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THE ALPHABET

A= (ei) B= (bi) C= (si) D= (di) E= (i) F= (ef)

H=
K=
G= (yi) (eich) I= (ai) J= (yei) L= (el)
(kei)

M= Q=
N= (en) O= (ou) P= (pi) R= (ar)
(em) (kiu)

W=
S= (es) T= (ti) U= (iu) V= (vi) X= (ex)
(dabliú)

Y=
Z= (zi)
(uai)
CARDINAL NUMBERS ORDINAL NUMBERS

0. CERO  ZERO
(zirrou)
1. UNO  ONE PRIMERO= 1st  FIRST
(uan) (ferst)

2. DOS  TWO SEGUNDO = 2 nd  SECOND


(Thu) (sekon)

3. TRES  THREE TERCERO = 3 rd  THIRD


(zri) (terd)

4. CUATRO  FOUR CUARTO = 4 th  FOURTH


(for) (forz)

5. CINCO  FIVE QUINTO = 5 th  FIFTH


(faiv) (fitz)

6. SEIS  SIX SEXTO = 6 th  SIXTH


(six) (sitz)

7. SIETE  SEVEN SÉPTIMO = 7th  SEVENTH


(seven) (sevenz)

8. OCHO  EIGHT OCTAVO = 8th  EIGHTH


(eit) (eitz)

9. NUEVE  NINE NOVENO = 9th  NINTH


(nain) (naizth)

10. DIEZ  TEN DÉCIMO = 10th  TENTH


(ten) (tenz)

11. ONCE  ELEVEN DÉCIMO PRIMERO = 11th  ELEVENTH


(ileven)
(ilevenz)
12. DOCE  TWELVE DÉCIMO SEGUINDO = 12th  TWELFTH
(thuelv)
(tuelvz)
13. TRECE  THIRTEEN DÉCIMO TERCERO = 13th  THIRTEENTH
(tirtíin)
(tirtínz)
14. CATORCE  FOURTEEN DÉCIMO CUARTO =14th  FOURTEENTH
(fortíin)
(fortínz)
15. QUINCE  FIFTEEN DÉCIMO QUINTO =15th  FIFTEENTH
(fivtíin) (fiftínz)

16. DIECISÉIS  SIXTEEN DÉCIMO SEXTO =16th  SIXTEENTH


(sixtíin) (sixtínz)

17. DIECISIETE  SEVENTEEN  SEVENTEENTH


(seventíin) DÉCIMO SÉPTIMO =17th
(seventínz)
18. DIECIOCHO  EIGHTEEN DÉCIMO OCTAVO =18th  EIGHTEENTH
(eigtíin)
(etínz)
19. DIECINUEVE  NINETEEN DÉCIMO NOVENO =19th  NINETEENTH
(naitíin)
(naitínz)
20. VEINTE  TWUENTY VIGÉSIMO =20th  TWENTIETH
(tueni) (tueniez)

21. VENTIUNO TWUENTY-ONE VIGÉSIMO PRIMERO = 21st  TWENTY-FIRST

(tueniaun) (tueni ferst)


22. VENTIDÓS  TWUENTY-TWO VIGÉSIMO SEGUNDO = 22nd  TWENTY-

(tuenithu) SECOND
(tueni sekon)

23. VENTITRÉSTWUENTY-THREE VIGÉSIMO TERCERO = 23rd  TWENTY-THIRD

(tuenizrí) (tueni therd)

24. VENTICUATROTWUENTY-FOUR VIGÉSIMO CUARTO = 24th  TWENTY-FOURTH

(tuenifor) (tueni forz)

25. VENTICINCO  TWUENTY-FIVE VIGÉSIMO QUINTO = 25th  TWENTY-FIFTH

(tuenifaiv) (tueni fitz)

26. VENTISÉIS  TWUENTY-SIX VIGÉSIMO SEXTO = 26 th  TWENTY-SIXTH


(tuenisix)
(tueni sitz)
27. VENTISIETETWUENTY-SEVEN VIGÉSIMO SÉPTIMO = 27 th  TWENTY-

(tueniseven) SEVENTH
(tueni sevenz)

28. VENTIOCHO  TWUENTY-EIGHT VIGÉSIMO OCTAVO = 28 th  TWENTY-EIGHTH

(tuenieit) (tueni eitz)

29. VENTINUEVE  TWUENTY-NINE VIGÉSIMO NOVENO = 29 th  TWENTY-NINTH

(tueninai) (tueni naitz)

