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On Garcilaso's Egloga I and Virgil's Bucolic VIII

Author(s): Darío Fernández-Morera
Source: MLN, Vol. 89, No. 2, Hispanic Issue (Mar., 1974), pp. 273-280
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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Accessed: 27-12-2017 16:49 UTC

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in punctuation. 120. but the presence of a whole extra verse in a stanza which has perfect rhyme and sense is not so easily explained. and they have limited themselves to citing Herrera's and Tamayo's views. in the choice of words. 1970). n. p. Garcilaso made a slip in this stanza and came up with an extra line. Among the modern critics. commentary B-119 to the Egloga I. Few commentators have mentioned this irregularity.85 on Wed. may be ascribed to omissions or changes by copyists or printers. emended line 263 in stanza 19 to read " mas convenible fuera aquesta suerte. possibly because it is shown in all known manuscripts and editions. Differences in the number of syllables in a verse. in his excel- lent study of the text. el dorado techo. 274 M L N been pointed ou been limited to study of the s only can incre perhaps can ex imitation. 4 Gallego Morell. la coluna. cit. and thus he explained the extra line as a case of " one mistake usually follows another. See Antonio Gallego Morell. 2 Navarro Tomas. commentaries H-479 and H-481 to the Egloga I. 1970. 27 Dec 2017 16:49:07 UTC All use subject to http://about."4 Thus at least two manuscripts offered a hendecasyllabic reading for line 263 in stanza 19.1 Tamayo proposed to delete a verse. 18. 121-27). Madrid: Insula. El Brocense. p. A mistake of this kind is at least more plausible than to ascribe it to a copyist or a printer. 263. and the like. Nevertheless. as has been done in the case of many other irregularities in the text. only Hayward Keniston and Navarro Tomas have mentioned it. "y se quita la superfluidad. pp. however. This content downloaded from 62. unlike the case of the other irregularities in the text. Even Alberto Blecua. and Tomas Navarro Tomas. somewhat invalidating Herrera's explanation for the mistake in stanza 20. que tiene algo de lascivo. 289." 3 Herrera's explanation is plausible. for one reason or another. and neither did Azara. and Blecua. it is still possible that." 2 Herrera thought that the mistake was due to the previous one in stanza 19. y aquel blanco pecho. where a heptasyllable appears instead of the appropriate hendecayllable.jstor. con mayor encarecimiento. loc. Garcilaso de la Vega: Obras (New York: Hispanic Society of America. Garcilaso y sus comentaristas (Granada: 1966). y se refiere la gloria a los cabellos. And all known 1 Hayward Keniston. following the Tomas de Vega manuscript. El Brocense made no comment.192. Only Tamayo y Vargas and Herrera seem to have dealt with the problem.204. 1. lost today. Garcilaso: Obras (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe. sobre el cuello. 281. ." and the Lastanosa-Gayangos manuscript reads fuera mas convenible aquesta suerte. 1925). fails to deal with this matter (En el texto de Garcilaso.

118) gives the countryside a Spanish flavor. and Herbert J. And this convergence makes the problem of form one of the central problems of Renaissance culture. Virgil's shepherds are learned ones.85 on Wed. Orpheus (1. Also. In the Egloga I. 1922).org/terms .192." Nor is there any formal similarity between Theocritus' idylls and Garcilaso' Both Garcilaso and Theocritus.7 Keniston indicated. Arion (1. This content downloaded from 62. the first structural model that should be considered is. In view of all this. and Medea (1. In an historical perspective. share a greater "realism" than Virgil. p. As Keniston said in Garcilaso de la Vega: A Critical Study of His Life and Words (New York: Hispanic Society of America. the technical mathematical and the artistic tendencies of the period converge in the concept of proportion. at least the mention of the Tajo (1. Damon uses mytho- logical allusions and foreign geographical references in his attack on love: Pan (1. or Koan. Virgil idealizes Theocritus' more earthy background. p.204. 55). 38: "the Spanish Renaissance was content to read its Greek in Latin or Castilian translation. 27 Dec 2017 16:49:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. incidental as this similarity may be. without elaborating. 1968).6 Furt had read his m obvious as an extra line in a stanza. but Salicio uses no mythological names (Galatea and Tityro pertain rather to the bucolic tradition. 47-50). The shepherds are also less learned than those of Virgil." La Torre. p." 7Garcilaso may have had some Greek. namely in Virgil's Bucolic VIII. Garamantes (1. 56). 44)." 6 Of the Egloga I says Margot Arce Blanco in "La Egloga Primera. unlike those of Theocritus (Rose. and that by doing so he was consciously imitating an analogous irregularity which exists in the formal model of the Egloga I. apparently taken from Virgil). and his geographical references are of his own land. but to a very appreciable extent Theocritus. M L N 275 manuscripts a a rather obvio poet so carefu proportion of Garcilaso's pe Blanco and Ra achieve. but this is doubtful. 24). the only alternative explanation is that Garcilaso purposely wrote the stanza with an extra line in it. 51: "the speculative philosophical. that the plan of the singing of two parts by two shepherds is the one followed by Virgil in Bucolic VIII.jstor. Berkeley. Rose has wondered "Why is Virgil's country-side not at all Virgil. 4 (1953). Virgil. or some other kind of Greek? (The Eclogues of Virgil." " Perfecta simetria y proporci6n. p." Of the Egloga II says Rafael Lapesa in La trayectoria poetica de Garcilaso (Madrid: Revista de Occidente. cuyo esquema puede verse en nuestra pagina 105. and Sicilian. 104: "La autonomia del poeta se manifiesta sobre todo en haber dado a su obra una disposici6n notablemente simetrica. however. p. although the theme of the second 5Ernst Cassirer remarks in The Individual and the Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy (New York: 1964). 35: "La proporci6n se apoya en agrupaciones a base de la multiplicaci6n de un nucleo de tres estrofas. rather than a foreign one. in fact. 1942. 22). 150).

