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Case Study: Scania

Advanced Powertrain Dynamic Analysis and
Development Using Adams
Scania transmission components are developed as
part of Scania’s integrated powertrain with a perfectly
matched specification for each individual demand. The
gearboxes are designed to suit the high-torque Scania
engine range. The multitude of drive axle and bogie
options provide optimum strength without inducing
a weight penalty. Integrated powertrains are offered
to customers on a modular basis in which nearly any
gearbox can be combined with nearly any engine.

Detailed Modeling and Accurate Dynamic

Analysis for Transmission Systems

Scania modular system

“It’s critical to be able to evaluate the performance of a design at an early stage
in the process before prototypes are built. In particularly, we need to know the
loads on the gearbox, predict NVH (noise/vibration/harshness) and evaluate how
gearboxes work with different engines. The overriding goal is to reduce the number
of prototypes and get our products to market faster.”
Erik Gomez, Senior Engineer for Scania

Challenge the gearbox, predict NVH (noise/vibration/

The traditional approach to the design of
harshness) and evaluate how gearboxes Key Highlights:
work with different engines. The overriding
gearbox and powertrain components involves
goal is to reduce the number of prototypes
creating an initial design based on one-
dimension powertrain models and engineering
and get our products to market faster.” Product: Adams
calculations and then building and testing a Industry: Automotive
prototype. With this approach, undesirable Solution/Validation
properties are identified during physical testing Benefits:
Scania has addressed this challenge by
at a late stage in the design process when making extensive use of MSC Software’s • Quickly model and evaluate power
changes are expensive. Another concern was Adams multibody simulation (MBS) 3D transmission assemblies and
that the cost involved in building and testing powertrain models that accurately predict components
different gearbox-engine combinations can be transmission dynamic behavior. Scania • Excellent correlation between
very high, especially if prototypes have to be powertrains are now developed in a virtual simulation and measurements in
rebuilt and retested because the design did environment in which a large number – often
not match what was intended the first time. NVH and gear rattle
thousands – of design alternatives are
“It’s critical to be able to evaluate the simulated and evaluated as software • Solved quality issues 30 percent
performance of a design at an early stage in prototypes. Simulation predicts the to 40 percent faster than using
the process before prototypes are built,” said performance of design alternatives prior to physical test alone
Erik Gomez, Senior Engineer for Scania. “In committing to the time and cost involved in
particularly, we need to know the loads on building and testing physical prototypes.

Custom environment for powertrain analysis

In order to improve the efficiency of the routines. Using the same technology as map torques or speed controller torques.
simulation process, Scania worked with Adams/Machinery, the productivity tool The plugin can be set up to provide input
MSC to develop structured MBS methods to provides users an easier way to incorporate at locations such as the engine, flywheel
standardize the work frame and interfaces detailed Gear and Bearing models into the or gearbox input and output at the gearbox
used to develop powertrain models and systems, increasing the accuracy of the output, wheels, etc. To date, five predefined
enable a single MBS model to address the simulation. The Scania Transmission Plugin analyses have been created to run simulations
complete design process. MSC and Scania also applies different motions and torques in of the gearbox. The plugin is configured so
developed powertrain test rig models that the assembled model based on inputs such that users can easily set up any combination
simulate assembly or component models as user defined toque or motion, torque/ of powertrain and test rig actuator settings
undergoing standard physical testing velocity/displacement time histories, engine to run a series of tests without user input.

Excellent correlation between simulation and measurements in gearbox stiffness test

For example, the gearbox stiffness test 14 gears in the gearbox is measured as during the test. The same model was used
involves applying a torque to the input shaft a function of torque. This predetermined to predict Eigen frequencies of the 14 gears
of a gearbox while holding the output shaft analysis was validated by simulating an
in the gearbox. Again the simulation results
stationary. The input torque is applied as existing gearbox for which test results were
a sinusoidal function with a frequency of available. The simulation predictions closely were very close to physical measurements
2 seconds. The deflection of each of the matched the physical measurements collected that were previously made on the gearbox.

Excellent correlation between simulation and measurements in NVH

“In some cases engineers have solved quality issues 30 percent to 40 percent faster
when running simulation and measurements in parallel due to better understanding
of the product.”
The Adams model was also used to study simulation and test results matched closely measurement methods to increase their
how engine torque irregularities affect and showed that the filter is effective in ability to capture high frequency content.
NVH. Torque irregularities are damped by a reducing engine irregularities. The simulation After validating the simulation, Scania
mechanical filter on the clutch. Simulations results also revealed high frequency content engineers made changes to the model to
and measurements were performed to in the downstream simulation results evaluate different methods of improving
determine the irregularities upstream and that were not captured by the physical NVH . They identified design changes
downstream of the mechanical filter to measurements. After studying these that significantly improved NVH and these
evaluate the effectiveness of the filter. The results, engineers made changes to the changes will be applied to future products.

Response surface map used to display analysis of different

powertrain combinations in gear shift test

The gear shift test involves measuring the Results engineers have solved quality issues 30
velocity of various shafts in the gearbox percent to 40 percent faster when running
Simulation enables Scania engineers to
during a gear shift event. Again the simulation simulation and measurements in parallel
quickly evaluate functional virtual prototypes
due to better understanding of the product.
generated results that closely matched of power transmission assemblies and
physical testing results. With the simulation components. Working in the MSC Software
validated, engineers ran a series of parametric Adams simulation environment, Scania About Scania
studies analyzing different drive configurations, engineers can exercise powertrain designs Scania AB is a Sweden-based company
under a wide range of conditions using the engaged in the development, manufacture
axle types, prop shaft types and lengths,
same tests they normally perform in a test and marketing of heavy trucks, buses
engines, etc. The results were depicted
lab but in a fraction of the time. Modifications and engines for the automotive and
on a response surface map that helped are validated in the virtual world, which marine industries. The company focuses
engineers identify the optimum combination saves a significant amount of time and primarily on producing trucks with
of parameters to achieve their objectives. money in the design process. In some cases gross weights of 16 tons or greater.

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