30. TREINTA  THIRTY TRIGÉSIMO = 30 th  THIRTIETH


(Therti) (Thertiez)
GREETINGS

1. Good morning! --------------------------- Buenos dias


(Gud morin)
2. Good afternoon! -------------------------- Buenas tardes
(Gud afternun)
3. Good evening! ---------------------------- Buenas noches (saludo)
(Gud ivnin)
4. Good night! ------------------------------- Buenas noches (despedida)
(Gud nait)
5. Hello! ------------------------------------- ¡Hola! (formal)
(jelou)
6. Hi! ---------------------------------------- ¡Hola! (informal)
(jai)
7. Hey! -------------------------------------- ¡Oye! (informal)
(jei)
8. Welcome! ------------------------------- Bienvenido (a)
(uelcom)
9. How are you? ---------------------------- ¿Cómo estás? (formal)
(jao ar iu)
10. How do you do? ---------------------------- ¿Cómo estás? (informal)
(jao du iu du)
11. I’m very good. ---------------------------- Estoy muy bien.
(aim very gud)
12. I’m fine. ----------------------------------- Estoy bien
(aim fain)
13. I’m great, thanks God. And you? ------- Estoy genial, gracias a Dios. Y tu/
Usted?
(aim greit zanks gad, na iu)
14. How are you doing?--------------------- ¿Cómo te va? (informal)
(jao ar iu duin)
15. How about you? ------------------------- ¿Qué hay de ti (usted)? (informal)
(jao abaot iu)
16. What’s up? ------------------------------- ¿Qué hay de nuevo? (informal)
(uatsap)
17. Thanks.------------------------------------ ¡Gracias! (informal)
(zanks)
18. Thank you very much. ------------------ ¡Gracias! (informal)
(zank iu very mach)
19. Please! ---------------------------------- ¡Por favor!
(plíiz)
20. You´re welcome. ------------------------ ¡De nada!
(iur uelcom)
21. Have a good journey! ------------------- ¡Que tenga um buen viaje
(jav a gud yurni)
22. Have a nice trip! ------------------------- ¡Tem un buen viaje!
(jav a naiz trip)
23. Safe journey! ------------------------------ ¡Buen viaje!
(seiv yurni)
24. Have a nice flight! ----------------------- ¡Que tenga um buen vuelo!
(jav a naiz flait)
25. Good-bye! --------------------------------- ¡Adiós! (formal)
(gudbai)
26. So long! ----------------------------------- ¡Nos vemos!
(sou lon)
27. Bye! -------------------------------------- Adiós (informal)
(bai)
28. Have a nice day! ----------------------- ¡Que tenga um buen día!
(jav a naiz dei)
29. See you --------------------------------- ¡Nos vemos! (informal)
(síi iu)
30. See you later! -------------------------- ¡Nos vemos luego! (formal)
(síi iu leirer)
31. I will see you… tomorrow, next week, later, in the afternoon, tonight! ... Te
veré ... mañana, la próxima semana, después, em la tarde, esta noche.
(ai uil síi iu... tumorrou, next uik, leirer, in de afternun, tunait)
32. Have a good night, morning! -------------------- ¡Que tenga buenas noches, um
buen día!
(jav a gud nait)
33. Can I help you? ---------------------------------- ¿Puedo ayudarle?
(can ai jelp iu)
34. Yes, please! -------------------------------------- ¡Si, por favor!
(ies, plíiz)
35. Sure! --------------------------------------------- ¡Seguro!
(shur)
36. Of course! --------------------------------------- ¡Por supuesto!
(ov cors)
37. No, thanks! -------------------------------------- ¡No, gracias!
(nou, zanks)
38. What can I do for you? ------------------------- ¿Qué puedo hacer por usted?
(uat can ai du for iu)
39. Is there anything I can do for you? ------------ ¿Hay algo que pueda hacer por
usted?
(is dere anizhin ai can du for iu)
40. Do you need any help? ------------------------ ¿Necesitas ayuda?
(du iu níid eni jelp)
41. Is everything all right? ------------------------- ¿Está todo bien?
(is evrizhin alrait)
42. Is there any problem? -------------------------- ¿Hay algún problema?
(is dere eni problem)
43. Nice to meet you ------------------------------ ¡Mucho gusto!
(naiz tu mit iu)
44. Pleased to meet you. ------------------------- ¡Encantado (a) de conocerte!
(plíiz tu mit iu)
45. I am glad to meet you! ---------------------- ¡Me alegra conocerte!
(ai am glad tu mit iu)
I’m glad to meet you!
(aim glad tu mit iu)
46. I’m happy to see you! ---------------------- ¡Estoy feliz de verte!
(aim japi tu síi iu)
47. What a surprise to see you! -------------- ¡Qué sorpresa verte!
(uat a sorpraiz tu síi iu)
APOLOGIES

1. I’m sorry! -------------------------------- ¡Lo siento!


(aim sorri)
2. I’m so sorry ----------------------------- ¡Lo siento mucho!
(aim sou sorri)
3. Excuse me! ---------------------------- ¡Perdone!
(exkius mi)

INTRODUCINGS

1. What is your name? ---------------------- ¿Cómo se llama?


(aut is ior neim)
(What’s your name?)
(uats ior neim)
2. My name is ___ ------------------------- Mi nombre es ___
(mai neim is___)
3. I am ___ --------------------------------- Yo soy ___
(ai am ___)
I’m ___
(aim ___)
4. Who is she or he? ---------------------- ¿Quién es ella o él?
(ju is she or ji)
5. This is my___ -------------------------- Ese (a) es mi ___
(dis is mai___)
6. That is my___ -------------------------- Aquel, aquella es mi ___
(da tis mai ___)
That’s my ___
(dats mai ___)
7. These are my___ ----------------------- Esos (as) son mis ___
(díis ar mai ___)
8. Those are my___ ----------------------- Aquellos (as) son mis ___
(douz ar mai)
PERSONAL INFORMATION

1. What is your name?


(aut is ior neim?)

