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Chapter

1
Materials

1.1 Notations Used in This Chapter

A Area of concrete cross-section


Cs Constant depending on the type of curing
Ct Creep coefficient (Ct = εsp/εi)
Cu Ultimate creep coefficient (on average Cu = 2.35)
D Diameter of cylinder for split test (Brazilian test)
Ec Modulus of elasticity of concrete
Es Modulus of elasticity of non-prestressed reinforcement
I Moment of inertia of section about centroidal axis
L Length of cylinder for split test (Brazilian test)
M Applied moment
P Applied concentrated load
Psh Correction factor for shrinkage strain
2 Chapter 1

Qcr Correction factor for creep strain


T Tensile force
a Shear span, distance from application point of concentrated load to support
b Width of member
fc Compressive stress in concrete
fc′ Specified compressive strength of concrete
fr Modulus of rupture of concrete
fs Calculated tensile stress in reinforcement at specified loads
fsp Splitting tensile strength of concrete
ft Concrete tensile stress due to applied loads
fy Specified yield strength of non-prestressed reinforcement
h Overall thickness or height of member
t Time
∆T Temperature variation
αT Coefficient of thermal expansion
γc Density of concrete
ε Normal strain
εc Strain at the extreme concrete compression fibre
εcp Creep strain in concrete
εcpic Strain in concrete corresponding to fc′
εcu Maximum strain at the extreme concrete compression fibre at ultimate (εcu = 0.0035)
εi Instantaneous elastic strain
εsh Shrinkage strain
εshu Ultimate shrinkage strain
εth Thermal expansion strain
λ Factor to account for low-density concrete (λ = 1 for normal-density concrete)
ν Poisson’s ratio
σ Effective normal stress
Materials 3

1.2 Concrete
Concrete is a material obtained by hardening a mixture of aggregates (sand, gravel),
hydraulic lime (cement), water, and additives (such as entrained air) in pre-determined
proportions.
Concretes are classified according to their density γc as follows:
➟➟ low-density concrete with γc ≤ 1850 kg/m 3
➟➟ semi-low-density concrete with 1850 kg/m 3 < γc ≤ 2150 kg/m 3
➟➟ normal-density concrete with 2150 kg/m 3 < γc ≤ 2500 kg/m 3
➟➟ high-density concrete with 2500 kg/m 3 < γc
In addition to its density, concrete is characterized by:
➟➟ its mechanical properties: compressive strength fc′ and tensile strength f t,
➟➟ its elastic properties: modulus of elasticity Ec, ultimate strain εcu , and Poisson’s
ratio ν,
➟➟ its volumetric change properties: thermal expansion αT, creep strain εcp, and
shrinkage strain εsh.
Five basic types of Portland cement are produced according to their applications
(Table 1.1).

Table 1.1 – Cement Classifications

Cement Qualification Application


General purpose, used in ordinary construction
GU General use
where special properties are not required
Moderate Moderate exposure of concrete to sulphate attack
MS sulphate Used when less heat of hydration than GU cement
­resistant is required
High early
HE Rapid achievement of a given level of strength
strength
Low heat of
LH Used when a low heat of hydration is desired
hydration
High sulphate
HS Concrete exposed to severe sulphate action
resistant
4 Chapter 1

■■ Compressive Strength
The compressive strength of concrete, denoted by fc′, is obtained from crushing tests on
150 × 300 mm concrete cylinder samples at 28 days of aging. (If the concrete cylinder
samples are 100 × 200 mm, use 0.95 fc′.) Typical stress-strain curves for concrete in
compression are shown in Figure 1.1.
A normal-density concrete of structural quality has a compressive strength fc′ ranging
between 20 MPa (minimum) and 40 MPa. High-strength concrete (fc′ > 40 MPa) can
also be used for special projects.

