation with respect Kachanov and Rabotnov with the help of one dam- to the time. kind of stress state (no differences in tension and Let us assume the irreducible stress tensor compression. Creep constitutive equation The starting point is the introduction of a creep po. Creep-damage constitutive equations are mostly and the creep potential will be defined as follows based on creep equations for stationary creep.26 H. are mostly based on some mathematical ous possibilities. 2 2 pose different structure mechanics assumptions pre- sumed in the modelling the mechanical behaviour of σ 3 = µ 4 I1 + µ 5 I1I 2 + µ 6 I 3 3 3 thin-walled structures are briefly discussed. Finally. but ignore. In accordance to the classical monograph I2 = σ ⋅ ⋅σ. of Rabotnov [2] these equations can be formulated from an unique point of view. The advantages/dis- creep introducing a damage variable ω and defining advantages of each proposal can be obtained from a damage evolution law [2]. Due to this pur- σ 2 = µ 2 I1 + µ 3 I2 .g. ally realized in engineering structures require a suit- able extension of creep-damage uniaxial equations. but mostly used is up to now the manipulations and the experimental proof. a generalized equivalent stress may be introduced as a linear combination of the invariants σi.). 3. they are able to reflect the stress tensor. e. The starting point for various threedimensional phe- tential Φ which is a function of the stress state and nomenological creep equations is the introduction of additional parameters describing.. 2. Due to the demand that the uniaxial and the threedimensional equations have to be identified by multiaxial states should be comparable (all mate. σ denote strains and stresses.

Identification of the generalized creep in dependence on the kind of material and loading model conditions similar coefficients are introduced. (3) 2 γ Q 2 and σ3 1 I=s− sŸŸ11 . β = 1 and µ2 = -1/2. (2) with respect to the tensor calculus 3 ε& = n −1 [15] follows Kσ vM I (6) 2 ε& = λ& ∂Φ LM µ I I + µ3σ with ∂σeq N αµ1I + β 2 1 σ2 + σ vM = 3 I ⋅ ⋅I ( µ 4 I1 + ( µ 5 /3 )I2 )I + ( 2µ 5 /3 )I1σ + µ 6 σ ⋅ σ 2 OP .A Nonclassical Model for Creep-Damage Processes % Φ = Φ ( σ eq ) where εeq is a formal introduced equivalent strain (note that εeq is not defined like σeq as a quadratic The explicit dependence on the temperature is expression of the strain deviator). (5) contains 6 unknown tional introduction of more or less nonzero values parameters µi only which should be identified by for µi (i = 1. γ allows the description of tests. Various possibilities of identification proce- the influence of the kind of stress state on the creep dures are known. taking into account the expressions of σ1. but should be ditional factor λ& . Using the calculations we obtain the tensorial nonlinear creep associated flow law (normality rule) [2] equation as follows ε& = λ& ∂Φ ∂σ (1) LM µ 1I1I + µ 3 σ N ε& = ε eq αµ1I + β σ2 + OP . The coefficients α. and the chain rule for derivation the creep strain rate ( µ 4 I1 + (µ 5 /3 )I2 )I + (2 / 3 )µ 5 I1σ + µ 6 σ ⋅ σ (5) 2 tensor can be calculated as ∂Φ ∂σ eq γ σ3 2 Q ε& = λ& = ∂σ eq ∂σ It should be underlined that in Eq. ….6) and α. This creep equation is tensorial linear and does The introduction of such weighting coefficients is not reflect any non-classical material behaviour. sented with the help of creep tests by constant The flow law (1) establishs the dependence of loading and temperature.. Setting for this approxi- mation Norton’s power law and considering the von Mises-type creep equation with Φ( σ vM ) = σ vM2 we get Finally.5. (3) various special cases can be de- generalized creep model considering the “equal duced.2. (5) the equiva- ∂Φ ∂σ F ∂σ ∂σ 3 I (2) lent strain rate ε& eq results from suitable approxima- λ& ∂σ eq ∂σ H α 1 +β 2 +γ ∂σ ∂σ . Finally.4]. The use of the state equations with these pa- Pdiss = σ eq ε& eq = σ ⋅ ⋅ ε& . Setting α = γ = 0. Eq. [1]). after some dropped when the temperature is fixed. different parts of the equivalent stress expression. β and γ allow a “weighting” of the which is presented in the classical monographs (e. A simple procedure can be pre- behaviour. The changing of these values and the addi- alized isotropic creep Eq. for instance. in [2. σ2. For example. µ3 = 3/2 weight” of the invariants σi.4.g. (4) rameters is allowed only in a small range of stresses . σ3 from Eq.6) 3 which should be determined by tests. which is able to reflect different damage mechanisms 2. (3) contains 6 material constants µi (i = 1. well-known from the literature. This approach is widely the creep strain rates on the stresses using an ad- used in engineering applications. This factor can be estimated from carefully handled because the material dependent the assumption of the identical specific dissipation parameters are determined for a given constant load power in the uniaxial and the multiaxial state level. in the Other examples of uniaxial creep test approxima- Leckie-Hayhurst criterion in Damage Mechanics [16] tions are presented. In this case we set α = β we get the so-called von Mises-type creep equa- = γ =1. Let us discuss the identification procedure for the From Eq. After this simplification the proposed gener- tion. K tions of uniaxial creep tests.