(What’s your name?)


(uats ior neim?)

2. My name is ___ ----------------------------- Mi nombre es ___


(mai neim is ___)
3. My full name is ___ ------------------------ Mi nombre completo es ___
(mai ful neim is ___)
4. My first name is ___ ----------------------- Mi primer nombre es ___
(mai ferst neim is ___)
5. My second name is ___ ------------------- Mi segundo nombre es ___
(mai secon neim is ___)
6. My last name is ___ ----------------------- Mi apellido es ___
(mai las neim is ___)
7. I am ___ ------------------------------------- Yo soy ___
(ai am ___)
I’m ___
(aim __)
8. I don’t understand! ----------------------- ¡No entiendo!
(ai dont anderstend)
9. Can you spell your first name, please? ----- ¿Puede deletrear su primer
nombre, por favor?
(can iu plíiz spel ior ferst neim plíiz?)
10. Can you repeat, please? --------------- ¿Puede repetirlo, por favor?
(can iu ripit, plíiz?)
11. Can you speak slower, please? ------- ¿Podría hablar más de espacio?
(can iu spij slouer, plíiz?)
12. Where are you from? ------------------ ¿De donde eres?
(uer ar iu from?)
13. I’m from ___ --------------------------- Yo soy de ___
(aim from ___)
14. I come from ___ ---------------------- Yo vengo de ___
(ai com form ___)
15. What’s your nationality? ------------ ¿Cuál es tu nacionalidad?
(uats ior nashionaliti?)
16. I’m Venezuelan. ---------------------- Yo soy Venezolano (a)
(aim venezuelan)
17. How old are you? ---------------------- ¿Cuántos años tiene?
(jao old ar iu?)
18. I’m ___ years old. ---------------------- Tengo ___
(aim ___ yiars old)
19. When were you born? ------------------ ¿Cuándo nació?
(uen uer iu born?)
20. I was born in ___ ----------------------- Yo nací en ___
(ai uos born in __)
21. Where were you born? ---------------- ¿Donde nació?
(uer uer iu born?)
22. I was born in Venezuela. ------ Yo nací en Venezuela
(ai uos born in Venezuela)
23. Where do you live? -------------------- ¿Donde vive?
(uer du iu liv?)
24. What do you do? ---------------------- ¿A qué te dedicas?
(uat du iu du?)
25. I’m a cashier. I work in a bank. ------------------------ Yo soy cajero (a). Trabajo
en un banco.
(aim a kashir. Ai uork in a bank)
26. I’m a student. I study at high school… ------------------------ Yo soy estudiante.
Estudio en la escuela…
(aim a stiuden. Ai stadi at jaizkul)
27. Do you work? ----------------------------- ¿Trabaja?
(du iu uork?)
28. Do you study? ----------------------------- ¿Estudia?
(du iu stadi?)
29. Where do you work, study? -------------- ¿Donde trabaja, estudia?
(uer du iu uork, stadi?)
30. What is your civil status? ---------------- ¿Cuál es su estado civil?
(uat is ior sívil starus?)
31. I’m married, single, widowed, divorced.----- Estoy casado (a), soltero (a),
viudo (a), divorciado (a).
(aim singol…uidod… divorzd…)
32. Do you have children? -------------------- ¿Tiene hijos?
(du iu jav children?)
33. How many children do you have? ------- ¿Cuántos hijos tiene?
(jao meni children du iu jav?)
34. When is your birthday? ------------------- ¿Cuándo es su cumpleaños?
(uen is ior berthdei?)
35. My birthday is in September. --------------------- Mi cumpleaños es en
Septiembre.
(mai bertdei is in september)
36. My birthday is on September 21. ------------ Mi cumpleaños es el 21 de
Septiembre
(mai berthfei is on september tueni ferst)
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
(dimonstrativ pronaons)

This= esto, esta, este. That= aquel, aquello, aquella


(dis) (dat)

These = estos, estas Those= aquellos, aquellas


(diiz) (douz)

This= se usa cuando alguien o algo está CERCA y ese alguien o algo equivale a
SINGULAR

That= se usa cuando alguien o algo está LEJOS y ese alguien o algo equivale a
SINGULAR

These= se usa cuando 2 o más personas u cosas están CERCA y ellos equivalen
a PLURAL

Those= se usa cuando 2 o más personas u cosas están LEJOS y ellos equivalen
a PLURAL
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

There is= significa HAY y es usado para decir que hay algo o alguien.
(der iz)
There’s
(ders)

There are= significa HAY y es usado para decir que hay 2 o más personas o 2 o
más cosas.
(der ar)
PREPOSITIONS: TIME
(preposishions taim)