Figure 1.1 – Concrete under Compressive Load

■■ Tensile Strength
The tensile strength may be obtained using three types of tests (Figure 1.2): a) direct
tension, b) flexure test, c) split or Brazilian test.
For guidance:
fsp = 1.2 to 1.6 f t; f r = 1.4 to 2 f t (1.1)
Moreover, there is a strong relationship between λ fc′ and f r. Clause 8.6.4 of the CSA
A23.3-04 Standard provides the following relationship for f r:

fr = 0 . 6 λ fc′ (1.2)
Materials 5

where λ = 1.0 for normal-density concrete and λ = 0.75 for low-density concrete.

a) Direct tension
σ = f t = T/A
directly provides the tensile
strength but is difficult to achieve
Figure 1.2a in laboratory
b) Flexure
M  h
σ=  
I  2
6 Pa
σ = f r = modulus of rupture =
bh2
Figure 1.2b
c) Split or Brazilian test
2P
σ = fsp =
π LD

Figure 1.2c

Figure 1.2 – Tensile Strength of Concrete

■■ Modulus of Elasticity
According to CSA A23.3-04 Standard (Clause 8.6.2), the modulus of elasticity, the
secant modulus between σc = 0 and σc = 0.4fc′, may be estimated by:
1.5
 γ 
Ec =  3300 fc′ + 6900   c  ; 1500 ≤ γc ≤ 2500 kg/m 3 (1.3)
 2300 

In addition, for concrete of normal density and compressive strength, 20 MPa ≤ fc′ ≤
40 MPa, Ec may be estimated using the following simplified equation:

Ec = 4500 fc′ (1.4)



6 Chapter 1

■■ Strain
The strain in concrete, εcpic, corresponding to fc′ increases with fc′. The approximate
value of εcpic is 0.002. It may also be estimated as a function of fc′ by:
140 + fc′
εcpic = ≥ 0 . 002 (1.5)
80 , 000

The ultimate concrete strain in compression generally varies between 0.003 and 0.004.
However, the CSA A23.3-04 Standard limits the value of εcu to:
εcu = 0.0035 (1.6)

■■ Poisson’s Ratio
For uncracked concrete, Poisson’s ratio varies between 0.15 and 0.20 for a concrete
compressive stress fc less than 0.7fc′.

■■ Creep
Creep is a phenomenon by which, under sustained loads and stresses, concrete undergoes
strain. The strain increases with time, but at a progressively decreasing rate (Figure 1.3).
According to the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 209-1982, the creep
strain in concrete, εcp, may be estimated in terms of the instantaneous elastic strain,
εi, by:
t 0.6
εcp = Ct εi where Ct = Cu Qcr (1.7)
10 + t 0.6
where
εcp = creep strain
εi = instantaneous elastic strain
Ct = creep coefficient = εcp/εi
Cu = ultimate creep coefficient, which varies between 1.30 and 4.15, with an average
value of 2.35
Qcr = correction factor that takes into consideration the conditions of use (relative
humidity, percentage of air, aggregate content, thickness of the element, type
of curing) [see Table 1.2]
t = time in days.
Materials 7

Instantaneous
recovery
Progressive

Ultimate creep strain

Unloading
recovery
Total strain

Residual
creep strain

Time since the application of compressive stress

Figure 1.3 – Typical Strain-Time Curve for Concrete under Axial Compression

■■ Shrinkage
Shrinkage is a phenomenon by which the concrete undergoes strain caused by the
decrease in the volume of concrete due to drying at constant temperature. Shrinkage
strain generally develops during the first two to three years after casting of concrete
(Figure 1.4).

Figure 1.4 – Shrinkage-Time Curve for Concrete after 7 Days of Curing


8 Chapter 1

Table 1.2 – Creep and Shrinkage Modification Factors


(Adapted from Table 1.2 of CSA A23.3-04 Standard)

Creep: Qcr = Qa Qh Q f Qr Qs Qv Shrinkage: Psh = Pc Ph P f P r Ps P v


Qa : to account for curing Pc : to account for cement content

Age at Qa Cement content (kg/m 3)


loading Moist Steam 225 300 410
(days) curing curing Pc 0.89 0.93 1.00
 1 1.25 1.00
 7 1.00 0.94
20 0.87 0.85
60 0.77 0.76
Qh: to account for humidity Ph: to account for humidity
Relative humidity (%) Qh Relative humidity (%) Ph
  40 1.00   40 1.00
  60 0.87   60 0.80
  80 0.73   80 0.60
100 0.60 100 0.00
Q f : to account for fine aggregates P f : to account for fine aggregates
Ratio of fine to total Ratio of fine to total
Qf Pf
aggregates aggregates
0.30 0.95 0.30 0.72
0.40 0.98 0.40 0.86
0.50 1.00 0.50 1.00
0.70 1.05 0.70 1.04
Qr : to account for volume/surface ratio P r : to account for volume/surface ratio
Volume/Surface ratio Volume/Surface ratio
Qr Pr
(mm) (mm)
  38 1.00   38 1.00
  75 0.82   75 0.84
150 0.70 150 0.59
250 0.67 250 0.37
Materials 9

