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NAMA : ELLENTHA DEVI MAHADINI

KELAS : 5B / A320150093

TEACHING SPEAKING THROUGH ROLE PLAY TECHNIQUE FOR SECOND


GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA N 1 SRAGEN

A. Background of the Study


Language is a system for expression of meaning. The primary function of
language is for interaction and communication. English is one of the foreign languages
that Indonesian students learn. Thus, English must be taught in senior high schools in
order to prepare the human resources to face the globalization era. English is one of the
foreign languages that Indonesian students learn. In the global era in which competitions
among countries in the world will be hard, English plays an important role in assisting
Indonesian human resources. As one of the most important international languages,
English is a minimum requirement in facing the global era. In Indonesia, English is one
of the subjects that have to be taught in formal schools in certain levels, and the students
are expected to be able to master it. Thus, English must be taught in senior high schools
in order to prepare the human resources to face the globalization era.
In Indonesia, English teaching is divided into four major skills. The skills are
listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Speaking is an important skills that a learner
should acquire. On the latest curriculum, the curriculum 2013 mentions that the students
are expected to have good ability in speaking. Thus, speaking must be taught in the class
appropriately. Furthermore, speaking is essential for senior high school students in their
future. They need to acquire a good speaking skills in order to make them communicate
using English.
However, after doing interviews with the students of grade XI at SMAN 1 Sragen
and the English teacher, as well as observing the teaching and learning process and the
speaking class, the researcher found that the students’ speaking skills were still relatively
low. They seemed to be discourage during the speaking class, and could not perform
speaking in an appropriate way. It was still difficult for them to generate and deliver
ideas through speaking. Moreover, they often faced problems dealing with fluency
especially in vocabulary and pronunciation.
The researcher conducted several observations and interviews with the English
teacher and the students to identify the problems influencing the students’ low speaking
skills in grade XI at SMAN 1 Sragen. Based on the interviews and the observations, the
researcher found several problems related to the teaching and learning process. There
were problems which appear in the teaching and learning process of speaking. The
problems appearing in the classroom were the learning materials, the teaching methods
and techniques used by the teacher, the teaching media, the teacher and the students.
The first problem was related to the use of media. Media could be the special part
of teaching and learning process. The use of media could make the students more
enthusiastic to learn. The media would take the control. In fact, the students of second
grade used few media. The teacher tended to use LKS (Lembar Kerja Siswa). Then, it
makes students bored. It was due to the rare use of teaching media such as pictures, LCD
projector, and so on in order to help the students in speaking. Moreover, the use of
worksheet in the speaking class, students needed to use the guided activity in order to
make sure they could understand what to speak, and how to speak. The lack of learning
resources for them to personalize such as modules, LKS, or worksheet in XI at SMAN 1
Sragen made them difficult to spread their thought.
The second problem was related to the teacher. According to the English teacher
of grade XI at SMA N 1 Sragen, when he had an interview with the researcher,
he said that as the teacher he could not make the students more enthusiastic in learning
English. He argued that English is a difficult subject to understand. English was not a
favorite subject for the students. From this, the teacher did not give the students enough
activities in speaking. He tended to teach other skills such as reading and writing.
The third problem was related to the students. The problem related to them could
be from several aspects. The lack of the students’ enthusiasm during the teaching and
learning process of speaking could be the first aspect that influenced their low speaking
skill
The fourth problem was related to the teaching and learning process of speaking.
The second-grade students’ of SMA N 1 Sragen low speaking skills also influenced by
the lack of classroom interaction among the students in such a learning manner for
example peer work or group work. Since they rarely learnt speaking, they needed to
interact with their partner. Thus, in the class, besides doing some discussions, they could
also learn to speak from their friends. Moreover, the speaking skills was rarely taught in
the class due to it would not be measured in the national Exam. It led the monotonous
activities which were less encouraging for the students to learn speaking.
Considering the benefits of being fluent in speaking for an English language
learner, the researcher thought that there must be some efforts. One way that can improve
the speaking skills is doing regular practices. From here, the researcher would apply the
role-play technique.

The Limitation OF THE STUDY

The research problem that will be discussed is limited only on the using video through
role play technique for second grade students of SMA 2 Batik Surakarta
Based on limitation of problem mentioned above, the problem of the research can be
formulated as follows :
1. “ What is the procedures of teaching speaking through role play technique for
second grade students of SMAN 1 Sragen?”