r = r r r r with . if APS ≠ 0 the The choice of the tests depends on the experi. This simpli- 2r 2r fied theory is based on two tests: tension and tor- µ 6 = (T − µ 1 ) − µ 4 − µ 5 3 sion or tension and transverse contraction. The above discussed 2ε& 12 = 2ε& 21 = AS σ 12 . cr n The classical model is based on the assumption that ε& ii = 0. 1 µ3 = µ2 = K − µ 3. cr cr n von Mises-type theory we obtain from the following ε& 11 = APS σ 12 . Altenbach in the neighbourhood of the given load level. The first possibility was prefered in [18]. At first we assume that the behaviour in tension and compression is the same (A+ = A– ≡ • hydrostatic pressure (σ11 = σ22 = σ33 < 0) K) and we get T = 0 and X = K r. Poynting-Swift effect [19] can be modelled and volu- mental facilities and on the possibility to achieve metric creep strain rates take place as a result of analytical solutions for comparison with the experi. The special cases are important for the practi- ε& 11 = − A− | σ 11 | . Other The proposed model takes into account various possibilities are discussed. µ3 = 2r AS . For instance. if AT ≠ 0 – the independent transverse contraction with a creep exponent n which is constant with can be described. cr cr cr n = 0) and is based on the second axiom of rheology The A +. A PS and A P are material [22] . Providing Finally we get analytical solutions for these simple stress states 1 the comparison with the tests results in the follow.28 H. ing coefficients µi [18] 2 µ 1 = 0. Their experi- experimentally [4]) let us suggest the following tests mental observation is limited due to the difficulties • uniaxial tension (σ11 > 0) to provide suitable tests. ε& 11 = A+ σ 11. Another non-classical ef- fect is the neglecting the creep incompressibility. cr cr n Let us discuss special cases of the generalized • uniaxial compression (σ11 < 0) creep equation with respect to the identified µi-val- ues. µ5. and we get 2r again the restriction AS = 3K2r. cr n cal use of the proposed generalized model. Mises theory is tensorial linear). shear loads (similar to the Kelvin effect in elasticity mental results. 1 1 1 Finally let us discuss variants of the generalized = ( A+ − A− ). For the last 6µ 4 = 9 µ 2 + 3 µ 3 − 3 µ 1 − AP r 3 1 three values µ4. Sect. cr ε& 22 = ε& 33 = AT σ 11. 2. at the same time +18 GH µ2 µ 2 − µ3 + µ 1 + AT A+ − nr JK 1 2 we find µ4 = µ5 = 0. (5) have to be used. is restricted by APS = 0 (no Poynting-Swift effect). This extended von Mises-type theory 3 r F I (T − µ ) . in [17]. these effects respect to the kind of loading (this was established are partly second order effects [21]. A T.the volumetric strains are purly elastic (AP=0). In this case 3µ2 = µ3. A S. X = ( A+ + A− ). At the same time AP tends to 0. The classical theory cannot reflect the Poynting-Swift effect (APS ε& 11 = ε& 22 = ε& 33 = −3 AP | σ 11| . 2 APS Taking into account the values of µ2 and µ3 in µ1 = . The . nonclassical effects.1 which are based on the assumption of the ( 2µ 3 ) n Norton creep law with the material characteristics µ2 = X − µ 3 . 2r 2r AS . On the other hand. Assuming a Norton-type creep law [20]. and therefore special cases of the Eq. A– . 2 2 n +1 creep law based on three material parameters. for example. T −24 GH µ2 µ 2 − µ3 + µ 1 + AT A+ − nr JK 1 2 = 0 (identical behaviour in tension and compression with A+ = A– ≡ K) and 9K2r−3 AS = AP . Another simplification can be introduced by µ1 = d i 3 (7) 2µ 5 = 3(T − µ 1 ) − 9 µ 2 + 3 µ 3 − 3 µ 1 − AP µ4 = µ5 = µ6 = 0. µ6 we conclude: µ6 = 0 (the von F I (T − µ ) . characteristics following from the tests. 2 K and n we estimate that the classical creep theory d i − 3aT − µ f 2r 3 is restricted by the relation AS = 3K2r. cr n considerations. In prac- tice the necessary information on creep tests are • simple shear (σ12 = σ21 ≠ 0) mostly uncomplete.

