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4 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals (SI)

Table 1 Representative Rates at Which Heat and Moisture Are Given Off by Human Beings in Different States of Activity
Total Heat, W Sensible Latent % Sensible Heat that is
Adult Adjusted, Heat, Heat, Radiantb
Degree of Activity Male M/F a W W Low V High V
Seated at theater Theater, matinee 115 95 65 30
Seated at theater, night Theater, night 115 105 70 35 60 27
Seated, very light work Offices, hotels, apartments 130 115 70 45
Moderately active office work Offices, hotels, apartments 140 130 75 55
Standing, light work; walking Department store; retail store 160 130 75 55 58 38
Walking, standing Drug store, bank 160 145 75 70
Sedentary work Restaurantc 145 160 80 80
Light bench work Factory 235 220 80 140
Moderate dancing Dance hall 265 250 90 160 49 35
Walking 4.8 km/h; light machine work Factory 295 295 110 185
Bowlingd Bowling alley 440 425 170 255
Heavy work Factory 440 425 170 255 54 19
Heavy machine work; lifting Factory 470 470 185 285
Athletics Gymnasium 585 525 210 315
1. Tabulated values are based on 24°C room dry-bulb temperature. For 27°C room dry 85% of that for an adult male, and gain from a child is 75% of that for an adult male.
bulb, total heat remains the same, but sensible heat values should be decreased by
Licensed for single user. © 2009 ASHRAE, Inc.

b Values
approximated from data in Table 6, Chapter 9, where V is air velocity with limits
approximately 20%, and latent heat values increased accordingly. shown in that table.
2. Also see Table 4, Chapter 9, for additional rates of metabolic heat generation. c Adjusted
3. All values are rounded to nearest 5 W. heat gain includes 18 W for food per individual (9 W sensible and 9 W latent).
a Adjusted heat gain is based on normal percentage of men, women, and children d Figureone person per alley actually bowling, and all others as sitting (117 W) or standing
for the application listed, and assumes that gain from an adult female is or walking slowly (231 W).

The total light wattage is obtained from the ratings of all lamps as shown in Table 3. The table provides a range of design data for the
installed, both for general illumination and for display use. Ballasts conditioned space fraction, short-wave radiative fraction, and long-
are not included, but are addressed by a separate factor. Wattages of wave radiative fraction under typical operating conditions: airflow
magnetic ballasts are significant; the energy consumption of high- rate of 5 L/(s·m2), supply air temperature between 15 and 16.7°C,
efficiency electronic ballasts might be insignificant compared to and room air temperature between 22 and 24°C. The recommended
that of the lamps. fractions in Table 3 are based on lighting heat input rates range of 9.7
The lighting use factor is the ratio of wattage in use, for the con- to 28 W/m2. For higher design power input, the lower bounds of the
ditions under which the load estimate is being made, to total space and short-wave fractions should be used; for design power
installed wattage. For commercial applications such as stores, the input below this range, the upper bounds of the space and short-wave
use factor is generally 1.0. fractions should be used. The space fraction in the table is the frac-
The special allowance factor is the ratio of the lighting fixtures’ tion of lighting heat gain that goes to the room; the fraction going to
power consumption, including lamps and ballast, to the nominal the plenum can be computed as 1 – the space fraction. The radiative
power consumption of the lamps. For incandescent lights, this factor fraction is the radiative part of the lighting heat gain that goes to the
is 1. For fluorescent lights, it accounts for power consumed by the room. The convective fraction of the lighting heat gain that goes to
ballast as well as the ballast’s effect on lamp power consumption. the room is 1 – the radiative fraction. Using values in the middle of
The special allowance factor can be less than 1 for electronic bal- the range yields sufficiently accurate results. However, values that
lasts that lower electricity consumption below the lamp’s rated better suit a specific situation may be determined according to the
power consumption. Use manufacturers’ values for system (lamps + notes for Table 3.
ballast) power, when available. Table 3’s data are applicable for both ducted and nonducted
For high-intensity-discharge lamps (e.g. metal halide, mercury returns. However, application of the data, particularly the ceiling
vapor, high- and low-pressure sodium vapor lamps), the actual light- plenum fraction, may vary for different return configurations. For
ing system power consumption should be available from the manu- instance, for a room with a ducted return, although a portion of the
facturer of the fixture or ballast. Ballasts available for metal halide lighting energy initially dissipated to the ceiling plenum is quanti-
and high pressure sodium vapor lamps may have special allowance tatively equal to the plenum fraction, a large portion of this energy
factors from about 1.3 (for low-wattage lamps) down to 1.1 (for would likely end up as the conditioned space cooling load and a
high-wattage lamps). small portion would end up as the cooling load to the return air.
An alternative procedure is to estimate the lighting heat gain on a If the space airflow rate is different from the typical condition
per square foot basis. Such an approach may be required when final [i.e., about 5 L/(s·m2)], Figure 3 can be used to estimate the lighting
lighting plans are not available. Table 2 shows the maximum lighting heat gain parameters. Design data shown in Figure 3 are only appli-
power density (LPD) (lighting heat gain per square metre) allowed cable for the recessed fluorescent luminaire without lens.
by ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 for a range of space types. Although design data presented in Table 3 and Figure 3 can be
In addition to determining the lighting heat gain, the fraction of used for a vented luminaire with side-slot returns, they are likely not
lighting heat gain that enters the conditioned space may need to be applicable for a vented luminaire with lamp compartment returns,
distinguished from the fraction that enters an unconditioned space; because in the latter case, all heat convected in the vented luminaire
of the former category, the distribution between radiative and con- is likely to go directly to the ceiling plenum, resulting in zero con-
vective heat gain must be established. vective fraction and a much lower space fraction. Therefore, the
Fisher and Chantrasrisalai (2006) experimentally studied 12 lumi- design data should only be used for a configuration where condi-
naire types and recommended five different categories of luminaires, tioned air is returned through the ceiling grille or luminaire side slots.