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But beca use of the rapid progress made in the glass industry in recent times, the glass has come out as the most versatile engineering material of the modern times. The first glass objects made by man were of natural glass such as obsidian and rock crystal. The manufactured glass dates from per-historic times in the Far East, India and Egypt. But its exact place and date of origin are unknown. It is howev er believed that the ancient Hindus knew the method of glass making long before the Christian era.
CLASSIFICATION : With the help of techniques developed in the glass industry, the glass of any ty pe and quality can be produced to suit the requirements of different industries. The glass is a mixture of a number of metallic silicates, one of which is usuall y that of an alkali metal. It is amorphous, transparent or translucent. It may a lso be considered as a solidified super-cooled solution of various metallic sili cates having infinite viscosity. For the purpose of classification, the glass may be grouped in to the following three categories. (1) Soda-lime glass. (2) Potash-lime glass. (3) Potash-lead glass. The glass is not a single compound. It is therefore very difficult to give any p articular chemical formula for it. But with reasonable accuracy, it may generall y be expressed as follows: aX2, bYO, 6SiO2 where a and b are numbers of molecules, X = an atom of an alkali metal such as Na, K, etc. Y = an atom of a bivalent metal such as Ca, Pb, etc. With this expression, the chemical formulas for three groups of glass, as classi fied above, are as follows Soda-lime glass: Na2O, CaO, 6SiO2 Potash-lime glass: K2O, CaO, 6SiO2 Potash-lead glass: K2O, PbO, 6SiO2
MANUFACTURE PROCESS : The procedure adopted in the manufacture of glass may broadly be divided into th e following five stages: (1) Collection of raw materials. (2) Preparation of batch
It can be blown. But when the elastic limit is exceeded. (5) It is affected by alkalies. refracts or transmits light. (2) It can take up a high polish and may be used as substitute for every costly gems.(3) Melting in furnace (4) Fabrication (5) Annealing PROPERTIES : The properties of glass are mainly governed by factors such as composition of th e constituents. But when the temperature rises the ions are permitted to flow and thus they will sustain an electric curr ent. The glasses may be clear. colorless. (14) It is possible to obtain glass with diversified properties. For the same r eason. (11) It is not usually affected by air or water. Following are the properties of glass which have made the glass popular and usef ul. (16) It is transparent and translucent. (3) It has no definite crystalline structure. thermal treatment conditions. (12) It is not easily attacked by ordinary chemical reagents. etc. diffused and stained. (10) It is extremely brittle. (1) It absorbs. dimensions of sp ecimen. (7) It is available in beautiful colours. etc. to suit different purposes. (6) It is an excellent electrical insulator at elevated temperatures due to the fact that glass can be considered as an ionic liquid. hardness. (8) It behaves more as a solid than most solids in the sense that it is elastic. The transparency is the most used charac teristic of glass and it is due to the absence of free electrons. (9) It is capable of being worked n many ways. But it is strange to note that it is difficult to cast in large pieces. (13) It is possible to intentionally alter some of its properties such as fusibi lity. drawn or pressed . (4) It has no sharp melting point. state of surface. it also works as a good . (15) It is possible to weld pieces of glass by fusion. The ions are not easily mo ved at room temperature because of the high viscosity. it fractures instead of deforming. refractive power.
It can thus be easily appreciated that glass. Further investigations are yet in the process for preparing glass with extraordinary unusual characteristics and thus to increase the utility of this unique and complex material. The brief descriptions of some of the following important special varietites of glass are given: (1) Bullet-proof glass (2) Fibre glass (3) Float glass (4) Foam glass (5) Glass blocks (6) Heat-excluding glass (7) Obscured glass (8) Perforated glass (9) Safety glass (10) Shielding glass (11) Soluble glass . TREATMENTS : As a matter of fact. TYPES : As present. the glass has emerged as a versatile engineering material which can be tailor-made to meet with the requirements of different industries in the most effective and economic way. As a matter of fact. the glass industry has made enormous progress all over the world and the glass has become very cheap and useful to the poor as well as to t he rich. mechanical and opt ical properties of glass by suitably changing the basic composition of the glass . it is possible to alter the chemical. is just beginning to be understood and it is still possible to get a variety o f glasses with certain chemical additives. electrical. though used for thousands of years . The glass may be given any of the following treatment: (1) Blending (2) Cutting (3) Opaque making (4) Silvering.
(12) Structural glass (13) Ultra-violet ray glass (14) Wired glass (15) ordinary sheet glass (16) energy efficient glass (17) self cleaning glass (18) laminated glass (19) mirrors (20) picture frame glass (21) coloured glass .