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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)

Design Evaluation & Optimization of a Two-Wheeler

Suspension System
Setty Thriveni1, G. Ranjith Kumar2, Dr. G. Harinath Gowd3
1,2 3
PG Student, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Madanapalle Institute of Technology & Science,
Madanapalle. Andhra Pradesh., INDIA
Abstract--A suspension system or shock absorber is a Weight of 2 persons = 75*2 =150 kgs
mechanical device designed to smooth out or damp shock Rear suspension weight 65%
impulse, and dissipate kinetic energy. In a vehicle, it reduces For Single shock absorber Weight = W/2 = 1617N
the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading to improved Maximum stress induced in the spring
ride quality, and increase in comfort due to substantially
reduced amplitude of disturbances. In suspension framework Smax =
spring configuration is exceptionally paramount as it impacts
the riding consolation in a time of distress and in the general
weight of the vehicles. For the present work, the mono Where C = Spring Index = D/d
suspension system at present using in various two wheelers is
chosen for study. The present work focuses mainly on And Spring Rate k =
obtaining the optimal spring dimensions without affecting the
riding comfort for mono suspension system. To meet the For Honda Spring Smax = 151.37 N/mm
above objective, first the existing springs of Honda CB For Yamaha Spring Smax= 169.94 N/mm
Unicorn & Yamaha FZ springs will be tested for its strength
For Case-1 Spring Smax = 173.82N/mm
by conducting the compression test. Later its 3D model drawn
using SOLIDWORKS will be imported to HYPERMESH for
For Case-2 Spring Smax = 148.03N/mm
meshing the spring & to apply the required loads on it. Finally Here both the springs has varying pitches for varying
by importing it into the ANSYS software to evaluate the heights.
stresses, strains and its load carrying capacity by doing static
analysis. Mainly, this paper deals with the coil spring which is II. MODELING
used in the Mono Suspension system. Then further analysis
using the above softwares will be done by changing the spring Solid works Organization was established in December
dimensions and by using alternate materials. Thereby the 1993 by Massachusetts Foundation of Engineering
optimal dimensions will be identified. graduate Jon Hirschtick. Jon Hirschtick selected a group of
specialists to fabricate an organization that created 3d
Keywords--Ansys, Hyper mesh, Mono Suspension System, Scoundrel programming that was not difficult to utilize.
Optimization & Solid works. The Solid works application is a mechanical configuration
robotization programming bundle used to make parts,
I. INTRODUCTION gatherings, and drawings which exploit the recognizable
Suspension framework serves to store strain energy by Microsoft Windows graphical client interface. Solid Works
avoiding themselves when the wheels go over any knock is a simple to learn configuration and dissection instrument,
out and about. As soon as the wheels go off the bump, the (COSMOS Xpress, COSMOS Works, Universe Flo Works,
spring rebound back owing it their inherent elastic action. and COSMOS Motion) which makes it workable for
The automobile frame & body is attached to the front & architects to rapidly draw 2d and 3d ideas, make 3d
rear axle by suspension system which minimizes the effect sections and get-togethers, and subtle element 2d drawings.
of road shocks transmitted to the frame, thus protecting the In Solid Works part, gathering, and drawing reports are all
various working parts of the vehicle and the occupants of a related. Here the spring has been demonstrated with present
motor vehicle. Suspension system consists of a spring & a HONDA CB UNICORN measurements on Solid Works-
damper (shock absorber). The theoretical calculations are 11. Based on the stresses developed in the above springs,
given below. new springs have been modified with new dimensions to
Material: Spring Steel reduce the stresses.
Consider, Weight of the bike= 125 kgs

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)
Case: 2
And here the Honda dimensions are modified for
reducing the stresses. For both the cases 3D model is
developed using Solid works and then analysis is done
using ANSYS.

Fig. 1: Honda Spring (3D Model)