2.. “What is the students response teaching speaking through role play technique for
second grade students of SMA N 1 Sragen?”

B. Formulation of the Problem


Based on the limitation of the problem above, the problem was formulated as
follows :
1. “ What is the procedures of teaching speaking through role play technique for
second grade students of SMAN 1 Sragen?”
2.. “What is the students response teaching speaking through role play technique for
second grade students of SMA N 1 Sragen?”

C. Objective of the Study


The Objectives of the Research
Based on the background of the research, there are three objectives
which the writer wants to get, they are:

The objectives of this study is to improve the speaking skills of Second grade
students of SMA N 1 Sragen through the use of the role-play technique.

D. Benefit of The Study


1.General Objective.
To find out whether the use of Role-Play in teaching English improves the
students English speaking competence For Students Senior High school Of SMA
N 1 Sragen
2. Specific Objectives.
a. To find out whether Role-Play improves the speaking competence of
the students’ speaking skill for Second Grade Senior High School Of SMA N 1
Sragen
b. To find out the procedures of Role-Play Techniques in teaching speaking
English for Second Grade Senior High School Of SMA N 1 Sragen
c. To find out the students response by using video for the students speking ability
through role-play technique For Second Grade Students Senior High School Of
SMA N 1 Sragen

- The Benefits of the Research

This research aimed at giving theoretical and practical contributions to some parties.

-Theoretical benefit

1. To the English Department of Surakarta State University, the researcher expects


that the result of this research study can be a reference related to the topic of
speaking ability and the use of the role-play.

2. To future researchers who wish to discuss the topic of speaking ability and the
role-play, the result of this research study can be a beneficial reference.

- Practical benefit

3. To English educators or instructors especially those in SMA N 1 Sragen, the result


of this research study is expected to help them in develop students’ speaking
ability.
4. To the students of Grade XI this study is expected to improve their speaking
ability.
E. Related Literary review
1. Previously Study
2. Theoretical review
THEORETICAL REVIEW

This chapter consists of some theories that support the reserach.

A. Theoritical Description

1. Speaking Competence

a. The meaning of speaking competence

Speaking competence plays a necessary role in learning and

understanding any language. The term of speaking has several

meanings. Widdowson (1978) says that speaking has two meanings.

First, it refers to the manner in which language is manifested. Second,

it refers to the manner in which language is realized as

communication (p. 58).

The meaning of competence according to Chomsky in Brumfit

and Johnson (1998: p. 13) is “the speaker hearer’s knowledge of his

language”. It is seen as overall underlying linguistic knowledge and

ability thus includes concepts of appropriateness and acceptability.

While in Curriculum 2004 competence is defined as knowledge, skill,

behaviour, and values which accustom to be applied in the habitual

thought and action. Then according to Oxford Advance Dictionary by


Hornby, competence is (of person) having ability, power, authority,

skill, knowledge, etc. ( to do what is needed).

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The target or the goal of language teaching is that the students

become communivatively competence in target language as capability

of using language well. Richard and Roger (1986: p. 66) state that

Communivative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach that aims to

create communicative competence and develop procedure for the

teaching of the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading and

writing) that acknowledge the interdependence of language and

communicative activities.

To develop communicative competence, the teacher is

suggested to use CTL (Chomsky, 1965: p. 3). While Douglas (19997;

p. 247) says that CLT is used to create communicative competence as

the object to use and to develop some procedures for teaching four

basic skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) function as the

foundation to master English. The students are engaged to use the

language they learnt through communicative activities

One of the four language skills being existed in an English

language teaching is speaking. Therefore, speaking component has the

same importance as the other language skills such as listening, reading

and writing.

2. Role –Play

a. The Meaning of Role-Play


According to Ladousse in Allan Makey (1987: p. 7) role-play is

one of a whole gamut of communication techniques which develops

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fluency in language, which promotes interaction in the classroom, and

which increases motivation. Not only in peer learning encouraged by

it, but also the sharing between teacher and students’ responsbility for

the learning process.

Role play is a speaking activity where learners participate

either as themselves or as somebody else in a specific situation. In this

way they can act in various interaction patterns.

According to Ladousse (1989) the situation can correspond to:

1) a real need in the learners’ lives (at the doctor, at the station), the

learners may or may not have the direct experience;

2) the events that few learners will ever experience but which are

easy to play such as being a journalist;

3) fantasy roles which are imaginary, absurd and have nothing to do

with reality.

