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Appendix A(277-286)(Final) 6/6/05 3:19 PM Page 277

Appendix A

This appendix consists of four tables that were referenced in the preceding chapters:
1. Properties of fatty acids and esters of relevance to biodiesel.
2. Major fatty acids (wt%) in some oils and fats used or tested as alternative
diesel fuels.
3. Fuel-related properties of various fats and oils.
4. Fuel-related physical properties of esters of oils and fats.
The data in these tables were drawn from the 27 references listed below. All
reference numbers correlate with the corresponding numbers in the tables and not
with the reference numbers in chapters.

References
1. Gunstone, F.D., J.L. Harwood, and F.B. Padley, The Lipid Handbook, 2nd edn.,
Chapman & Hall, London, 1994.
2. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 66th edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1985,
edited by R.C. Weast, M.J. Astle, and W.H. Beyer.
3. Freedman, B., and M.O. Bagby, Heats of Combustion of Fatty Esters and Triglycerides,
J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 66: 1601–1605 (1989).
4. Klopfenstein, W.E., Effect of Molecular Weights of Fatty Acid Esters on Cetane
Numbers as Diesel Fuels, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 62: 1029–1031 (1985).
5. Freedman, B., and M.O. Bagby, Predicting Cetane Numbers of n-Alcohols and Methyl
Esters from Their Physical Properties, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67: 565–571 (1990).
6. Knothe, G., A.C. Matheaus, and T.W. Ryan, III, Cetane Numbers of Branched and
Straight-Chain Fatty Esters Determined in an Ignition Quality Tester, Fuel 82: 971–975
(2003).
7. Freedman, B., M.O. Bagby, T.J. Callahan, and T.W. Ryan, III, Cetane Numbers of
Fatty Esters, Fatty Alcohols and Triglycerides Determined in a Constant Volume
Combustion Bomb, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 900343, 1990.
8. Knothe, G., M.O. Bagby, and T.W. Ryan, III, Cetane Numbers of Fatty Compounds:
Influence of Compound Structure and of Various Potential Cetane Improvers, SAE
Technical Paper Series No. 971681; published in SP-1274, SAE Spring Fuels and
Lubricants Meeting, Dearborn, Michigan, May 1997.
9. Gouw, T.H., J.C. Vlugter, and C.J.A. Roelands, Physical Properties of Fatty Acid
Methyl Esters. VI. Viscosity, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 43: 433–434 (1966).
10. Allen, C.A.W., K.C. Watts, R.G. Ackman, and M.J. Pegg, Predicting the Viscosity of
Biodiesel Fuels from Their Fatty Acid Ester Composition, Fuel 78: 1319–1326 (1999).
11. Applewhite, T.H., Fats and Fatty Oils, in Kirk-Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical
Technology, edited by M. Grayson and D. Eckroth, 3rd edn., Vol. 9, John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 1980, pp. 795–831.
12. Goering, C.E., A.W. Schwab, M.J. Daugherty, E.H. Pryde, and A.J. Heakin, Fuel
Properties of Eleven Vegetable Oils, Trans. ASAE 25: 1472–1477 (1982).
13. Ali, Y., M.A. Hanna, and S.L. Cuppett, Fuel Properties of Tallow and Soybean Oil
Esters, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72: 1557–1564 (1995).

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Copyright © 2005 AOCS Press
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Copyright © 2005 AOCS Press
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Copyright © 2005 AOCS Press
Appendix A(277-286)(Final) 6/6/05 3:19 PM Page 286

14. Peterson, C.L., J.S. Taberski, J.C. Thompson, and C.L. Chase, The Effect of Biodiesel
Feedstock on Regulated Emissions in Chassis Dynamometer Tests of a Pickup Truck,
Trans. ASAE 43: 1371–1381 (2000).
15. Serdari, A., K. Fragioudakis, S. Kalligeros, S. Stournas, and E. Lois, Impact of Using
Biodiesels of Different Origin and Additives on the Performance of a Stationary Diesel
Engine, J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power (Trans. ASME) 122: 624–631 (2000).
16. Geyer, S.M., M.J. Jacobus, and S.S. Lestz, Comparison of Diesel Engine Performance
and Emissions from Neat and Transesterified Vegetable Oils, Trans. ASAE 27: 375–381
(1984).
17. Avella, F., A. Galtieri, and A. Fiumara, Characteristics and Utilization of Vegetable
Derivatives as Diesel Fuels, Riv. Combust. 46: 181–188 (1992).
18. Bouché, T., M. Hinz, R. Pittermann, and M. Herrmann, Optimizing Tractor CI Engines
for Biodiesel Operation, SAE Technical Paper Series 2000-01-1969, 2000.
19. Krahl, J., K. Baum, U. Hackbarth, H.-E. Jeberien, A. Munack, C. Schütt, O. Schröder,
N. Walter, J. Bünger, M.M. Müller, and A. Weigel, Gaseous Compounds, Ozone
Precursors, Particle Number and Particle Size Distributions, and Mutagenic Effects Due
to Biodiesel, Trans. ASAE 44: 179–191 (2001).
20. Isigigür, A., F. Karaosmanoglu, H.A. Aksoy, F. Hamdullahpur, and Ö.L. Gülder,
Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating on Safflower
Seed Oil Methyl Ester, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 45–46: 93–102 (1994).
21. Yahya, A., and S.J. Marley, Physical and Chemical Characterization of Methyl Soy Oil
and Methyl Tallow Esters as CI Engine Fuels, Biomass Bioenergy 6: 321–328 (1994).
22. Canakci, M., and J.H. Van Gerpen, The Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine
Fueled with Biodiesel from Yellow Grease and Soybean Oil, ASAE Paper No. 01-6050,
2001.
23. Wu, W.-H., T.A. Foglia, W.N. Marmer, R.O. Dunn, C.E. Goering, and T.E. Briggs,
Low-Temperature Property and Engine Performance Evaluation of Ethyl and Isopropyl
Esters of Tallow and Grease, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75: 1173–1178 (1998).
24. Lee, I., L.A. Johnson, and E.G. Hammond, Use of Branched-Chain Esters to Reduce the
Crystallization Temperature of Biodiesel, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72: 1155–1160 (1995).
25. Foglia, T.A., L.A. Nelson, R.O. Dunn, and W.N. Marmer, Low-Temperature Properties
of Alkyl Esters of Tallow and Grease, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74: 951–955 (1997).
26. Dorado, M.P., E. Ballesteros, J.M. Arnal, J. Gómez, and F.J. López Giménez, Testing
Waste Olive Oil Methyl Ester as a Fuel in a Diesel Engine, Energy Fuels 17:
1560–1565 (2003).
27. Haas, M.J., K.M. Scott, T.L. Alleman, and R.L. McCormick, Engine Performance of
Biodiesel Fuel Prepared from Soybean Soapstock: A High-Quality Renewable Fuel
Produced from a Waste Feedstock, Energy Fuels 15: 1207–1212 (2001).

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