(8) help of the modification of the equivalent stress dam- ∂σ age mechanisms controlled not only by the Hi. H i . the restrictions for the material characteristics for k are material parameters. In addition. It can be used for the primary Novozhilov’s stress tensor invariants [24] the equiva- creep. r r 2 2r r 2 modified as follows Another tensorial linear creep law we obtain if µ1 = 3 s µ4 = µ6 = 0. l are material parameters and σ eq = σvM. Starting from the hardening processes. Assuming the creep potential as ferent damage behaviour. the damage law does not reflect the dif- creep equations. This generalized creep-dam. too. present here another modification of the stationary In addition.3 Creep-damage constitutive equations (1 − ω ) r l Considering creep-damage processes in the mate. K ). A tensorial Note that we have now three equivalent stresses ω σeq. ω q . resulting from a function of the stress state and a set of internal tensile or compressive loads.A Nonclassical Model for Creep-Damage Processes ' following possibilities can be introduced. for instance. r. rial simple extensions of the creep constitutive equa- The Rabotnov creep-damage equations enable an tions presented in the previous subsection can be extension of the classical creep equation for sta- proposed using the Kachanov-Rabotnov approach tionary creep to the tertiary creep. characteristics Numerous examples of creep equations and additional evolution equation are presented in the 1 −r n literature. 2. A detailed de- tion law an expression similar to the Norton law can scription of the possibilities to formulate simplified be formulated equations with three parameters starting from the generalized creep law is presented in [13]. 2 σ vM 3 . K ). From these as. The starting point this approach is the simple form easy for handling. With the ε& = λ& . a tensorial nonlinear ε& = n −1 Kσ vM . H with ω ω k = ω k ( σ eq . ωk denote two sets of hardening and damaging deviatoric stresses can be introduced. lent stress can be presented as follows In addition to the associated creep law. On the other hand. generalized equivalent stress expression was pro- age law allows the reflecting of different damage and posed. respectively. (1 − ω ) r k creep law can be established by µ1 = µ4 = µ5 = 0. The start- −r n ing point of this approach is the creep equation (6) 9( A+ + A− ) − 12 AS = 4( AP + 3 APS AS ) . ω where m. H p . allow to reflect various deformation mechanisms sumptions follow the restrictions for the material influenced by different parts of the stress state. the assumption of ing of primary creep and the formal introduction of some equivalence principle [11] leads to modified the damage parameter ω that leads to a range of creep equations which allow the modelling of creep- this parameter from 0 (undamaged state) to 1 (fully damage processes. we must formulate the evolution equations for the hardening σ eq = λ 1σ vM sin ξ + λ 2 σ vM cos ξ + λ 3 σ vM + and the damage variables (9) λ 4 I1 + λ 5 I1 sin ξ + λ 6 I1 cos ξ H i = H i ( σ eq . variables we can reformulate the associated creep One possible variation of the Rabotnov creep- law damage equation is given by the introduction of other ω ∂Φ( σ eq . r r 2 assuming only creep-damage coupling. 2 Providing similar calculations as in the first case Here ω (0 ≤ ω ≤ 1) denotes a damage variable. 27 det s sin 3 ξ = − . in [23]. One of the first was introduced by Rabotnov = ( A+ − A− ) = APS AS . for instance. The advantage of in Continuum Damage Mechanics. ω k ) expressions for the equivalent stress σ eq . Following this approach we damaged state) and which seems to be not realistic. σ eq and σ eq which are in general different and H linear creep law can be formulated with the help of the assumptions µ4 = µ5 = µ6 = 0. H p . ω q . For the damage evolu- the two last cases can be deduced. A suitable variables. of this approach is the introduction of a damage (or The main problems are connected with the neglect- continuity) variable. ω B( σ eq ) m ω& = .