IN ON AT
 Months: in January / in April/ in Days of the week Clock times (clok
June. (dais ov de uik): on taims): at 7.30 a.m. / at
 Seasons (sizons): in spring (in Monday 5 o’clock
sprin)/ in summer (in samer)/ in Days + parts of days Festivals (festivals):
winter (in uin’ter)/ fall (fol)/ (deis plas parts ov at Christmas / at Easter
autumn (ow’tum) deis): on Tuesday Exceptions
 Years (yiars): in 1984 / in 2015 afternoon / on Saturday (eksekshions): at night
 Centuries: in the 20th century mornings / at noon/ at midnight
(senzhúris) Dates (deits): on
 Times of day: in the morning / November 22nd
in the evening Special days
 Longer periods of time: in the (speshial deis): on my
past / in the 1990s / in the birthday / on New
holidays Year’s Eve

PREPOSITIONS: PLACE
(preposishions pleiz)
 In: significa en, específicamente dentro (lugares cerrados: cuarto, salón…)
(in)
 On: significa en, específicamente sobre (contacto con cualquier superficie)
(on)
 At: significa en, cuando hablamos de lugares abiertos (parques, campos…)
(at)
 In front of: frente a/ en frente de…
(in fron ov)
 Behind: detrás de…
(bijaind o bajaind)
 Next to: a lado de o próximo a…
(nex tu)
 Between: entre…
(bituin)
 Above: por encima de/ encima
(abov)
 Over: sobre/ encima
(ouver)
 Under: abajo
(andr)
 Below: por debajo
(bilou)
PERSONAL VERB TO BE
CONTRACTED FORM NEGATIVE FORM
PRONOUNS (AM-ARE-IS)
YO  I (first I am not
person, I am I’m (ai am nat)
singular) (ai am) (aim) I’m not
(ai) (aim nat)
TÚ, USTED You are not
 You (iu ar nat)
(second You are You’re You’re not
person, (iu ar) (iur) (iur nat)
singular) You aren’t
(iu) (iu arent)
He is not
ÉL  HE
(ji iz nat)
(Third
He is He’s He’s not
person,
(ji iz) (jíiz) (jíiz nat)
singular)
He isn’t
(ji)
(ji isent)
ELLA  She is not
SHE (Third (shi iz nat)
person, She is She’s She’s not
singular) (shii iz) (shíiz) (shíiz nat)
She isn’t
(shii) (shi isent)
ESTO, ESTA It is not
 IT (Third (it is nat)
person, It is It’s It’s not
singular) (it iz) (its) (its nat)
It isn’t
(it) (it isent)
USTEDES  You are not
YOU (iu ar nat)
(second You are You’re You’re not
people, (iu ar) (iur) (iur nat)
plural) You aren’t
(iu) (iu arent)
We are not
NOSOTROS
(ui ar nat)
(AS)  WE
We are We’re We’re not
(first people,
(uii ar) (uir) (uir nat)
plural)
We aren’t
(uii)
(ui arent)
ELLOS (AS), They are not
ESTOS (AS) (dei ar nat)
 THEY They’re not
They are They’re
(Third (deier nat)
(dhei are) (deier)
people, They aren’t
plural) (dei arent)
(dhei)
PAÍS COUNTRY NATIONALITY LANGUAGE
Afganistán Afghan Afghan
(afgánistan) (áfgan) (áfgan)
AFGANISTÁN
ALEMANIA Germany German German
(yérman) (yérman)
(yérmani)
ARGENTINA Argentina Argentinian Spanish
(aryentínian) (Spánish)
(aryentína)
BOLIVIA Bolivia Bolivian Spanish
(bolí:vian) (Spánish)
(bolí:via)
BRASIL Brazil Brazilian Portuguese
(bresílian) (portuguíis)
(bresíl)
CANADÁ Canada Canadian Canadian
(kanéidian) (kanéidian)
(kánada)
CHILE Chile Chilean Spanish
(chiléan) (Spánish)
(chíle)
CHINA China Chinese Chinese

(cháina) (chainí:s) (chainí:s)


