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Tanks are used for storage of large quantities of liquid. It’s widely used in refineries.
Tanks for a particular fluid are chosen according to the flash-point of that substance.
Generally in refineries and especially for liquid fuels, there are fixed roof tanks, and
floating roof tanks.

1. Fixed roof tanks are meant for liquids with very high flash points, (eg. fuel oil,
water, bitumen etc.) Cone roofs, dome roofs and umbrella roofs are usual. These
are insulated to prevent the clogging of certain materials, wherein the heat is
provided by steam coils within the tanks. Dome roof tanks are meant for tanks
having slightly higher storage pressure than that of atmosphere (eg. slop oil).
The fixed roof tanks are used for the storage of non volatile, low-vapor pressure

2. Floating roof tanks are broadly divided into external floating roof tanks (usually
called as floating roof tanks:FR Tanks) and internal floating roof types(IFR
IFR tanks are used for liquids with low flash-points(eg. gasolene, ethanol). These tanks
are nothing but cone roof tanks with a floating roof inside which travels up and down
along with the liquid level. IFR tanks are also used in cases where climatic conditions
like snow fall etc prevent the use of external floating roofs.
This floating roof traps the vapor from low flash-point fuels. Floating roofs are supported
with legs on which they rest. FR tanks do not have a fixed roof (it is open in the top) and
has a floating roof only. Medium flash point liquids such as naphtha, kerosene, diesel,
crude oil etc are stored in these tanks.

The Fixed roof cone roof can be of two type supported cone roof & Self supporting
cone roof. The supported cone roof is supported by rafters on girders & columns or by
rafters on trusses whereas the self supporting cone roof is supported only at its periphery.-
A self supporting dome roof is a roof formed to approximately a spherical surface that is
supported only at its periphery.
A self supporting umbrella roof is a modified dome roof formed so that any horizontal
surface is a regular polygon with as many sides as there are roof plates.
Floating roof can be single deck pontoon type or Double deck pontoon type.

In floating roof tanks design the following points shall be noted.

1. Buoyancy Requirements
 All internal floating roof design calculations shall be based on the lower of
the product specific gravity or 0.7 (to allow for operation in a range of
hydrocarbon service), regardless of any higher specific gravity that might
be specified by the Purchaser.
 All internal floating roofs shall include buoyancy required to support at
least twice its dead weight (including the weight of the flotation
compartments, seal and all other floating roof and attached components),
plus additional buoyancy to offset the calculated friction exerted by
peripheral and penetration seals during filling.

 All internal floating roofs with multiple flotation compartments shall be

capable of floating without additional damage after any two compartments
are punctured and flooded.

2. Internal Floating roof support design loads

 Internal floating roof supports and deck structural attachments (such as

reinforcing pads and pontoon end gussets) shall be designed to support the
load combinations listed below without exceeding allowable stresses.

Floating roof support loading (legs or cables) shall be as follows:

Df + (the greater of) Pfe or Lf1 or Lf2
Df = dead load of internal floating roof, including the weight of the flotation
compartments, seal and all other floating
roof and attached components,
Lf1 = internal floating roof uniform live load (0.6 kPa [12.5 lbf/ft2] if not
automatic drains are provided, 0.24 kPa [5 lbf/ft2] if
automatic drains are provided),
Lf2 = internal floating roof point load of at least two men walking anywhere on
the roof. One applied load of 2.2 kN
[500 lbf] over 0.1 m2 [1 ft2] applied anywhere on the roof addresses two men
Pfe = internal floating roof design external pressure (0.24 kPa [5 lbf/ft2]


 This standard covers material,design,fabrication,erection,and testing requirements
for vertical,cylindrical,above ground, closed –and open top,welded steel storage
tanks in various sizes and capacities for internal pressures approx. atmospheric
press. (internal pressure not exceeding the weight of roof plates),except that a
higher internal pressure is permitted when the additional requirements of
appendix f are met.
Two methods are specified for Determining shell thickness
One foot method & variable point method.In one foot method, the thickness is
calculated 1ft (0.3M) above the bottom of each shell course.In this way an
economical thickness is calculated. Because the thickness is very high at the
bottom & very low at the top of the shell course)

All roof plates shall be designed for following load combinations of appendix R
R.1 For the purposes of this Standard, loads are combined in the following
manner. Design rules account for these load combinations,
including the absence of any load other than DL in the combinations:
(a) Fluid and Internal Pressure:
DL + F + Pi
(b) Hydrostatic Test:
DL + (Ht + Pt)
(c) Wind and Internal Pressure:
DL + W + 0.4Pi
(d) Wind and External Pressure:
DL + W + 0.4Pe
(e) Gravity Loads:
1) DL +(Lr or S) + 0.4Pe
2) DL + Pe + 0.4(Lr or S)
(f) Seismic:
DL + F + E + 0.1S + 0.4Pi
(g) Gravity Loads for Fixed Roofs with Suspended Floating Roofs:
DL + Df + (Lr or S) + Pe + 0.4 {Pfe or Lf1 or Lf2}
DL + Df + {Pfe or Lf1 or Lf2} + 0.4 {(S or Lr) + Pe}
1. In the combinations listed in (g), Df, Pfe, Lf1 and Lf2 shall be applied as point
loads at the cable attachment to the fixed roof.
2. Design External Pressure, Pe, shall be considered as 0 kPa (0 lbf/ft2) for tanks
with circulation vents meeting Appendix H
R.2 If the ratio of operating pressure to design pressure exceeds 0.4, the Purchaser
should consider specifying a higher factor on
design pressure in (c), (d), (e)(1), and (f).