Fig. 4: Case-2


Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was initially created in
1943 by R. Courant, who used the Ritz technique for
numerical investigation and minimization particle of
Fig. 2: Yamaha (3D Model) variational math to get rough answers for vibration
frameworks. In no time from that point, a paper distributed
Case: 1 in 1956 by M. J. Turner, R. W. Clough, H. C. Martin, and
Here the dimensions of existing springs have been L. J. Topp made a more extensive meaning of numerical
considered for modifications. By changing the dimensions dissection. The paper fixated on the "firmness and
of above springs the new spring has been modified as avoidance of complex structures". By the early 70's, FEA
below. was constrained to extravagant centralized server
workstations for the most part claimed by the
aeromechanics, auto, barrier, and atomic businesses. Since
the quick decrease in the expense of machines and the
uncommon build in registering force, FEA has been created
to an amazing exactness. Present day supercomputers are
presently equipped to create correct results for numerous
types of parameters. FEA comprises of a machine model of
a material or outline that is focused on and examined for
particular results. It is utilized within new item outline, and
existing item refinement. An organization can confirm a
proposed outline will have the capacity to perform the
customer's specificity particles before assembling or
development. Altering a current product or structure is used
Fig. 3: Case-1
to qualify the product or structure for another
administration condition.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)
If there should be an occurrence of structural
disappointment, FEA may be utilized to assist focus the
configuration adjustments to meet the new condition. There
are by and large two sorts of examination that are utilized
as a part of industry: 2-D demonstrating, and 3-D
displaying. While 2-D demonstrating saves
straightforwardness and permits the investigation to be run
on a moderately ordinary workstation, it has a tendency to
yield less correct results. 3-D demonstrating,
notwithstanding, delivers more correct results while
relinquishing the capability to run on everything except the
speediest machines successfully. Inside each of these
displaying plans, the developer can embed various
calculations (capacities) which may make the framework Fig. 5: Meshed model of Honda
act directly or non-straightly. Straight frameworks are far
less intricate and for the most part don't consider plastic
distortion. Non-straight frameworks do represent plastic
deformity, and a lot of people likewise are equipped for
testing a material the distance to crack.
FEA utilizes a complex arrangement of focuses called
hubs which make a framework called a cross section. This
cross section is modified to hold the material and structural
properties which characterize how the structure will
respond to certain stacking conditions. Hubs are allocated
at a certain thickness all through the material relying upon
the foreseen anxiety levels of a specific range. Areas which
will get a lot of anxiety generally have a higher hub
thickness than those which encounter practically zero
anxiety. Purposes of investment may comprise of: break
purpose of beforehand tried material, filets, corners, Fig. 6: Meshed model of Yamaha
complex subtle element, and high stretch ranges.The mesh
acts like a spider web in that from each node, there extends
a mesh element to each of the adjacent nodes. This web of
vectors is what carries the material properties to the object,
creating many elements.
Many FEA programs also are equipped with the
capability to use multiple materials within the structure
such as:
Isotropic, identical throughout
Orthotropic, identical at 90 degrees
General anisotropic, different throughout
Both springs have been meshed in the hypermesh14.0 by
using the tetra mesh tool. The meshed models are shown

Fig. 7: Meshed model for Case-1

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)
(3) Post processing: further preparing and review of the
In this stage one may wish to see
(i) arrangements of nodal relocations,
(ii) component strengths and moments,
(iii) diversion plots, and
(iv) stress shape outlines or temperature maps
The following diagrams illustrate about the vonmises
stresses of the all springs

Fig. 8: Meshed model for Case-2


ANSYS is an universally useful limited component
demonstrating bundle for numerically unraveling a wide
mixed bag of mechanical issues. These issues incorporate
static/dynamic, structural investigation (both linear and
nonlinear), high temperature exchange, and liquid issues,
and additionally acoustic and electromagnetic issues.
Generally, a finite-element solution may be broken into the
accompanying three stages. Fig. 9: Honda

(1) Preprocessing: defining the problem,

(2) Solution: assigning loads, constraints, and solving
(3) Post processing: further processing and viewing of the
(1) In the preprocessing, the following are the major steps
(i) Defining key points / lines / areas / volumes,
(ii) Defining element type and material/geometric
properties, and
iii) Mesh lines / areas / volumes as required.
The measure of subtle element needed will rely on upon
the dimensionality of the analysis, i.e., 1D, 2D,
axisymmetric, and 3D.
(2) Solution: allotting loads, conditions, and settling
Here, it is important to define the loads (point or Fig. 10: Yamaha
weight), conditions (translational and rotational), lastly
explain the ensuing set of mathematical statements.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)
In the span of service life of spring it undergoes the
varying loads. Springs has been designed in Design
software SolidWorks. In this paper shear stress equation is
used for calculating the maximum stress induced in the
spring. Comparison has been made for theoretical results
obtained from the shear stress equation to the Finite
Element Analysis (FEA) results. In both the cases the
analysis results gives the better results than the existing
one. By these FEA results gives the better accuracy. There
is a chance for Investigations to be made on different
alternate available suitable materials to achieve the overall
weight reduction of the automobile without affecting the
riding comfort of the two-wheeler suspension.
Fig. 11: Case-1 [1] R.S. Khurmi & J.K Gupta (2003), “A textbook of machine design”,
S. Chand & company.
[2] Kommalapati. RameshBabu, 2. Tippa Bhimasankara Rao. “Design
Evaluation of a Two Wheeler Suspension System for Variable Load
Conditions” International Journal of Computational Engineering
Research Vol. 03 Issue 4 April, 2013.
[3] S. Segla1 S. Reich2. “Optimization and comparison of passive,
active, and semi-active vehicle suspension systems” 12th IFToMM
World Congress, Besançon (France), June18-21, 2007.
[4] Pinjarla.Poornamohan 1, Lakshmana Kishore.T 2. “Design and
Analysis of a Shock absorber” ISSN: 2319 - 1163 Volume: 1 Issue:
4 578 – 592.
[5] First edition of “ Practical Finite Element Analysis” by Nitin S
Gokhale, Sanjay S Deshpande, Sanjeev V Bedekar, Anand N Thite.
[7] P.S.Valsange “Design Of Helical Coil Compression Spring” A
Review” (IJERA) Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012,
[8] Niranjan Singh “General review of mechanical springs used in
Automobiles suspension system” Singh, international journal of
advanced engineering research and studies, E-ISSN2249–8974, Int.
J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/iii/i/oct.-dec.,2013/115-122 Review
Fig. 12: Case-2 article
[9] Adam G. Rasbach, Orion, MI (US). “United States Patent
V. CONCLUSION Application Publication” Pub. N0.: US 2013/0127101 A1 Rasbach
(43) Pub. Date: May 23, 2013.
The literature review has been discussed about the
design of mechanical springs used in suspension systems is
used to do it’s deign analysis which involves maximum
stress analysis.