COLOMBIA Colombia Colombian Spanish
(kolómbian) (Spánish)
(kolómbia)
COSTA RICA Costa Rica Costa rican Spanish
(kásta-rí:kan) (Spánish)
(kásta-rí:ka)
CUBA Cuba Cuban Spanish
(kiúban) (Spánish)
(kiúba)
DINAMARCA Denmark Danish Danish
(dénmark) (dánish) (dánish)
ECUADOR Ecuador Ecuadorian Spanish
(ekuadórian) (Spánish)
(ekuádo:r)
EGIPTO Egypt Egiptian Arabic
(íyipt) (iyípshan) (erabik)
EL El Salvador Salvadorean Spanish
SALVADOR (salvadorí:an) (Spánish)
(el salvadó:r)
ESPAÑA Spain Spanish Spanish
(Spánish) (Spánish)
(spein)
ESTADOS The United American English
UNIDOS States (amérikan) (inglish)
(Iunatid steits)
FRANCIA France French French
(frénch) (frénch)
(frans)
GRECIA Greece Greek Greek
(grí:k) (grí:k)
(grí:s)
GUATEMALA Guatemala Guatemalan Spanish
(guaremálan) (Spánish)
(guaremála)
HONDURAS Honduras Honduran Spanish
(jondúran) (Spánish)
(jondúras)
INDIA India Indian Indi
(índian) (indi)
(índia)
INGLATERRA England English English
(ínglish) (ínglish)
(íngland)
IRAK Iraq Iraqi Arabic
(áirak) (áiraki) (erabik)
IRLANDA Ireland Irish English
(áirland) (áirish) (inglish)
ITALIA Italy Italian Italian
(itálian) (itálian)
(ítali)
JAPÓN Japan Japanese Japanese
(yapanís) (yapanís)
(yapán)
MÉXICO Mexico Mexican Spanish
(méksikan) (Spánish)
( méksikou)
NICARAGUA Nicaragua Nicaraguan Spanish
(nikaráguan) (Spánish)
( nikarágua)
NORUEGA Norway Norwegian Norwegian
(nor-uíyian) (nor-uíyian)
(nor-uéi)
PANAMÁ Panama Panamanian Spanish
(panaménian) (Spánish)
( pánama)
PARAGUAY Paraguay Paraguayan Spanish
(paraguéian) (Spánish)
(páraguai)
PERÚ Peru Peruvian Spanish
(perúvian) (Spánish)
(perú)
POLONIA Poland Polish Polish
(póuland) (pólish) (pólish)
PORTUGAL Portugal Portuguese Portuguese
(portuguíis) (portuguíis)
(pórchugal)

PUERTO Puerto Rico Puerto rican Spanish


RICO (puértou ríkan) (Spánish)
(puértou ríkou)
REPÚBLICA Dominican Dominican Spanish
DOMINICAN Republic (domínikan) (Spánish)
A
(domínikan
ripáblik)
RUSIA Russia Russian Russian
(ráshian) (ráshian)
(ráshia)
SUECIA Sweden Swedish Swedish
(suíden) (suídish) (suídish)
URUGUAY Uruguay Uruguayan Spanish
(iuru-guáian) (Spánish)
(iúru-guái)
VENEZUELA Venezuela Venezuelan Venezuelan
(Venezuela) (Venezuelan) (Venezuelan)
VIETNAM Vietnam Vietnamese Vietnamese
(vietnám) (vietnamí:s) (vietnamí:s)
MONTHS OF THE YEAR DAYS OF THE WEEK
ENERO = JANUARY (yaniuari)
FEBRERO = FEBRUARY (febiuari) LUNES = MONDAY (mondei)
MARZO = MARCH (march) MARTES = TUESDAY (tiusdei)
ABRIL = APRIL (eiprol) MIÉRCOLES = WEDNESDAY (uenzdei)
MAYO = MAY (mei) JUEVES = THURSDAY (zhursdei)
JUNIO = JUNE (yun) VIERNES = FRIDAY (fraidei)
JULIO = JULY (yulai) SÁBADO = SATURDAY (sadurdei)
AGOSTO = AUGUST (agost) DOMINGO = SUNDAY (sondei)
SEPTIEMBRE = SEPTEMBER (septémbr)
OCTUBRE = OCTOBER (otubr)
NOVIEMBRE = NOVEMBER (novembr)
DICIEMBRE = DECEMBER (disembr)

When is your birthday? ------------------- ¿Cuándo es su cumpleaños?


(uen is ior berthdei?)
My birthday is in September. --------------------- Mi cumpleaños es en Septiembre.
(mai berthdei is in september)

My birthday is on September 21. ------------ Mi cumpleaños es el 21 de Septiembre


(mai berthdei is on september tueni ferst)
NOUN: A noun is a part of speech that is used to name a person, place, thing,
quality, or action. A noun can function as a subject, object, complement,
appositive, or object of a preposition.

RULES TO CHANGE FROM SINGULAR TO PLURAL


(Ruls tu cheng from singuiular tu plural)

1. Nouns that end in: s, ss, sh, ch, x, z, o. Add: “es”

A kiss 2 or more Kisses = besos


(a kis) (kises)

A box 2 or more boxes= cajas


(a box) (boxes)

A watch 2 or more watches= relojes


(a uach) (uaches)

A fish 2 or more Fishes = peces


(a fish) (fishes)

A fox 2 or more Foxes= zorros


(a fox) (foxes)

A witch  2 or more witches= brujas


(a uich) (uiches)

2. Nouns that end in: f or fe. Delete the f or fe and add: “ves”

A knife 2 or more knives= cuchillos


(a niv) (niviz)

A wife 2 or more wives= esposas


(a uaif) (uaiviz)

A Wolf 2 or more wolves= lobos


(a uolf) (uolviz)
A housewife 2 or more housewives= amas de casa
(a jauzuaif) (jauzuaiviz)

A life 2 or more lives= vidas


(a laiv) (laiviz)