age equations starts to be very popular. ϕ ). etc. 2 eq ϕ* p ω ω f ( σ eq . µ MN 1 − Φ PQ DA (10) (1 − ω ) H σ K ω& 2 = I eq power can be estimated from the uniaxial tests. rameter identification are increasing significant when tion power over the time t we find a measure of the the number of parameters is increasing. lished experimentally [27]. by intro- ducing more internal variables or by other equiva- proach based on one scalar damage variable. value ϕ* is a material constant which was estab. age coupling can be proposed if we take the creep the deviatoric stresses and from the hydrostatic state equation (2) into account and setting instead stress. Separating the function f as a product of two func- 3 LM Bσ (1 − H ) OP . As- n suming once more the identical behaviour in the L Bσ (1 − H ) OP . secondary and tertiary creep for metallic materials. Then following [26] we can introduce again the specific lent stress formulations. While the damage process is pression including the damage variable and an ad- connected only with tensile stresses and comp- ditional equivalent stress for the damage process ressive stresses lead to the closing of the voids. In addition. For practical pur. (but not “healing”) there was introduced a model σ eq ω LMαµ I + β µ I I + µ σ + ε& = N which reflect the different damage behaviour in ten. 1 1 3 (1 − ω ) σ eq σ p 1 sion and compression. ε& eq = . also by other damage variables definitions. and the Rabotnov-Kachanov ap. damage process till now we discussed only constitutive equations reflecting initially isotropic creep and damage z behaviour. Altenbach This criterion contains several special cases with a ω σ eq reduced number of parameters λi. The equivalent creep strain rate can be calculated by the use of the expression for the dis. but the experimental efforts 0 for the parameter identification are increasing It is presumed that at the starting point t = 0 no rapidly. Both proposals The creep state equation for load dependent mate- take into account the different influence on the dam- rial behaviour under the consideration of creep-dam- age process following from the first principal stress. 2 damage occurs even for compressive stresses the ( µ 4 I1 + (µ 5 /3 )I 2 )I + ( 2 / 3 )µ 5 I1σ + µ 6 σ ⋅ σ 2 γ Q damage process is interrupted. During the last years several anisotropic t* ϕ = Pdiss dt . models were proposed. The ing point was the necessity to describe primary. It is & = Kc (1 − Φ) 4 . The difficulties of the pa- dissipation power (4) and integrating the dissipa. The start- From these follows ϕ(t=0)=0 and ϕ(t = t*) = ϕ*. Obtaining tensile stresses OP . Combining all equations we get . Φ easy to show that Rabotnov’s damage parameter ω 3 is connected with ϕ by ω = ϕ/ϕ*. 1− Φ sipation power.30 H. damage is observed in the material and the final During the last years another set of creep-dam- state t = t* is characterized by macroscopic failure. N 1− Φ Q H H K h A (ϕ * − ϕ ) H& = p eq σ (1 − ω ) n * eq 2 ω p is a material parameter and χ( σ eq ) should be a special selected equivalent stress function. 2 Another possibility of creep-damage modelling σ3 can be proposed using the creep constitutive equa- tion (5). Hayhurst and co-workers have proposed the follow- At fixed temperatures we can define a state equa. ϕ ) = χ( σ eq ) sinh M . 2 eq uniaxial and the multiaxial cases we obtain ε& eq = Bσ (1 − H ) cothM n= N 1− Φ Q eq eq Pdiss/σeq. A different modification was proposed by of the equivalent creep strain rate the modified ex- Lemaitre [11]. ing set of creep constitutive and evolution equations tion for creep-damage processes for different internal variables and recommended ω these equations for an aluminium alloy [28] Pdiss = f ( σ eq . (1 − ω ) σ eq p poses mostly the proposals of Sdobyrev [25] and Leckie-Hayhurst [16] are in use. which reflects the dependences on the kind The load dependent creep equation can be extended of stress state. A s ε& = N 1− Φ Q cr eq tions which are depending only on one variable sinh 2 (1 − ω ) σ n L Bσ (1 − H ) OP F 1 − H I . The dissipation FG σ IJ N sinhL Bσ (1 − H) O .