240-41. since the narrator.9 It may be seen from the diagram that the Egloga I follows exactly the formal structure of Bucolic VIII. it is practically dramatic. with its happy ending. 11 P. as far as the form is concerned. Herbert J. 594. pp. was introduced to compensate for the tragic end of the first part. vol. 10Rh M. and not with a section that at the end might unify the two different parts. The Eclogues. Neither work resembles the Egloga I. We know that some defects have been pointed out in the structure of Bucolic VIII. 155.l2 On the other hand. Compared to Virgil's Bucolic VIII. 14) have noticed this thematic similarity. He believed that the incantation. p. except for the final "block " of verses-a stanza-in Garcilaso's work. 12 .jstor. Erich Bethe thought that the two parts would be better off if separated. as the introductory section does. p. since their subject matter is completely different. for it simply ends with the last line of the second shepherd. as closely as Bucolic VIII. 1959). the Egloga I shows greater coherence. Besides. 276 M L N shepherd is not the theme of th as in the Egloga is not mournin a whole. 8 Garcilaso de la Vega: A Critical Study. Santander. the other being an incantation to bring home a beloved one. with the addition of the happily ending incantation theme.192.85 on Wed. II.204. after the introduction and the brief two lines linking the two songs. one being a lyric song lamenting unrequited love. Vergilius Maro: Die Gr6sseren Gedichte. Virgil would be thus thematically "balancing" the work. 241) and Marcelino Menendez Pelayo (Origenes de la novela. 1943. This content downloaded from 62. 27 Dec 2017 16:49:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. in Obras completas. cannot in none of the o forming part of two themes from Virgil took the Theocritus and have found a model for his dual thematic structure-in a more finished form-in works such as I due pellegrini or the Question de amor.o1 Although this objection may be met with Herbert Holtorf's view of the "Allgewalt des Eros" as the unifying theme of the work. pp. coming as they are from different Theocritean idylls. although it is a narrative eclogue. 9Keniston (Garcilaso: A Critical Study. I (Munchen: Karl Alber." the fact is that the two songs are different. 50. the end of the work perhaps seems too abrupt. 47 (1892). Rose offered a different explanation for the disparity of subject matter in the work. where Damon is about to kill himself. 211 and 212.

85 on .M L N 277 ".jstor. 0 o (v 17-61) Ic "0 vU 2 f< s'l C I I (v64-109) <"* 8v H '45 46 v Bucolic VIII C0 0 ALTO V 0__m o C5 (v 239 407 I 6 v& .192.Damon's ~ U. "0 140v 14(v 14v 2 This content downloaded from 62. C U . 27 Dec 2017 16:49:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. O * . BcoiAlphesi hocus 0 . c o co .~ Song Song Song . C o . . .204.

172 and Parisinus No. V cent. We have seen that the final " block " in the Egloga I seems to give the work a greater coherence than we find in Bucolic VIII. 278 M L N does not app between the pleasure. . b (Bernensis No. P. IV cent. Hermann was the first who made a point of this irregularity.jstor.85 on Wed. whereas in Alphesiboeus' song the refrain " ducite ab urbe domum.). 15Godofredus Hermann. going home with their cattle as the sun sets. Codices maiores: M (Mediceus. Bionis et Moschi carmina (Lipsiae: 1849). P (Palatinus. Garcilaso clinches the eclogue with a bucolic touch. 14The following are the extant Virgilian codices that show Bucolic VIII.. the Egloga I seems more consistently narrative. which is indeed in the work. except in one. IV cent. an namely the lo and death in the other. It should also be noticed that Garcilaso's blocks are. mea tibia. Ribbeck. songs which constitute the body of the work.). V (Vero- nensis. ducite Daphnim " is found after line 75. which is absent from the end of Virgil's work. 27 Dec 2017 16:49:07 UTC All use subject to http://about.192. c (Bernensis No. and since Virgil was so careful a craftsman. versus" is absent from the song of Damon after line 2. XIII or XVI cent. as usual.14 Nevertheless. at the end of the work. In addition. Finally.). down to the asymmetry of having each an extra line in the second shepherd's song. p.204.). 7929. Only the last one shows line 28a. namely. ." after line 28. 184. Otherwise. by reintroducing the narrator at the end. a (Bernensis No. the even though the " power o unified them character. the form is the same in both eclogues.: only 1." but as a lamentation of two shepherds.15 It was O. 165. 18 This and the following in Rose. Those lines of the final stanza are bucolic poetry at its best and round off the bucolic character of the whole eclogue. or to delete the refrain "ducite.). Sabbadini. The extra line in Bucolic VIII is caused by the fact that the refrain " incipe Maenalios mecum. IX cent." after line 75. IX cent. r (Guelferbitanus Gudianus. Vergili Maronis Opera (Rome: 1930). more symmetrical. in general. Besides. IX cent. mea carmina. editors have tried.). . 12-36).). since the number of verses in both songs would be the same. end of IX cent. pp. were not for this. This block also perhaps counterbalances the introductory blocks with a final block after the two songs of the shepherds. . the two shepherds ending their singing with the end of the day. pp. Garcilaso has introduced the work not as a "certatio. Codices minores: (Mediolanensis. See R. I. This irregularity is found in all the Virgilian codices that show Bucolic VIII. 19-29. G. He believed that it was necessary either to introduce the refrain " incipe. to emend the text. This content downloaded from 62. 147-48.