3. Nouns that end in: Consonant + Y. Delete the Y and add: “ies”

A secretary 2 or more secretaries= secretarias


(a secretári) (secretáris)

A baby 2 or more babies= bebes


(a beivi) (beiviz)

A body 2 or more bodies= cuerpos


(a badi) (badis)

A nappy 2 or more nappies= pañales


(a napi) (napis)

A lady 2 or more ladies= señoritas


(a leidi) (leidis)

4. The rest f the nouns, add: “s”

A toy 2 or more Toys= joguetes


(a toi) (tois)

A computer 2 or more computers= computadoras


(a compiurer) (compiurers)

A dog 2 or more dogs= perros


(a dog) (dogs)

A notebook 2 or more notebooks= cuadernos


(a noubuk) (noubuks)
A cellphone 2 or more cellphones= celulares
(a celfon) (celfons)

5. Irregulars

Singular Plural
Diente= tooth Dentadura o Dientes= teeth
(tuzth) (tizth)
Hombre= man Hombres= men
(man) (men)
Mujer= woman Mujeres= women
(Guman) (uimen)
Niño (a)= Child Niños (as)= children
(chaild) (children)
Pie= Foot Pies= Feet
(fut) (fit)
Persona= Person Gente o Personas= People
(pérson) (pipol)
Ratón= Mouse Ratones= Mice
(mauz) (máiz)
Oveja= sheep Ovejas= Sheep
(shiip) (shiip)
Ciervo= Deer Ciervos= Deer
(dir) (dir)
ADJECTIVE: The adjectives are words that describe or give extra information
about people, animals, and objects.

FiSICAMENTE  PHYSICALLY PERSONALIDAD  PERSONALITY


(fishicali) (personáliti)

Bald (bald) Calvo Alive (alaiv)  Vivo


Beautiful (biuriful)  Hermosa Angry (engri)  Enojado
Big (big)  Grande Asleep (aslip)  Dormido
Blond (blon)  Rubio Awake (aueik)  Despierto
Blonde (blond)  Rubia Bad (bad)  Malo
Brunette (brunet)  Moreno Bitter (birer)  Amargo
curly (carli)  Rizado Boring (borin)  Aburrido
Fat (fat)  Gordo Busy (bizi)  Ocupado
Good-looking (gudlukin) Bien parecido Cheap (chip)  Barato
Handsome (jánsom) Apuesto Clean (clin)  Limpio
Pretty (priri)  Bonita Cold (could)  Frio
Redhead (redjed)  Pelirrojo Crazy (creizi)  Loco
short (short)  Bajo Dangerous (danyeros)  Peligroso
Small (smol)  Pequeño Dead (ded)  Muerto
Straight (strait)  Liso, derecho Difficult (díficult)  Difícil
Tall (tol) Alto Dirty (dirti)  Sucio
Thin (zhin)  Delgado Dishonest (disónest)  Desonesto
Ugly (agli) Feo Early (erli)  Temprano
Easy (íisi)  Fácil
Empty (emty)  Vacío
Expensive (expénsiv)  Caro
False (fols)  Falso
Friendly (frenli)  Amable
Full (ful)  Lleno
Good (gud)  Bueno
Happy (japi)  Feliz
Hard (jard)  Duro
Hardworking (jaruorkin) Trabajador
Healthy (jelzi)  Saludable
Heavy (jevii)  Pesado
Honest (ónest)  Honesto
Hot (jot)  Caliente
Hungry (jangri)  Hambriento
Impolite (ampolait)  Descortéz
Intelligent (intéliyent)  Inteligente
Interesting (íntrestin)  Interesante
Jealous (yélous)  Celoso
Late (leit)  Tarde
Lazy (leizi)  Flojo
Light (lait)  Ligero, claro
Long (lon)  Largo
Married (merrid)  Casado
Modern (módrn)  Moderno
Nasty (nazti)  Repugnante
New (niu)  Nuevo
Nice (naiz)  Agradable
Noisy (noisi)  Ruidoso
Old (old)  Viejo
Polite (polait)  Cortéz
Poor (póor)  Pobre
Quiet (kuaiet)  Quieto
Responsible (risponsibol) Responsable
Rich (rich)  Rico
Right (rait)  Correcto
Rude (rud)  Grosero
Sad (sad)  Triste
Safe (seiv)  Seguro
Sane (séin)  Cuerdo
Scared (skeerd)  Espantado
Selfish (selfish)  Egoista
Short (short)  Corto
Sick (sik)  Enfermo
Sincere (sincier)  Sincero
Single (singol)  Soltero
Soft (soft)  Suave
Stupid (stiupid)  Estupido
Surprised (sorpraizd)  Sorprendido
Sweet (suit)  Dulce
Sympathetic (simpazetic) Comprensivo
Tired (taierd)  Cansado
Traditional (tradishional) Tradicional
True (tru)  Verdadero
Wrong (ron)  Equivocado
COLOURS

 Aguamarina  Aquamarine (ákuamarin)