The dam- strains. On the other hand. e. This extension has no we have to work with creep equations containing a influence on the equilibrium equations. · The plate or the shell are thin in comparison to · The equilibrium equations can be formulated in lateral dimension or minimum radius of curvature. hardening variable which describes primary creep. In these papers the problem of the materials quantities.The use · The strain-displacement relations are extended of the generalized creep equation is connected with by two additional relations describing the trans- great experimental efforts. walled structures at elevated temperatures. elastic and a creep part. ing into the model reflect the temperature influence The following kinematical assumptions can be of the longtime behaviour even the model is related proposed as the first improvement: to the creep at elevated temperatures. [31]): etc. (see. σi > 0 and N = 0 for σi < 0 and m denote the multi- The equations following from these assumptions axial stress state index. In the case of plates the prin. They allow only the description of iso. H*. The forces can be · The displacements are small in comparison to computed by averaging the stresses over the the thickness (the equilibrium can be described thickness. without thermal stresses. the simulation of creep processes occurring in thin.g. stresses multiplied with the thickness coordinate · Transverse shearing strains are neglected... the question of the influence of age process is taken into account while the princi- the transverse shearing strains with respect to the pal stress σi is active and positive (only tensile assumed creep-damage behaviour is not enough stresses lead to the damage). terms of stress resultants. 0 ≤ Φ ≤ 1 and σ2. The squares of the rotation angles of parameter identification is briefly discussed. APPLICATION OF CREEP MODELS tension has an influence on the strain-displace- TO PLATES AND SHELLS ment relations and on the equilibrium equations.g. N = 1 for middle surface are dropped. only with scalar inter. softening. With respect to the ciples of formulations are discussed.. The reason for this unaccuracy with respect to the constitutive and the loading is that we deal.Love’s approximation of the shell theory. σi is the maximum principal stress. model: nal variables.ageing of the particular micro- in large deflections even in the case of infinitesimal structure and grain boundary cavitation. the couples – by averaging the with respect to the undeformed geometry). Secondly. geometrical assumptions this splitting is addi- For example. hardening. ables which characterize two major mechanisms of Firstly. in [30]. e. have to formulate additional constitutive equa- the proposed creep-damage models are in some tions. for example. over the thickness. In addition.g.A Nonclassical Model for Creep-Damage Processes ! where A. the classical plate and shell equa. The creep · All geometrical relations are formulated by the constitutive equations (10) are motivated in [28] and assumption that the strains are infinitesimal [29]. time-dendent material behaviour can result material softening . situations incomplete and do not reflect the real Supplementary assumptions can be introduced damage behaviour. so in many practical cases verse shearing strains. have an influence only on the creep part. The including of age- investigated. · The constitutive behaviour can be splitted into an ferent assumptions. . e. 0 ≤ ω2 ≤ 0. in [32]. The internal state variables correspond to the Kirchhoff’s plate theory or the are introduced as follows: H. As was the normal vector are of the same order as the shown in [28] the modified Rabotnov model and the strains. 0 ≤ H ≤ H* is the Kirchhoff .3 are damage vari- behaviour the assumptions should be modified. B. With respect to the coupled creep-damage Φ. Kc and D are material param. · The plate is assumed to be uniformly heated tropic material behaviour. h. some nonlinearities are in- set of equations (10) result to similar approxima- troduced to the kinematics: quadratic terms are tions of uniaxial creep curves from tests. · Normal stresses acting on planes parallel to the eters. considered only in the strains of the middle sur- face. The mechanical state of thin-walled structures · The plate is loaded by external stationary sur- can be described on the base of various structure face loads. the curvature changes are linear. The introduced material models may be used for A corresponding shell theory is discussed. mechanics models formulated with the help of dif. Let us suppose that the elastic strains are tions are grounded on the following assumptions small and the damaging. but we reduced number of parameters. tive. This ex- 3.