Creep: Qcr = Qa Qh Q f Qr Qs Qv Shrinkage: Psh = Pc Ph P f P r Ps P v


Qs : to account for slump Ps : to account for slump
Slump (mm) Qs Slump (mm) Ps
  50 0.95   50 0.97
  70 1.00   70 1.00
125 1.15 125 1.09
Qv: to account for air content P v: to account for air content
Air (%) Qv Air (%) Pv
≤6 1.00 ≤6 1.00
8 1.18 8 1.01
10 1.36 10 1.03

According to ACI Committee 209-1982, the shrinkage strain may be estimated using
the following formula (Figure 1.4):
t
ε sh = ε shu Psh (1.8)
Cs + t
where
εsh = shrinkage strain
εshu = ultimate shrinkage strain, 0.0002 ≤ εshu ≤ 0.0008. In the absence of a specific
value, it is recommended to use εshu = 0.00078.
Cs = constant; Cs = 35 for seven-day moist curing of concrete and Cs = 55 for one- to
three-day steam curing
Psh = correction factor taking into account the conditions of use (relative humidity,
air content, aggregate and cement contents, thickness of the element)
[see Table 1.2]
t = time in days.

■■ Thermal Expansion of Concrete


The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is αT = 10 × 10 –6 mm/mm/°C. The
thermal expansion strain, εth, can therefore be represented as follows:
εth = αT ∆ T (1.9)

where ∆T is the temperature variation assumed.
10 Chapter 1

1.3 Steel Reinforcement


Steel reinforcement for concrete can be achieved by using: a) deformed bars and wires,
b) welded wire fabric, or c) smooth wires. Smooth wires are allowed to be used for wire
fabric, spirals, stirrups, and ties with diameters of 10 mm or less.

■■ Grades
The CSA G30.18 Standard defines five grades of steel reinforcement in concrete: 300R,
400R, 500R, 400W and 500W. The W grade indicates that a ductile and weldable steel
is required. The number of each grade indicates the minimum guaranteed specified
yield strength in MPa. Grade 400R is the most frequently used for reinforcement, with
a specified yield strength f y = 400 MPa. Table 1.3 presents the geometric and physical
characteristics of steel bars commonly used in practice.

■■ Stress-Strain Curves
Figure 1.5 shows actual and idealized stress-strain curves for steel reinforcement. The
modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement is E s = 200,000 MPa.

Table 1.3 – Characteristics of Reinforcing Bars

Nominal dimensions
Bar Designation
No. Area Diameter Perimeter Mass
(mm 2) (mm) (mm) (kg/m)
10M   100 11.3   35.5   0.785
15M   200 16.0   50.1   1.570
20M   300 19.5   61.3   2.355
25M   500 25.2   79.2   3.925
30M   700 29.9   93.9   5.495
35M 1000 35.7 112.2   7.850
45M 1500 43.7 137.3 11.775
55M 2500 56.4 177.2 19.625
Materials 11

Figure 1.5 – Actual and Idealized Stress-Strain Curves for Steel Reinforcement

■■ Thermal Expansion of Steel


The coefficient of thermal expansion of steel is αT = 12 × 10 –6 mm/mm/°C.

1.4 Examples

Example 1.1 – Stress, Creep, and Shrinkage

■■ Problem Statement
Consider a 3-m-high reinforced concrete column with a cross-section of 400 mm ×
400 mm. It is reinforced with 4 No. 30M steel bars. The column is subjected to an axial
compression load of 1600 kN after one week of moist curing.

a) Calculate the instantaneous compressive and tensile stresses in concrete and steel
and the corresponding instantaneous strain.
b) What is the shortening of the column after 180 days of loading?
Use: fc′ (at 7 days) = 20 MPa; Type GU cement (300 kg/m 3); relative humidity = 60%; air
content = 5%; slump of fresh concrete = 125 mm; sand = 670 kg/m 3; coarse aggregate
= 1000 kg/m 3 .
12 Chapter 1