 Amarillo  Yellow (ielou)
 Azul  Blue (blu)
 Azul marino  Navy blue (neivi blu)
 Beige  Beige (beich)
 Blanco  White (uait)
 Bronce  Bronze (bronz)
 Caoba  Mahogany (majoganí)
 Cobre  Copper (copr)
 Color carne  skin color (skin cólor)
 Dorado  Golden (goulden)
 Esmeralda  Emerald (eméral)
 Fucsia  Fuchsia (fiusha)
 Gris  grey (grei)
 Lila  Lilac (laila)
 Marrón  Brown (braun)
 Multicolor  Multicoloured (multicólord)
 Negro  Black (blak)
 Ocre  Ochre (óuker)
 Plateado  Silver (silver)
 Rojo  Red (red)
 Trasparente  Transparent (trensparent)
 Turquesa  Turquoise (turkois)
 Verde  Green (grin)
 Violeta  Violet (vaiolet)
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (DO- DOES)= Tiempo Presente Simple

(simpol présen tens du - das)

Do and does are auxiliary verbs, they are used with all the verbs (EXCEPT THE
VERB TO BE: AM-ARE-IS)

DO works with: I, YOU, WE and THEY

DOES works with: HE, SHE and IT

WE USE IN, ON AND AT FOR LOTS OF DIFFERENT TIMES. HERE’S A TABLE


COMPARING THE USES:

Rules To Conjugate The Verbs In Third Person Singular (He, She, It)
(ruls tu conyugueit de ver in zhird pérson singuiular ji, shi, it)
Reglas para conjugar los verbos em 3era persona del singular (ella, el, este o
esta)

1. Verbs that finish in: O, X, SS, S, Z, SH, CH. Add: “es”

Go  goes, fix  fixes, kiss  kisses, wash  washes, watch  watches

2. Verbs that finish in: Y + a consonant. Delete the Y and add: “ies”

Study  studies, worry  worries, try  tries

3. Rest of the verbs add: “s”

Read  reads, work  works

The verb “to have” change obligatory into HAS

LIST OF VERBS Conjugated with: I, Conjugated with: HE,


YOU, WE, THEY SHE, IT
Arrive: llegar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT arrives
(arraiv) arrive
Ask: pedir o preguntar I-YOU-WE-THEY ask HE-SHE-IT asks
(ask)
Call: llamar I-YOU-WE-THEY call HE-SHE-IT calls
(col)
Clean: limpiar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT cleans
(clin) clean
Do: hacer I-YOU-WE-THEY do HE-SHE-IT does
(du)
Drink: beber. Tomar I-YOU-WE-THEY drink HE-SHE-IT drinks
(drink)
Eat: comer I-YOU-WE-THEY eat HE-SHE-IT eats
(iit)
Fix: preparar o reparar I-YOU-WE-THEY fix HE-SHE-IT fixes
(fix)
Forget: olvidar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT forgets
(forguet) forget
Get dressed: vestirse I-YOU-WE-THEY get HE-SHE-IT gets
(guetdres) dressed dressed
Get up: levantarse I-YOU-WE-THEY get HE-SHE-IT gets up
(guerap) up
Give: dar I-YOU-WE-THEY give HE-SHE-IT gives
(guiv)
Go out: salir I-YOU-WE-THEY go HE-SHE-IT goes out
(gouaot) out
Go: ir I-YOU-WE-THEY go HE-SHE-IT goes
(gou)
Have: tener I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT has
(jav) Have
Help: ayudar I-YOU-WE-THEY help HE-SHE-IT helps
(jelp)
Invite: invitar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT invites
(invait) invite
Know: saber o conocer I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT knows
(nou) Know
Leave: dejar o partir I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT leaves
(abandonar um lugar) leave
(lev)
Like: gustar I-YOU-WE-THEY like HE-SHE-IT likes
(laik)
Listen to: escuchar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT listens to
(lisen tu) Listen to
Live: vivir I-YOU-WE-THEY Live HE-SHE-IT lives
(liv)
Play: jugar o tocar un I-YOU-WE-THEY play HE-SHE-IT plays
instrumento
(plei)
Prepare: preparar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT prepares
(pripeir) prepare
Read: ler I-YOU-WE-THEY read HE-SHE-IT reads
(rid)
Sit: sentarse I-YOU-WE-THEY sit HE-SHE-IT sits
(sit)
Sleep: dormir I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT sleeps
(sliip) sleep
Speak: hablar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT speaks
(spik) speak
Study: estudiar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT studies
(stadi) study
Take: tomar, agarrar I-YOU-WE-THEY take HE-SHE-IT takes
(teik)
Try: intentar o probar I-YOU-WE-THEY try HE-SHE-IT tries
(trai)
Understand: entender I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT
(anderstend) understand understands
Use: usar I-YOU-WE-THEY use HE-SHE-IT uses
(ius)
Visit: visitar I-YOU-WE-THEY visit HE-SHE-IT visits
(visit)
Wake up: despertarse I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT wakes up
(gueikap) Wake up
Walk: caminhar I-YOU-WE-THEY walk HE-SHE-IT walks
(uak)
Want: querer I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT wants
(uant) Want
Wash: lavar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT washes
(uosh) wash
Watch: mirar I-YOU-WE-THEY HE-SHE-IT watches
(uatch) watch
Wear: llevar puesto I-YOU-WE-THEY wear HE-SHE-IT wears
(uer)
Work: trabajar I-YOU-WE-THEY work HE-SHE-IT works
(uork)
Write: escribir I-YOU-WE-THEY write HE-SHE-IT writes
(rait)