Role play is one of communicative techniques which

develops fluency in language students, which promotes interaction

in the classoom, and which increases motivation. Haycraft

mentioned the three elements in role playing: what the characters

want, who they are, and their moods or attitudes at the time. These

elements are ten affected by how the situation develops (Haycraft,

1978: 88).
Role play includes “all sorts of activities where learners

imagine themselves in a situation outside the classroom, sometimes

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playing the role of someone other than themselves, and using

language appropriate to this new context.” (Ur, 2000: 131).

Role Play is an example of “learning by doing” The word

role indicates that the students must actively apply knowledge,

skill, and understanding to successfully speak and act from

different, assigned perspective. The term play indicates that the

students use their imaginations and have fun, acting out their parts

in nonthreatening environment. Thus Role Play engages students

in a participatory activity that requires them to apply course

concepts as they assume factional identities or envision

themselves in unfamiliar situation (Barkley, 2005: 150).

b. The Ways to Do Role-Play

Ladousse in Allan Makey (1996: p. 9) says that there are two

kind of ways of looking at language work in role play. Either students

manage with the language they know, or they practice structures and

functions that have been presented to them at an earlier stage of the

lesson or the course, in a free and uncontroled way.

In the first situation, when the students just cope as best they

can, the teacher’s aim is to bring them to the point of awareness which

the necessity of acquiring certain structures evidence, as these

structures are immediate relevant. Students can see how they could
have put them to good use. They will retain them all the more easily

because they are rooted in a meaningful context.

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In the second situation, role play is the active phase of learning

and offers an opportunity for students to make personal use of

language that has been presented them formally. Role play can be used

in this way right from the start in elementary classes. As for the kind

of language work to be done, role play lends itself to almost every

type: structures, lexis, functions, intonation pattern and so on.

Based on the opinion above, the writer then takes the second

situatiuon in which the students have to do the dialogue using role play

because the research is done in the grade XI-Immersion of Natural

Science Program of SMA Karangpandan. Ultimately, he wants the

students to be both fluent and accurate in the way they speak.

c. The Reasons for Choosing Role-Play

Role-play is chosen as one of the tasks in the teaching learning for

the following reasons;

The main reasons stated by Ladousse (1997: p. 6-7) namely: first,

a very wide variety of experience can be brought into the classroom

through role-play.

Then role-play puts students in situations in which they are

required to use and develop those phatic forms of language which are
so necessary in oiling the works of social relationship, but which are

so often neglected by our language teaching syllabuses.

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Next some people are learning English to prepare specific roles in

their lives: environment of a classroom. For these students, role-play is

a very useful dress rehearsal for real life. It enables them not just to

acquire set phrases, but also to learn how inter action take place in a

variety of situation.

Lastly, perhaps the most important reason for using role play is that

it is fun. Once students understand what is expected of them, they

thoroughly enjoy letting their imaginative trip. Jeremy Harmer

(Http://www.Teaching English.org.uk.think/speak/role-play. Shtml)

advocates the use of role play for following reasons:

1. It is fun and motivating.

2. Quiter students get the chance to express themselves in a more

forthright way.

3. The world of the classroom is broadened to include the outside

world- thus offering a much wider range of language opportunities.

4. Real situations can be created and students can get benefit from the

practice , mistakes can be made with no drastic consequence.

B. Rationale
In general, the students will be sucessful in their learning if they are

involved to participate into the teaching learning process in classroom actively.

As suggested by Lewis (2005: p. 28) that how classroom learning can

be more effectively managed to produce the desired outcomes of language

learning, that is, for learners ought to use the new language for a variety of

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communicative purpose and contexts, so that, the objective of teaching

learning process can be reached optimally and successfully.

Based on the theories underlying the research and the problem which is

being faced by the students, that role play teaching technique has many

contributions to encourage the students’ interest and motivation in learning

English especially speaking.

C. Action Hypothesis

The hypothesis of the research are as follows:

1. The use of role-play improve the students’ speaking competence in

learning English in Senior high school because it enables the students to

enhance the speaking competence easily.

2. The use of role-play can motivate the students to practice speaking by

using English and also they are able to create comforting atmosphere in

speaking class .

3. Since role-play has a lot of advantages and contributions to English teaching

learning process, there is significant advance in the students’ achievement.