■■ Solution

a) Instantaneous Stresses and Strain

 Stress in concrete, fci

Ec = 4500 fc′ Ec = 4500 20 = 20 , 120 MPa



Es 200 , 000
n= n= = 9.9
Ec 20 , 120

Ac = net concrete area = Ag – A s Ac = 160 , 000 − 2800 = 157, 200 mm 2

Ace = equivalent concrete area = Ac + nA s Ace = 157, 200 + 9 . 9 × 2800 = 184 , 920 mm 2

P 1600 × 10 3
fci = fci = = 8 . 65 MPa
Ace 184 , 920

 Stress in steel reinforcement, fsi


fsi = nfci fsi = 9 . 9 × 8 . 65 = 85 . 6 MPa

 Instantaneous strain, εi
fci 8 . 65
εi = εi = = 430 × 10 −6 mm/mm
Ec 20 , 120

The instantaneous reduction is:


∆li = εi l ∆li = 430 × 10 −6 × 3000 = 1 . 29 mm

b) Shortening of the Column at t = 180 Days

 Shortening due to creep


Cu = 2 . 35 (average value)

Qcr = Qa QhQf Qr Qs Qv (see Table 1.3)

Qcr = 1 . 00 × 0 . 87 × 0 . 98 × 0 . 78 × 1 . 15 × 1 . 00 = 0 . 76

Note: Ratio (volume/surface) = ( 400 × 400 ) = 100


( 2 × 400 ) + ( 2 × 400 )
Materials 13

t 0.6 180 0 . 6
Ct = Cu Qcr Ct = × 2 . 35 × 0 . 76 = 1 . 24
10 + t 0 . 6 10 + 180 0 . 6

εcp = Ct εi εcp = 1.24 × 430 × 10 –6 = 533 × 10 −6 mm/mm



∆lcp = εcp l ∆lcp = 533 × 10 −6 × 3000 = 1 . 6 mm

 Shortening due to shrinkage


C s = 35

ε shu = 0 . 00078 mm/mm (suggested average value in the absence of a specific value)

Psh = Pc Ph Pf Pr Ps Pv Psh = 0 . 93 × 0 . 80 × 0 . 86 × 0 . 76 × 1 . 09 × 1 . 00 = 0 . 53

t 187
ε sh = ε shu Psh ε sh = × 0 . 00078 × 0 . 53 = 348 × 10 −6 mm/mm
Cs + t 35 + 187

∆lsh = ε sh l ∆lsh = 348 × 10 −6 × 3000 = 1 . 04 mm


 Total Shortening
∆ l = ∆ lcp + ∆ lsh ∆l = 1 . 60 + 1 . 04 = 2 . 64 mm

1.5 Problems

Problem 1.1
By analyzing the creep and shrinkage strain equations (Equations 1.7 and 1.8) and the
modification factors Qcr and Psh (Table 1.2), determine the three factors that have the
most influence on creep and shrinkage.

Problem 1.2
Consider a rectangular section of a prestressed concrete column with dimensions
700 mm × 700 mm × 4 m. The section is subjected to a prestressed force of 2500 kN
acting at the centroid of the section. The force is applied after seven days of moist curing.

a) Calculate the instantaneous stress and the instantaneous strain in concrete.


b) Determine the shortening of the column one year after the prestressed force was
applied.
14 Chapter 1

Use: fc′ (at seven days) = 25 MPa; Type GU cement (300 kg/m 3); relative humidity = 70%;
air content = 5%; slump of fresh concrete = 120 mm; sand = 660 kg/m3; coarse aggregate
= 1050 kg/m 3 .

Problem 1.3
Consider a 4-m-high concrete column having a 500 mm × 500 mm square section. The
longitudinal steel reinforcement consists of 4 No. 25M bars, that is, one No. 25M bar
in each corner. The beam is subjected to a specified dead load of 1000 kN (unfactored)
and a specified live load of 900 kN (unfactored). The dead load is applied 14 days after
concrete casting.

a) What are the stresses in concrete and steel reinforcement, assuming an elastic behav-
iour and perfect compatibility between the concrete and steel strains, for the following
load cases:
•  specified dead load (unfactored)?
•  total factored load?
b) What is the total strain experienced by the column due to creep and shrinkage,
365 days after concrete casting?

Use: fc′ (at 14 days) = 25 MPa; seven-day moist curing; Type GU cement: 300 kg/m 3;
sand: 700 kg/m 3; coarse aggregate: 1000 kg/m 3; slump: 100 mm; air content: 6%; relative
humidity: 60%; unit weight of concrete = 24 kN/m 3; Cu = 2.35.