The glass has been used as an engineering material since ancient times.

But beca use of the rapid progress made in the glass industry in recent times, the glass has come out as the most versatile engineering material of the modern times. The first glass objects made by man were of natural glass such as obsidian and rock crystal. The manufactured glass dates from per-historic times in the Far East, India and Egypt. But its exact place and date of origin are unknown. It is howev er believed that the ancient Hindus knew the method of glass making long before the Christian era.

CLASSIFICATION : With the help of techniques developed in the glass industry, the glass of any ty pe and quality can be produced to suit the requirements of different industries. The glass is a mixture of a number of metallic silicates, one of which is usuall y that of an alkali metal. It is amorphous, transparent or translucent. It may a lso be considered as a solidified super-cooled solution of various metallic sili cates having infinite viscosity. For the purpose of classification, the glass may be grouped in to the following three categories. (1) Soda-lime glass. (2) Potash-lime glass. (3) Potash-lead glass. The glass is not a single compound. It is therefore very difficult to give any p articular chemical formula for it. But with reasonable accuracy, it may generall y be expressed as follows: aX2, bYO, 6SiO2 where a and b are numbers of molecules, X = an atom of an alkali metal such as Na, K, etc. Y = an atom of a bivalent metal such as Ca, Pb, etc. With this expression, the chemical formulas for three groups of glass, as classi fied above, are as follows Soda-lime glass: Na2O, CaO, 6SiO2 Potash-lime glass: K2O, CaO, 6SiO2 Potash-lead glass: K2O, PbO, 6SiO2

MANUFACTURE PROCESS : The procedure adopted in the manufacture of glass may broadly be divided into th e following five stages: (1) Collection of raw materials. (2) Preparation of batch

etc. (2) It can take up a high polish and may be used as substitute for every costly gems. (5) It is affected by alkalies. (9) It is capable of being worked n many ways. (13) It is possible to intentionally alter some of its properties such as fusibi lity. refracts or transmits light. hardness. drawn or pressed . state of surface. (1) It absorbs. refractive power. diffused and stained. (14) It is possible to obtain glass with diversified properties. (7) It is available in beautiful colours. it fractures instead of deforming. But it is strange to note that it is difficult to cast in large pieces. (4) It has no sharp melting point. For the same r eason. The transparency is the most used charac teristic of glass and it is due to the absence of free electrons. thermal treatment conditions. it also works as a good . The glasses may be clear. But when the elastic limit is exceeded. Following are the properties of glass which have made the glass popular and usef ul. (3) It has no definite crystalline structure. (10) It is extremely brittle. (6) It is an excellent electrical insulator at elevated temperatures due to the fact that glass can be considered as an ionic liquid. (16) It is transparent and translucent. etc. colorless. The ions are not easily mo ved at room temperature because of the high viscosity. dimensions of sp ecimen. (15) It is possible to weld pieces of glass by fusion.(3) Melting in furnace (4) Fabrication (5) Annealing PROPERTIES : The properties of glass are mainly governed by factors such as composition of th e constituents. (8) It behaves more as a solid than most solids in the sense that it is elastic. It can be blown. But when the temperature rises the ions are permitted to flow and thus they will sustain an electric curr ent. (11) It is not usually affected by air or water. (12) It is not easily attacked by ordinary chemical reagents. to suit different purposes.

TYPES : As present.It can thus be easily appreciated that glass. the glass has emerged as a versatile engineering material which can be tailor-made to meet with the requirements of different industries in the most effective and economic way. Further investigations are yet in the process for preparing glass with extraordinary unusual characteristics and thus to increase the utility of this unique and complex material. is just beginning to be understood and it is still possible to get a variety o f glasses with certain chemical additives. The brief descriptions of some of the following important special varietites of glass are given: (1) Bullet-proof glass (2) Fibre glass (3) Float glass (4) Foam glass (5) Glass blocks (6) Heat-excluding glass (7) Obscured glass (8) Perforated glass (9) Safety glass (10) Shielding glass (11) Soluble glass . As a matter of fact. mechanical and opt ical properties of glass by suitably changing the basic composition of the glass . The glass may be given any of the following treatment: (1) Blending (2) Cutting (3) Opaque making (4) Silvering. though used for thousands of years . it is possible to alter the chemical. the glass industry has made enormous progress all over the world and the glass has become very cheap and useful to the poor as well as to t he rich. TREATMENTS : As a matter of fact. electrical.

(12) Structural glass (13) Ultra-violet ray glass (14) Wired glass (15) ordinary sheet glass (16) energy efficient glass (17) self cleaning glass (18) laminated glass (19) mirrors (20) picture frame glass (21) coloured glass .

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