particularly if one considers the much larger material handled by the Spaniard. Opera (Basileae: 1543)." One difficulty in accepting this possibility is the difference in form caused by the final " block " of verses in the Egloga I. J that a verse refrain has been introduced after line 75. After H. The imitation of an irregularity in the model would perhaps be a source of additional pleasure in the reading of the work. Opera (Venetiis: 1552). 27 Dec 2017 16:49:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. proposing instead to delete both lines 28a and 76. and Andree Richter (1970) agrees with . but what is more important is whether Garcilaso knew the reading of all those codices that show the asymmetry. M L N 279 however. We also know that a good deal of the merit of a Renaissance work of art lay in its conscious imitation of a classical model. etc. If Garcilaso departed from his model here." by making a replica of an irregularity in it. Bucolica (Strasbourg: 1516). and none of them showed verse 28a: P. as in the later centuries. In the Renaissance. Opera (Venetiis: 1533. His codexr. actually. account for a structure much superior to that of Virgil's work. whic edition. These disagreements among classical scholars are very interesting to the bewildered student of the Garcilasian text. but nevertheless departed from his model at the end 16 As a matter of routine I have also examined a number of Renaissance editions.192. quit apart from the thematic details. and by the greater symmetry of the blocks in general. or that of the only one that does not show it. up to 1867. was the reading accepted in his time? With a high degree of certainty we can answer that it was the reading of all the other codices and not that of the -. which. when Ribbeck printed the work with line 28a. and probably improved upon it by doing so. g asymmetry. an endless source of satisfaction to the "connoisseur. an asymmetry? The only answer is that in one way Garcilaso was imitating his model "ia outr".16 This must have been the reading that Garcilaso had in mind when writing the Egloga I. Bucolic VII always showed an extra line in Alphesiboeus' song. who and 1868. Rushton F (1959).. What. One way would not necessarily exclude the other Just as he followed the model in the introductory and transitiona blocks of the song.204. Opera (Parisiis: 1532). This content downloaded from 62. and that in another way he was departing from his model by adding a concluding section which seems to give his work a more balanced structure and by making the blocks symmetrical.85 on Wed.jstor. why would he then follow the model as regards the extra line. Vergilii Maronis. Universum Poema (Venetiis: 1541).

1 The degree of similarity forces a new task upon Calderonian 1 See especially Jackson I. and the Republic as antecedent for the structure and poetry as well as much of the philosophy of Calder6n's masterpiece can no longer be seriously disputed. ascri mistake as an extra line. in which Plato gives fullest expression to the metaphor of the cave and of man's ascent from the cave to the level of philosopher-king.192. have now been carefully established. The only other possible explanation seems to be a purposeful irregularity. " Verdad This content downloaded from 62. or to those who happened to come by the asymmetrical reading of the model. and who likely commented on them to Garcilaso himself. "ia outr6" imitation of the model. Sciacca.jstor.204. moreover. and Michele F. O This is perhaps prompted edit they have trie another. " The Platonic Metamorphoses of Calder6n's La Vida es Sueno. 280 M L N and in the gre the model in t the model in t All other "m errors of the not so easily e number of li whole stanza possibilities. with a sort of " roman a clef" meaning. that is to say. the true origin of which was to be clear only to those "initiated. an intentional blunder. one of the most famous dramas of the Spanish Golden Age. DARIO FERNANDEZ-MORERA Harvard University From Plato's Cave to Segismundo's Prison: The Four Levels of Reality and Experience Calder6n de la Barca's La vida es sueno.85 on Wed. 27 Dec 2017 16:49:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. a secret. derives its basic form and much of its metaphorical beauty from the sixth and seventh books of Plato's Republic." MLN 86 (1971). once suggested with hesitation and greeted with harsh criticism. Similarities between the two works." or to members of a close circle of friends. could have been detected by the friends who presumably read his works in . 225-41. Cope.

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