The special case of von ∂Nxx ∂N xy + = 0. Qi denote the in-plane forces. 12 w Qi = kGheiz − Qcr i ui are the tangential displacements in the middle with surface. This variant of the plate In the case of the von Karman theory the quasistatic theory leads to constant transverse shear strains equilibrium equations are over the thickness h. y )z. Other proposals. z. y z.y). cr cr ∂w (12) z h 2ε xz = ψ x + . l = x .j = x. the couples in [35]. ∂y ∂x . ψi are E the independent rotations of the normal to the middle C xxxx = Cyyyy = . ∂x ∂y ∂M yy ∂M xy + − Qy = 0. cr u~x ( x . in the case of h thin elastic plates in [34] and of thin elastic shells (Nij. z ) = u x ( x . 3 u~y ( x . ∂Nyy ∂Nxy The constitutive behaviour description is based + = 0. This model is used. y )z.or the yz-planes. z surface and z = 0 (the coordinate in the thickness h direction is limited by -h/2 ≤ z ≤ z/2 with h as the M ij = σ ij zdz. cr (11) ~( x . result in varying strains. k denotes the shear correction factor. Mij. Further we use the so-called h (14) Timoshenko’s kinematics [33] with independent Qi = σ iz dz rotations. ∂x ∂x 1 F ∂w I E. G = E/2(1+ν) are the isotropic elastic ∂u ∂ψ y 2 2 H ∂y K ε yy = + + constants. resultants (i.32 H. y . ∂x M ij = Cijkl ε kl zdz. z ) = u y ( x . cr cr ∂y h The normal strains εzz ≈ 0.. e.g.xy + q z = 0. y ). y . i . k = x. cr (13) + + N xx w . y . Altenbach For simplicity we restrict our discussions pre- suming Cartesian coordinates x. Qi = kGε i 3 dz. cr cr z ∂w h 2ε yz = ψ y + . F I 1− ν 2 ∂u x 1 ∂w ∂ψ x 2 2 H ∂x K ε xx = + + z.. Introducing the stress ∂M xx ∂M xy + − Qx = 0.yy + 2Nxy w . and the transverse shear forces. C xyxy = Cyxyx = G. the Kirchhoff ∂x ∂y theory we get by dropping the quadratic terms. y ) + ψ y ( x . 1− ν 2 surface in the xz. ∂x ∂y Cijkl is the Hooke tensor. ν. Kármán’s theory follows from εiz = 0. w is the transverse displacement. [36]. ∂ψ y computed by ε xy = + + + H ∂y + ∂x K z x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y Nij = Cijkl ε kl dz. e.xx + Nyy w . h M ij = Cijkl µ kl − M kl . y in the middle z Nij = σ ij dz. y ) + ψ x ( x . z plate thickness). y . z ) = w ( x .g. respectively) and The kinematics of the plate continuum with assuming isotropic homogeneous material behaviour respect to our assumptions can be approximated the stress resultants contain an elastic and a creep by the following components of the displacement part vector Nij = Cijkl he kl − Nkl . ∂y ∂y The creep parts of the stress resultants can be ∂u x ∂u y ∂w ∂w FG ∂ψ IJ z. j . The approxima- tion of the strains of the plate is νE C xxyy = Cyyxx = . on the Hooke law ∂y ∂x (15) ∂Qx ∂Qy σ ij = Cijkl ( ε kl − ε kl ). y .

1) was In addition to the sets of differential equations investigated.65. Results based on these variants of the proposed constitutive and dam- age evolution equations and shell or plate theories can be compared with experimental data or finite element calculations. . drical shell of moderate thickness (Fig. F ( σ ) = Kσ . The corresponding equations for the shear deformable with shell theory can be deduced in a similar way. As For the generalization to the complex stress state in the theory of composite plates [39] in the general the creep rate tensor follows from the von Mises case the plate state and the plane stress state are flow rule. The ζ control the damage evolution. uniaxial creep behaviour was described by tic solution.335 ⋅ 10 MPa /h.The Kirchhoff-Love theory leads to at each time step [40.1. The lines x. The damage evolution law was taken in coupled by the constitutive equations when the the following form [16] creep-damage distribution over the thickness is unsymmetric. cr In [37] the equations for a shell theory under the (16) considerations of moderate rotations. Numerical investigations of creep problems are usu.A Nonclassical Model for Creep-Damage Processes !! and some results of numerical tests (numerical sta- bility. For example. cr −7 −n K = 0. 