FREQUENCY ADVERBS TIME EXPRESSIONS


EVERY DAY (évri déi) = todos los días
ALWAYS (ólweis)= siempre EVER (éver) = alguna vez
USUALLY (iúshuali) = habitualmente YEARLY (íarli) = anualmente
FREQUENTLY (fríkuentli) - EVERY MONTH (évri mónz) = todos
frecuentemente los meses
OFTEN (ófen) = a menudo EVERY YEAR (évri íer) = todos los
SOMETIMES (sámtáims) algunas años
veces NORMALLY (nórmali) = normalmente
OCCASIONALLY (okéishonali) = REGULARLY (régüiularli) =
ocasionalmente regularmente
RARELY (rérli) = casi nunca ONCE (uáns) = una vez
SELDOM (séldom) = casi nunca TWICE (tchuáis) = dos veces
HARDLY EVER (járdli éver) = casi THREE TIMES (zríi táims) = tres veces
nunca ONCE A DAY (uáns e déi) = una vez
NEVER (néver) = nunca al día
ANNUALLY (ániuali) = anualmente TWICE A MONTH (tchuáis a mánz) =
YEARLY (íerli) = anualmente dos veces al mes
MONTHLY (mánzli) = mensualmente EVERY OTHER DAY (évri oder déi) =
WEEKLY (uíkli) = semanalmente cada dos días
DAILY (déili) = diariamente EVERY DAY (évri déi) = todos los días
HOURLY (áuerli) = a cada hora FROM TIME TO TIME (from táim tchu
táim) = de vez en cuando
ONCE IN A WHILE (uáns i a uáil) = de
vez en cuando
EVERY NOW AND THEN (evri náu an
den) = de vez en cuando
FAMILY'S MEMBERS: (miembros de la familia)

(familis membrs)

 Parents (pérents): padres


 Mother (moder): madre
 Mom (mom): mama
 Mommy (momi): mami
 Father (fader): padre
 Dad (dad): papa
 Daddy (dadi): papi
 Stepfather (stép fáder): padrastro
 Stepmother (stép moder): madrastra
 Stepson (stép son): hijastro
 Stepdaughter (stép dórer): hijastra
 Children (children): hijos
 Daughter (dóter: hija
 Son (son): hijo
 First-born (férst-bórn): primogénito
 Only child (óunli cháild): hijo/a único/a
 Orphan (órfan): huérfano
 Sister (sister): hermana
 Brother (bróder): hermano
 Cousin (kóusin): primo/a
 Aunt (ant): tía
 uncle (ankol: tío
 Nephew (néfiu): sobrino
 Niece (níis): sobrina
 Godfather (gad fáder): padrino
 Godmother (gad moder): madrina
 Godson (gad son): ahijado
 Goddaughter (gad dórer): ahijada
 Grandparents (gránd párents): abuelos
 Grandmother (gránd máder): abuela
 Grandfather (gránd fáder): abuelo
 Great-grandparents (gréit- gránd parents): bisabuelos
 Great-grandmother (gréit gránd máder): bisabuela
 Great-grandfather (gréit gránd fáder): bisabuelo
 Grandchildren (gránd children): nietos
 Granddaughter (gránd dóter): nieta
 Grandson (gránd son): nieto
 Husband (jásband): esposo
 Wife (uáif): esposa
 Father-in-law (fáder in ló): suegro
 Mother-in-law (móder in ló): suegra
 Son-in-law (son in ló): yerno
 Sister-in-law (síster in ló): cuñada
 Daughter-in-law (dórer in ló): nuera
 Brother-in-law (bróder in ló): cuñado
PARTS OF THE BODY: Partes del cuerpo
(pars ov de badi)

Tongue (tong)

Face (feiz)

Head (jed)

Eyebrows (aibrous)

Eyelid (ailed)

Eyes (ais)

Nose (nouz)
Ears (iers)

Cheek (chik)

Mouth (mauz)

Lips (leps)

Teeth (thiz)

Hair (jair)

Forehead (forjed)

Chin (chin)
Neck (nek)

Shoulder (sholdr)

Arm (arm)

Elbow (elbou)

Forearm (foram)

Chest (chest)

Heart (jart)

Back (bak)
Waist (ueist)

Belly (beli)

Tummy (tami)

Navel (neivol)

Wrist (urist)

Hand (jand)

Fingers (fínguers)

Leg (leg)
Knee (níi)

Ankle (encol)

Heel (jiel)

Toes (touz)

Nail (nel)

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