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73

ofThe
Tritium
The
Dsis2is
It
Of difierent
largesi
functions
hasisa slightly
Ocourse
interesting more
use
the isoropes.
of
ofephemerai
to water
heavy
fina
amountshigher '.vbsch
ofin
that water
nature
and
boiling
the
ths ism¡>\
more
asare be
arnount
pornt
isctopes a
moderator
variably
innumerable,
combiiied
than
of DH
otherJhan O
2 2
Oíndistributed.
in
in 18
(101.4 li
nuclear
natural
comrnon is
diffevsut
the
áesrses
waterItreactors.
solvent
is v..-a%.-£.
fcrmed
appears
hydrogen C.). parbut excel-
in
freezes
andto Ir
beitthe
com-\ve
is
the
at a.
also
highest
lence.
add the widelv
substantially
same
mon Itlavers
various
whether
oxvgen is employed
the ofkinds
m
hisher
the
(0-16) the édium
water
are atrnosphere
of
in ions
tempera-theorstical
comes
tiny. ín into
which
Tritium by
from
ture which
the
re-
anliíe
(3.8
and
•search.
bombardrnent
originated
the addition
degrees
alpine
oxygen especially
glacier
17 and
C.). orof
or
appear inthe
andremoval
cosmic
which
in
is organic
bottom
only ins.11
rays.
ofthe
somewhatofanorganisms
and.
and
the electrón
falis
bio-
more
mi-nutest oceaa,
logical
in
stilí
may rain
viscous
frorn
traces,esisi.
transform
chemisúT.
and
The
willov.-
and than snow
living
water's
v/coc. If[see
celi
compounds
ordinary
deuterium 3r atoms.
isconsists
"Tritium
rnahogany, welarsish'
-.v-ater.
present contain-
nndtoínthat
Its
the Na-
ing
ture,"
puréactive water
physiological
extent byabout
of Willard
hydrogen
contains
propertiesF. no
200 parts are
Libby;
fewer
are
per treatsd íhan
.SCIENTIFIC
msurprising.
ü-lionwithand 33
DoO.
substances
In deuterium
animáis
oxygen
AMEHICAN 18, April.
[se
ande too
about will
1954].
plañís
1,000ofpa.se
repiace
itSince
parts 79}.thetritiurn
appears
per hydro
to be is-
million.
gen
radioactive.
and the
éntirely
However, inert compound
thewith
and auseless.
half-life
properties vvill show-
of heavy
ofSeeds 12.5 wiü years,
changes
not
\vater.
in
it chemical
disappears
sprout
partícularlvin D 2properties
afíer
0.theandD a 2resultrng
rats time
O siven from
on]yfrom
vari-ety. water
D have
2
0the
to
lesser
which
drink
attracted reactivitv
haswide
will diebeenofof outdeuterium.
thirst.
interest of ccntact
and have with the been
atmosphere.
extensivelv studied. Wines. and -water in wells.
can be dated by therr tritium contení, An
interestirig wsll in the \Ji-bana-
Charnpaisrj área v.-as íound to be devoid
of detectabis tritiuni. which means that at
least 50 vears have eiapsed since the
water fell as rain.

ELECTRO^s A Í\D PROTON5 oí ihe water molacnle accou.nl íor most oí it; phyaical and
eheTnica! properties. The hydrogen atorn (I and 2 in this hixhly schematic piciuret con- 5ÍHÍ5
oí a posiíively charged protón ¡black do;,> and a negatívely charged electrón (colored d o t ) . The
oxycen atom ( 3 ; ñas eight electrón;, six of which are arranged in an outer shell. Because
bydroaen. ~hs.ll has roorn íor one more electrón (brohen colored circíe), and the oüter shell
oí o-.-fzzr. has roorn íor two more elsctrons. the atoms have an affinity f o r each other. ir. tns
valer molecuie > 4 j the eleclrons oí tiie hydrogen atom= are shared by the osvjc=:-, atorr..
Eeeause the po=ii: T'í¡v charged protón jí the hydror-^n atom nov stick: os: írom
tiiewaierinoiec.uis.ithas an sitrnction íor thenegaÚTelvcharged elertron= oianeighbor- inc water
moiectie ,3.i , Tai; reiaíively wsafc forcé ' broken U n e ) it caiiea a hydrogsn bond.