2 the stress relaxation and the damage evo- problems with fixed fictitious creep-load components lution are shown. Clamped cylindrical shell (L length of the other hand the predictions are in a good agreement shell. r This model is based on the assumption that the damage evolution influences the Hooke law as fol- H ( σ ) = bσ . e. The elastic material constants are 5 4. The refined theory takes into account the transverse ally performed by time-step discretisation methods and shear strains dropped in the Kirchhoff-Love theory. small strains d& = H ( σ )R ( ω ) and neglected transverse shear are presented. The initial conditions follows from the elas. n Another constitutive model is presented in [38]. k lows: −k R(ω ) = (1 − ω ) . ε& = F ( σ )G ( ω ). Repeating all steps of formulation a plate theory including creep-damage effects we n = k = 3. This conclusion is true even in the ω& = r χ( σ ) . damage variable. The calculations were performed for (kinematical and equilibrium equations) and the h= 0.) are discussed. with finite element calculations. The shell was loaded constitutive equations we must formulate initial/ by inner pressure q = 32 MPa and made from the boundary conditions. Details of the numerical procedures .3. R shell radius. r = 14 . get a new set of creep-damage plate equations. We can prescribe kinematical aluminium alloy D16AT. n = 0. The influence of the transverse shear deforma- tion on the stress state and the damage in a cylin- qz is the transverse surface load.10 MPa.41]. d * = 0. y. R=1 m and L = 2 m. −n G (ω ) = (1 − ω ) . by the solution of physical linearized boundary-value On Fig.g. the comparison with experimental data show the necessity of in- cluding geometrical nonlinear terms [42]. etc. On the Fig. r σ ij = Cijkl (1 − ζω )( ε kl − ε kl ) . ω . case of applying the Kirchhoff assumptions. In [37] the experimental data and/or statical boundary conditions for the coordinate of uniaxial creep at 300° C are discussed. ⋅ 10 MPa /h.8. in [42-44]. h thickness). From the equations discussed above several special cases can be deduced. EXAMPLE E = 0.. The reason from the creep strain field assumed to be known at is that in this case the equivalent stress is each time step.2 m. Creep loads are defined an overestimation of the damage state. ω is a scalar −7 −k b = 19 . ω = r σ vM .

Mariott. Plasticity and Creep (CRC models. of the cylindrical shell of moderate thickness. Boca Raton. Introduction to Continuum ments must be realized for comparison with Mechanics (Martinus Nijhoff.34 H. Berlin. time. 1969). lected carefully. from Russ.refined theory.. [8] Creep and Damage in Materials and Struc- Further investigations should be directed to the de. Ganczarski. 2. in thickness direction demands the introduction of Russian. [9] L. time. Hult.N. Creep Analysis (Wiley. Design for Creep the creep behaviour. 1966). [1] F. 399. Wien-New York. Amsterdam. • the kind of loading have a significant influence on [6] R. 1995).M.L. Stress relaxation and damage evolution in the point P. 1999). London.G. Altenbach Fig. Moskva. conclude that: [4] N. numerical simulations. Rabotnov. b: damage parameter vs. Creep calculations of structural • the complex character of the creep strains in the elements (Mashinostroenie. especially. Penny and D. Polzuchest’ elementov the different damage evolution laws can be proposed. the proposed [10] D. [11] J. Press. Kachanov. Berlin. Holland. count the dependency on the kind of loading and transl. Altenbach and J. 1986). 1. konstrukcij (Nauka. Skrzypek and A. tures. Skrzypek. 1 . Modelling of • introducing geometrical nonlinearities a better Material Damage and Failure of Structures agreement between experimental data and (Springer. 41. velopment of a general shell theory. Kraus. In addition. the transverse shear strains in the shell or plate [5] J. Creep Problems in Structural to some generalized creep models taking into ac. Malinin. on tertiary creep (Chapman & Hall. Dordrecht. 1998).Kirchhoff- Love’s theory. Berlin. The models of thin-walled structures should be se.J. Various inelastic behaviour equations with respect [2] Yu. 1981).K. and [7] J. Moskva. diction of structural failure. (North- ics approaches for a better understanding and pre. Kriechfestigkeit metallischer Werkstoffe (Springer. cf. (Springer. New York. calculated without shear stresses. Lemaitre. a: von Mises stress vs. CISM Courses and Lectures No. which is able to ed. . Krajcinovic. CONCLUSIONS 1962). Amsterdam. Skrzypek describe the complex creep behaviour by the pro. A Course on Damage Mechanics (Springer. which leads to REFERENCES qualitative differences of the predicted stress state. [3] H. From own calculations we can 1980). 1993). N. 1996). Members (North-Holland. calculation can be obtained. by H. 5. Applied models should be connected with fracture mechan.K. Odqvist and J. Fig. For this purpose new experi. posed creep models. 2 . Damage Mechanics. 1996). Mathematics and Mechanics Vol.

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